Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 324
Filtrar
1.
Faraday Discuss ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506395

RESUMO

In many engineering scenarios, surface-active organic species are added to acidic solutions to inhibit the corrosion of metallic components. Given suitable selection, such corrosion inhibitors are highly effective, preventing significant degradation even in highly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, there are still considerable gaps in fundamental knowledge of corrosion inhibitor functionality, severely restricting rational development. Here, we demonstrate the capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), supported by ab initio modelling, for revealing key details of inhibited substrates. Attention is focussed on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel through the addition of an exemplar imidazoline-based corrosion inhibitor (OMID) to aqueous solutions of both HCl and H2SO4. Most notably, it is demonstrated that interfacial chemistry varies with the identity of the acid. High resolution Fe 2p, O 1s, N 1s, and Cl 2p XPS spectra, acquired from well-inhibited carbon steel in 1 M HCl, show that there are two different singly protonated OMID species bound directly to the metallic carbon steel substrate. In sharp contrast, in 0.01 M H2SO4, OMID adsorbs onto an ultra-thin surface film, composed primarily of a ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3)-like phase. Such insight is essential to efforts to develop a mechanistic description of corrosion inhibitor functionality, as well as knowledge-based identification of next generation corrosion inhibitors.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 282, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes strive for tight glucose targets (3.5-7.8 mmol/L) to minimise the risks of obstetric and neonatal complications. Despite using diabetes technologies including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pumps and contemporary insulin analogues, most women struggle to achieve and maintain the recommended pregnancy glucose targets. This study aims to evaluate whether the use of automated closed-loop insulin delivery improves antenatal glucose levels in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. METHODS/DESIGN: A multicentre, open label, randomized, controlled trial of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and a HbA1c of ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) at pregnancy confirmation and ≤ 86 mmol/mol (10%) at randomization. Participants who provide written informed consent before 13 weeks 6 days gestation will be entered into a run-in phase to collect 96 h (24 h overnight) of CGM glucose values. Eligible participants will be randomized on a 1:1 basis to CGM (Dexcom G6) with usual insulin delivery (control) or closed-loop (intervention). The closed-loop system includes a model predictive control algorithm (CamAPS FX application), hosted on an android smartphone that communicates wirelessly with the insulin pump (Dana Diabecare RS) and CGM transmitter. Research visits and device training will be provided virtually or face-to-face in conjunction with 4-weekly antenatal clinic visits where possible. Randomization will stratify for clinic site. One hundred twenty-four participants will be recruited. This takes into account 10% attrition and 10% who experience miscarriage or pregnancy loss. Analyses will be performed according to intention to treat. The primary analysis will evaluate the change in the time spent in the target glucose range (3.5-7.8 mmol/l) between the intervention and control group from 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Secondary outcomes include overnight time in target, time above target (> 7.8 mmol/l), standard CGM metrics, HbA1c and psychosocial functioning and health economic measures. Safety outcomes include the number and severity of ketoacidosis, severe hypoglycaemia and adverse device events. DISCUSSION: This will be the largest randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of closed-loop insulin delivery during type 1 diabetes pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 56898625 Registration Date: 10 April, 2018.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Gravidez , Gestantes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
J Emerg Med ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent literature has suggested echocardiography (echo) may prolong pauses in chest compressions during cardiac arrest. OBJECTVES: We sought to determine the impact of the sonographic approach (subxiphoid [SX] vs. parasternal long [PSL]) on time to image completion, image quality, and visualization of cardiac anatomy during echo, as performed during Advanced Cardiac Life Support. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial conducted at 29 emergency departments (EDs) assessing the time to image acquisition and image quality between SX and PSL views for echo. Patients were enrolled in the ED and imaged in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Clinicians experienced in echo performed both SX and PSL views, first view in random order. Image quality and time to image acquisition were recorded. Echos were evaluated for identification of cardiac landmarks. Data are presented as percentages or medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs). RESULTS: We obtained 6247 echo images, comprising 3124 SX views and 3123 PSL. Overall time to image acquisition was 9.0 s (IQR 6.7-14.1 s). Image acquisition was shorter using PSL (8.8 s, IQR 6.5-13.5 s) compared with SX (9.3 s, IQR 6.7-15.0 s). The image quality was better with the PSL view (3.86 vs. 3.54; p < 0.0001), twice as many SX images scoring in the worst quality category compared with PSL (8.6% vs. 3.7%). Imaging of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, and other anatomic landmarks was superior with PSL imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Echo was performed in < 10 s in > 50% of patients using either imaging technique. Imaging using PSL demonstrated improved image quality and improved identification of cardiac landmarks.

