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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N=3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N=31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2 and ARFIP2 expression and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR:1.08, 95% CI:1.03-1.13, OR:3.33, 95% CI:2.46-4.50 and OR:1.15, 95% CI:1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803246

RESUMO

Persons with Lynch syndrome (LS - carrying a pathogenic mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene) have an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. A high reported variability in cancer risk suggests the existence of factors that modify cancer risk for LS. We aimed to investigate the association between height and CRC and EC for persons with LS using two large studies. Information of 1,213 men and 1,636 women with LS from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (1998-2007) and the GEOLynch cohort study (2006-2017) was harmonized. We used weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models with age on the time-axis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each 5 cm increment in self-reported height. CRC was diagnosed in 947 persons during 65,369 person-years of observation and 171 women were diagnosed with EC during 39,227 person-years of observation. Height was not associated with CRC for men (HR 1.00 per 5 cm, 95%CI: 0.91, 1.11) or women (HR 1.01 per 5 cm, 95%CI: 0.92, 1.11). Nor was height associated with EC (HR 1.08 per 5 cm, 95%CI: 0.94, 1.24). Hence, we observed no evidence for an association of height with either CRC or EC for persons with LS.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008947, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833970

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with various phenotypes, but together they explain only a fraction of heritability, suggesting many variants have yet to be discovered. Recently it has been recognized that incorporating functional information of genetic variants can improve power for identifying novel loci. For example, S-PrediXcan and TWAS tested the association of predicted gene expression with phenotypes based on GWAS summary statistics by leveraging the information on genetic regulation of gene expression and found many novel loci. However, as genetic variants may have effects on more than one gene and through different mechanisms, these methods likely only capture part of the total effects of these variants. In this paper, we propose a summary statistics-based mixed effects score test (sMiST) that tests for the total effect of both the effect of the mediator by imputing genetically predicted gene expression, like S-PrediXcan and TWAS, and the direct effects of individual variants. It allows for multiple functional annotations and multiple genetically predicted mediators. It can also perform conditional association analysis while adjusting for other genetic variants (e.g., known loci for the phenotype). Extensive simulation and real data analyses demonstrate that sMiST yields p-values that agree well with those obtained from individual level data but with substantively improved computational speed. Importantly, a broad application of sMiST to GWAS is possible, as only summary statistics of genetic variant associations are required. We apply sMiST to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer using summary statistics from ∼120, 000 study participants and gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We identify several novel and secondary independent genetic loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1552-1559, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report describes the return of sequencing results to low-income Latino participants recruited through a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). We describe challenges in returning research results secondary to social determinants of health and present lessons learned to guide future genomic medicine implementation studies in low-resource settings. METHODS: Five hundred Latino adults (76% women) consented to research sequencing for a predetermined panel of actionable genes. Providers and staff from the FQHC were engaged to align processes with the practice and a community advisory board grounded the project in the local community. RESULTS: A pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant was present in 10 participants (2%). Challenges in return of results included the time lag (582 ± 53 days) between enrollment and returning actionable results, difficulty reaching participants, missed appointments, low health literacy, lack of health insurance, and reconciling results with limited information on family history. Return of one actionable result was deferred due to acute emotional distress secondary to recent traumatic life events. CONCLUSION: The social determinants of health influence the implementation of genomic medicine in low-income populations in low-resource settings. Considering nonbiological factors that contribute to disparities will be necessary to better appreciate how genomic medicine may fit within the context of health equity.

7.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

8.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3563-3573, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), likely through perturbations in metabolic traits (e.g. insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis). Identification of interactions between variation in genes and these metabolic risk factors may identify novel biologic insights into CRC etiology. METHODS: To improve statistical power and interpretation for gene-environment interaction (G × E) testing, we tested genetic variants that regulate expression of a gene together for interaction with BMI (kg/m2 ) and diabetes on CRC risk among 26 017 cases and 20 692 controls. Each variant was weighted based on PrediXcan analysis of gene expression data from colon tissue generated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project for all genes with heritability ≥1%. We used a mixed-effects model to jointly measure the G × E interaction in a gene by partitioning the interactions into the predicted gene expression levels (fixed effects), and residual G × E effects (random effects). G × BMI analyses were stratified by sex as BMI-CRC associations differ by sex. We used false discovery rates to account for multiple comparisons and reported all results with FDR <0.2. RESULTS: Among 4839 genes tested, genetically predicted expressions of FOXA1 (P = 3.15 × 10-5 ), PSMC5 (P = 4.51 × 10-4 ) and CD33 (P = 2.71 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for men; KIAA0753 (P = 2.29 × 10-5 ) and SCN1B (P = 2.76 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for women; and PTPN2 modified the association between diabetes and CRC risk in both sexes (P = 2.31 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregating G × E interactions and incorporating functional information, we discovered novel genes that may interact with BMI and diabetes on CRC risk.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 597, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001714

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 215-222, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107660

