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2.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 467-475, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal fat mass is associated with metabolic risk whilst gluteal femoral fat is paradoxically protective. MicroRNAs are known to be necessary for adipose tissue formation and function but their role in regulating human fat distribution remains largely unexplored. METHODS: An initial microarray screen of abdominal subcutaneous and gluteal adipose tissue, with validatory qPCR, identified microRNA-196a as being strongly differentially expressed between gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. FINDINGS: We found that rs11614913, a SNP within pre-miR-196a-2 at the HOXC locus, is an eQTL for miR-196a expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT). Observations in large cohorts showed that rs11614913 increased waist-to-hip ratio, which was driven specifically by an expansion in ASAT. In further experiments, rs11614913 was associated with adipocyte size. Functional studies and transcriptomic profiling of miR-196a knock-down pre-adipocytes revealed a role for miR-196a in regulating pre-adipocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix pathways. INTERPRETATION: These data identify a role for miR-196a in regulating human body fat distribution. FUND: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council and Novo Nordisk UK Research Foundation (G1001959) and Swedish Research Council. We acknowledge the OBB-NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the British Heart Foundation (BHF) (RG/17/1/32663). Work performed at the MRC Epidemiology Unit was funded by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council through grants MC_UU_12015/1, MC_PC_13046, MC_PC_13048 and MR/L00002/1.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 157-163, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583798

RESUMO

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting more than 20% of men over 60 years, yet little is known about its genetic architecture. We performed a genome-wide association study of ED in 6,175 case subjects among 223,805 European men and identified one locus at 6q16.3 (lead variant rs57989773, OR 1.20 per C-allele; p = 5.71 × 10-14), located between MCHR2 and SIM1. In silico analysis suggests SIM1 to confer ED risk through hypothalamic dysregulation. Mendelian randomization provides evidence that genetic risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a cause of ED (OR 1.11 per 1-log unit higher risk of type 2 diabetes). These findings provide insights into the biological underpinnings and the causes of ED and may help prioritize the development of future therapies for this common disorder.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007813, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566500

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of PCOS related traits. We identified 3 novel loci (near PLGRKT, ZBTB16 and MAPRE1), and provide replication of 11 previously reported loci. Only one locus differed significantly in its association by diagnostic criteria; otherwise the genetic architecture was similar between PCOS diagnosed by self-report and PCOS diagnosed by NIH or non-NIH Rotterdam criteria across common variants at 13 loci. Identified variants were associated with hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin regulation and testosterone levels in affected women. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis revealed genetic correlations with obesity, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels and coronary artery disease, indicating shared genetic architecture between metabolic traits and PCOS. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested variants associated with body mass index, fasting insulin, menopause timing, depression and male-pattern balding play a causal role in PCOS. The data thus demonstrate 3 novel loci associated with PCOS and similar genetic architecture for all diagnostic criteria. The data also provide the first genetic evidence for a male phenotype for PCOS and a causal link to depression, a previously hypothesized comorbid disease. Thus, the genetics provide a comprehensive view of PCOS that encompasses multiple diagnostic criteria, gender, reproductive potential and mental health.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5257, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531941

RESUMO

Physical activity and sleep duration are established risk factors for many diseases, but their aetiology is poorly understood, partly due to relying on self-reported evidence. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of device-measured physical activity and sleep duration in 91,105 UK Biobank participants, finding 14 significant loci (7 novel). These loci account for 0.06% of activity and 0.39% of sleep duration variation. Genome-wide estimates of ~ 15% phenotypic variation indicate high polygenicity. Heritability is higher in women than men for overall activity (23 vs. 20%, p = 1.5 × 10-4) and sedentary behaviours (18 vs. 15%, p = 9.7 × 10-4). Heritability partitioning, enrichment and pathway analyses indicate the central nervous system plays a role in activity behaviours. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation suggests that increased activity might causally lower diastolic blood pressure (beta mmHg/SD: -0.91, SE = 0.18, p = 8.2 × 10-7), and odds of hypertension (Odds ratio/SD: 0.84, SE = 0.03, p = 4.9 × 10-8). Our results advocate the value of physical activity for reducing blood pressure.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sono/genética , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453627

RESUMO

Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D), δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters (n = 1453) and adipose tissue (n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts. Genome-wide significant associated loci were evaluated for associations with IS measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n = 554). Variants at the FADS1 were strongly associated with D5D in both cholesterol esters (p = 1.9 × 10-70) and adipose tissue (p = 1.1 × 10-27). Variants in three further loci were associated with D6D in cholesterol esters (FADS2, p = 3.0 × 10-67; PDXDCI, p = 4.8 × 10-8; and near MC4R, p = 3.7 × 10-8) but no associations with D6D in adipose tissue attained genome-wide significance. One locus was associated with SCD in adipose tissue (PKDL1, p = 2.2 × 10-19). Genetic variants near MC4R were associated with IS (p = 3.8 × 10-3). The FADS cluster was the main genetic determinant of estimated FADS activity. However, fatty acid (FA) ratios in adipose tissue and cholesterol esters represent FADS activities in separate tissues and are thus influenced by different genetic factors with potential varying effects on IS.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239722

RESUMO

One in four adults worldwide are either overweight or obese. Epidemiological studies indicate that the location and distribution of excess fat, rather than general adiposity, is most informative for predicting risk of obesity sequellae, including cardiometabolic disease and cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of body fat distribution, measured by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), and identified 463 signals in 346 loci. Heritability and variant effects were generally stronger in women than men, and we found approximately one-third of all signals to be sexually dimorphic. The 5% of individuals carrying the most WHRadjBMI-increasing alleles were 1.62 times more likely than the bottom 5% to have a WHR above the thresholds used for metabolic syndrome. These data, made publicly available, will inform the biology of body fat distribution and its relationship with disease.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(24): 4323-4332, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202859

RESUMO

The normal menstrual cycle requires a delicate interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary. Therefore, its length is an important indicator of female reproductive health. Menstrual cycle length has been shown to be partially controlled by genetic factors, especially in the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHB) locus. A genome-wide association study meta-analysis of menstrual cycle length in 44 871 women of European ancestry confirmed the previously observed association with the FSHB locus and identified four additional novel signals in, or near, the GNRH1, PGR, NR5A2 and INS-IGF2 genes. These findings not only confirm the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the genetic regulation of menstrual cycle length but also highlight potential novel local regulatory mechanisms, such as those mediated by IGF2.