RESUMO

Individuals who carry pathogenic mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have high risks of cancer, and small studies have suggested that these risks depend on the sex of the parent from whom the mutation was inherited. We have conducted the first large study of such a parent-of-origin effect (POE). Our study was based on all MMR gene mutation carriers and their relatives in the Colon Cancer Family Registry, comprising 18,226 people. The POE was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) using a segregation analysis approach that adjusted for ascertainment. HR = 1 corresponds to no POE and HR > 1 corresponds to higher risks for maternal mutations. For all MMR genes combined, the estimated POE HRs were 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.39, p = 0.9) for male colorectal cancer, 1.12 (95% CI 0.81-1.54, p = 0.5) for female colorectal cancer and 0.84 (95% CI 0.52-1.36, p = 0.5) for endometrial cancer. Separate results for each MMR gene were similar. Therefore, despite being well-powered, our study did not find any evidence that cancer risks for MMR gene mutation carriers depend on the parent-of-origin of the mutation. Based on current evidence, we do not recommend that POEs be incorporated into the clinical guidelines or advice for such carriers.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 549-557, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reducing colorectal cancer incidence and mortality through early detection would improve efficacy if targeted. We developed a colorectal cancer risk prediction model incorporating personal, family, genetic, and environmental risk factors to enhance prevention. METHODS: A familial risk profile (FRP) was calculated to summarize individuals' risk based on detailed cancer family history (FH), family structure, probabilities of mutation in major colorectal cancer susceptibility genes, and a polygenic component. We developed risk models, including individuals' FRP or binary colorectal cancer FH, and colorectal cancer risk factors collected at enrollment using population-based colorectal cancer cases (N = 4,445) and controls (N = 3,967) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort (CCFRC). Model validation used CCFRC follow-up data for population-based (N = 12,052) and clinic-based (N = 5,584) relatives with no cancer history at recruitment to assess model calibration [expected/observed rate ratio (E/O)] and discrimination [area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC)]. RESULTS: The E/O [95% confidence interval (CI)] for FRP models for population-based relatives were 1.04 (0.74-1.45) for men and 0.86 (0.64-1.20) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 1.15 (0.87-1.58) for men and 1.04 (0.76-1.45) for women. The age-adjusted AUCs (95% CI) for FRP models for population-based relatives were 0.69 (0.60-0.78) for men and 0.70 (0.62-0.77) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.77 (0.69-0.84) for men and 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for women. The incremental values of AUC for FRP over FH models for population-based relatives were 0.08 (0.01-0.15) for men and 0.10 (0.04-0.16) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.11 (0.05-0.17) for men and 0.11 (0.06-0.17) for women. CONCLUSIONS: Both models calibrated well. The FRP-based model provided better risk stratification and risk discrimination than the FH-based model. IMPACT: Our findings suggest detailed FH may be useful for targeted risk-based screening and clinical management.

12.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

16.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
17.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 21(2): 434-437, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882171

RESUMO

Barriers to genetic counseling services (GCS) utilization for Spanish-speaking patients (SSP) may include language barriers and limited availability of bilingual genetic counselors (GCs). The sample included GCs who: (1) practice cancer genetic counseling, (2) report a cancer practice setting, and (3) have a US mailing address. We assessed: (1) number of Spanish-speaking GCs, (2) estimated proportion of Hispanic patients, and (3) approaches used to counsel SSP. Of respondents (n = 229), 10% (n = 23) spoke Spanish. A higher proportion of GCs practicing in states with ≥ 25% Hispanics reported speaking Spanish compared to those in states with lower Hispanic populations (p = 0.02). While there was a significantly higher percentage of Spanish-speaking GCs in states with larger Hispanic populations, the absolute number was low and unlikely to meet the needs of patients. There is need to increase availability of GCS for SSPs and to understand the impact of services on patient health outcomes.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia
19.
Genet Med ; 21(1): 71-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve methods for predicting the impact of missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on protein function. METHODS: Functional data for 248 BRCA1 and 207 BRCA2 variants from assays with established high sensitivity and specificity for damaging variants were used to recalibrate 40 in silico algorithms predicting the impact of variants on protein activity. Additional random forest (RF) and naïve voting method (NVM) metapredictors for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 were developed to increase predictive accuracy. RESULTS: Optimized thresholds for in silico prediction models significantly improved the accuracy of predicted functional effects for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. In addition, new BRCA1-RF and BRCA2-RF metapredictors showed area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.96) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95), respectively. Similarly, the BRCA1-NVM and BRCA2-NVM models had AUCs of 0.93 and 0.90. The RF and NVM models were used to predict the pathogenicity of all possible missense variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. CONCLUSION: The recalibrated algorithms and new metapredictors significantly improved upon current models for predicting the impact of variants in cancer risk-associated domains of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Prediction of the functional impact of all possible variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 provides important information about the clinical relevance of variants in these genes.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
20.
Public Health Genomics ; 21(1-2): 77-84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522109

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a process for returning medically actionable genomic variants to Latino patients receiving care in a Federally Qualified Health Center. METHODS: Prior to recruitment, researchers met with primary care providers to (1) orient clinicians to the project, (2) establish a process for returning actionable and nonactionable results to participants and providers through the electronic health record, and (3) develop a process for offering clinical decision support for follow-up education and care. A Community Advisory Board was engaged to provide input on recruitment strategies and materials for conveying results to participants. Participants in the Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health) Biobank with hyperlipidemia or colon polyps represented the pool of potentially eligible participants. RESULTS: A total of 1,621 individuals were invited to participate and 710 agreed to an in- person consenting visit (194 no-showed and 16 declined). Over 12-months, 500 participants were enrolled. Participants were primarily Spanish-speaking (81.6%), female (74.2%), and enrolled because of hyperlipidemia (95.4%). All but 2 participants opted to receive primary (i.e., related to enrollment phenotypes) as well as secondary actionable results. CONCLUSION: Efforts to bring precision medicine to community-based health centers serving minority patients may require multilevel engagement activities to include individuals, providers, health systems, and the community.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Genômica/organização & administração , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Pesquisa em Genética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
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