11.
Cell Rep ; 23(2): 327-336, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641994

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133) in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21's mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1809-1818, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547969

RESUMO

Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined ß = 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.24, P = 4.3 × 10-11). The haplotype tagged by rs35923643-G (or its proxy SNP rs735665-A) is also known as the top risk allele for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and a main increasing allele for general IgM. By using summary GWAS results of IgM anti-PC and CLL in the polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis, PRS on the basis of IgM anti-PC risk alleles positively associated with CLL risk (explained 0.6% of CLL variance, P = 1.2 × 10-15). Functional prediction suggested that rs35923643-G might impede the binding of Runt-related transcription factor 3, a tumor suppressor playing a central role in the immune regulation of cancers. Contrary to the expectations from the shared genetics between IgM anti-PC and CLL, an inverse relationship at the phenotypic level was found in a nested case-control study (30 CLL cases with 90 age- and sex-matched controls), potentially reflecting reverse causation. The suggested function of the top variant as well as the phenotypic association between IgM anti-PC and CLL risk needs replication and motivates further studies.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 711, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459775

RESUMO

Detailed phenotyping is required to deepen our understanding of the biological mechanisms behind genetic associations. In addition, the impact of potentially modifiable risk factors on disease requires analytical frameworks that allow causal inference. Here, we discuss the characteristics of Recall-by-Genotype (RbG) as a study design aimed at addressing both these needs. We describe two broad scenarios for the application of RbG: studies using single variants and those using multiple variants. We consider the efficacy and practicality of the RbG approach, provide a catalogue of UK-based resources for such studies and present an online RbG study planner.

15.
Diabetes ; 67(2): 334-342, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141982

RESUMO

Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of the p.Pro50Thr AKT2 variant (p.P50T/AKT2) on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated. We identified carriers (N = 20) and matched noncarriers (N = 25) for this allele in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM)study and invited these individuals back for positron emission tomography study with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. When we compared p.P50T/AKT2 carriers to noncarriers, we found a 39.4% reduction in whole-body GU (P = 0.006) and a 55.6% increase in the rate of endogenous glucose production (P = 0.038). We found significant reductions in GU in multiple tissues-skeletal muscle (36.4%), liver (16.1%), brown adipose (29.7%), and bone marrow (32.9%)-and increases of 16.8-19.1% in seven tested brain regions. These data demonstrate that the p.P50T substitution of AKT2 influences insulin-mediated GU in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues and may explain, at least in part, the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in p.P50T/AKT2 carriers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Resistência à Insulina , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Absorção Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Finlândia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
16.
Sci Data ; 4: 170179, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257133

RESUMO

To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (>80% of low-frequency coding variants in ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos
17.
Epigenetics ; 12(10): 897-908, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099281

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies in the fields of reproductive medicine and endocrinology are yielding robust genetic variants associated with disease. Integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic molecular profiling studies are common methodologies used to understand the biologic pathways perturbed by these variants. However, molecular profiling resources do not include the tissue most relevant to many female reproductive traits, the endometrium, while the parameters influencing variability of results from its molecular profiling are unclear. We investigated the sources of DNA methylation and RNA expression profile variability in endometrium (n = 135), endometriotic disease tissue (endometriosis), and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples from 24 women, quantifying between-individual, within-tissue (cellular heterogeneity), and technical variation. DNA samples (n = 96) were analyzed using Illumina HumanMethlylation450 BeadChip arrays; RNA samples (n = 39) were analyzed using H12-expression arrays. Variance-component analyses showed that, for the top 10-50% variable DNA methylation/RNA expression sites, between-individual variation far exceeded within-tissue and technical variation. Menstrual-phase accounted for most variability in methylation/expression patterns in endometrium (Pm = 7.8 × 10-3, Pe = 8.4 × 10-5) but not in fat and endometriotic tissue; age was significantly associated with DNA methylation profile of endometrium (Pm = 9 × 10-5) and endometriotic disease tissue (Pm = 2.4 × 10-5); and smoking was significantly associated with DNA methylation in adipose tissue (Pm = 1.8 × 10-3). Hierarchical cluster analysis showed significantly different methylation signatures between endometrium and endometriotic tissue enriched for WNT signaling, angiogenesis, cadherin signaling, and gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor pathways. Differential DNA methylation/expression analyses suggested detection of a limited number of sites with large fold changes (FC > 4), but power calculations accounting for different sources of variability showed that for robust detection >500 tissue samples are required. These results enable appropriate study design for large-scale expression and methylation tissue-based profiling relevant to many reproductive and endocrine traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/genética , Endometriose/genética , Reprodução/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/patologia , Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 82, 2017 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923095

RESUMO

Over 300 million adults are obese, but little is known about the impact of obesity on cardiovascular health. We discuss recent genetic and epigenetic studies of adiposity that indicate a causal role for general and central adiposity in cardiometabolic disease, and highlight potential mechanisms including insulin resistance and gene expression.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Humanos
20.
Biosci Rep ; 37(1)2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073971

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Loci Gênicos , Obesidade/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
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