4.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 19: 100371, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection with increasing global prevalence. It is endemic in more than 100 countries, with a heavy burden in Asia. Ultrasound findings including gallbladder wall thickening, ascites, and pleural effusions secondary to plasma leakage have been described in dengue. We aimed to determine if the presence of point-of-care ultrasound findings early in suspected dengue could predict clinical worsening in ambulatory pediatric patients. METHODS: We did a prospective, single-blinded, observational cohort study at a children's hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia during periods of dengue outbreak. Ambulatory patients were screened and children ages > 3 month and ≤ 16 years with suspected acute, non-severe dengue were enrolled. Subjects had chest and abdominal ultrasound exams. Independently, subjects were evaluated by a blinded physician who determined a treatment plan as per usual practice. Follow-up was conducted 7-10 days after the initial visit. Analysis of ultrasound findings was performed to determine their relationship with outcome measures including need for unplanned hospital visits or admissions. FINDINGS: A total of 2,186 children were screened during periods of national dengue outbreak in Cambodia in consecutive years 2018-2019, and 253 children met eligibility criteria. Results showed patients with gallbladder wall thickening (> 3·0 mm) who were discharged had a significantly more likely need for unplanned visit or hospitalization than those with normal gallbladder wall, 67% (95% CI 44 - 84) versus 17% (95% CI 12 - 24), p < 0.0001. Subjects with any abnormal ultrasound finding were more likely to be directly admitted versus discharged upon initial presentation, 62·2% (95% CI 46.1 - 76.0) versus 19.5% (95% CI 14.8 - 25.4), p < 0.0001. INTERPRETATION: Point-of-care ultrasound findings, particularly gallbladder wall thickening, in suspected early dengue can help predict disease progression in ambulatory patients. Ultrasound has potential to help guide management of suspected dengue patients and resource management during periods of dengue outbreak. FUNDING: Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Foundation.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 45(1): 83-91, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe incidence of foot ulceration and amputation-free survival associated with foot ulceration status in a national population-based cohort study of people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population included 233,459 people with diabetes who were alive in Scotland on 1 January 2012 identified from the national population-based register (national prevalence 4.9%). Characteristics of patients identified from linked hospital and mortality records during follow-up to the end of November 2017 were compared by outcome. Cox regression was used to assess the association between history of foot ulcer and amputation-free survival. RESULTS: The population included 23,395 people with type 1 diabetes and 210,064 people with type 2 diabetes. In total there were 13,093 (5.6%) people who had a previous foot ulceration, 9,023 people who developed a first ulcer, 48,995 who died, and 2,866 who underwent minor or major amputation during follow-up. Overall incidence of first-time foot ulcers was 7.8 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI7.6-7.9) and 11.2 (11.0-11.4) for any ulcer. Risk factors for reduced amputation-free survival included social deprivation, mental illness, and being underweight in addition to conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 2.09 (1.89-2.31) for type 1 diabetes and 1.65 (1.60-1.70) for type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of foot ulceration in a population-based study of people with diabetes was 11.2 per 1,000 person-years. Foot ulceration is associated with lower amputation-free survival rate, a potential measure of effectiveness of care among people with diabetes. Mental illness and social deprivation are also highlighted as risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pé Diabético , Úlcera do Pé , Amputação , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003828, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical pathways are changing to incorporate support and appropriate follow-up for people to achieve remission of type 2 diabetes, but there is limited understanding of the prevalence of remission in current practice or patient characteristics associated with remission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-sectional study estimating the prevalence of remission of type 2 diabetes in all adults in Scotland aged ≥30 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and alive on December 31, 2019. Remission of type 2 diabetes was assessed between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019. We defined remission as all HbA1c values <48 mmol/mol in the absence of glucose-lowering therapy (GLT) for a continuous duration of ≥365 days before the date of the last recorded HbA1c in 2019. Multivariable logistic regression in complete and multiply imputed datasets was used to examine characteristics associated with remission. Our cohort consisted of 162,316 individuals, all of whom had at least 1 HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) at or after diagnosis of diabetes and at least 1 HbA1c recorded in 2019 (78.5% of the eligible population). Over half (56%) of our cohort was aged 65 years or over in 2019, and 64% had had type 2 diabetes for at least 6 years. Our cohort was predominantly of white ethnicity (74%), and ethnicity data were missing for 19% of the cohort. Median body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was 32.3 kg/m2. A total of 7,710 people (4.8% [95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 4.9]) were in remission of type 2 diabetes. Factors associated with remission were older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.48 [95% CI 1.34 to 1.62] P < 0.001) for people aged ≥75 years compared to 45 to 54 year group), HbA1c <48 mmol/mol at diagnosis (OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.39] P < 0.001) compared to 48 to 52 mmol/mol), no previous history of GLT (OR 14.6 [95% CI 13.7 to 15.5] P < 0.001), weight loss from diagnosis to 2019 (OR 4.45 [95% CI 3.89 to 5.10] P < 0.001) for ≥15 kg of weight loss compared to 0 to 4.9 kg weight gain), and previous bariatric surgery (OR 11.9 [95% CI 9.41 to 15.1] P < 0.001). Limitations of the study include the use of a limited subset of possible definitions of remission of type 2 diabetes, missing data, and inability to identify self-funded bariatric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that 4.8% of people with type 2 diabetes who had at least 1 HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) after diagnosis of diabetes and had at least 1 HbA1c recorded in 2019 had evidence of type 2 diabetes remission. Guidelines are required for management and follow-up of this group and may differ depending on whether weight loss and remission of diabetes were intentional or unintentional. Our findings can be used to evaluate the impact of future initiatives on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes remission.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Indução de Remissão , Escócia/epidemiologia
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(48): 58193-58200, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807568

RESUMO

Controlling corrosion with naturally occurring corrosion scales is potentially a more environmentally sustainable alternative to current approaches, including dosing of organic corrosion inhibitors. We report operando grazing incidence X-ray diffractograms correlated with electrochemical measurements to elucidate the growth and corrosion protection properties of a corrosion scale composed of FeCO3 crystallites, which is encountered in various key energy industry applications. Data, acquired as a function of time from high-purity iron immersed in CO2-saturated deionized H2O at pH 6.8 and T = 80 °C, show that the FeCO3 scale not only prevents corrosion of the covered substrate but also acts as a significant interfacial diffusion barrier for corrosion reagents and/or products once sufficient coverage is achieved. Most notably, from a corrosion engineering perspective, however, it is determined that corrosion occurring in gaps between scale crystallites remains appreciable; this important insight is gained through the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra to estimate the variation in electrochemically active surface area as scale coverage increases. These results indicate that naturally occurring FeCO3 scales are not a tenable solution for corrosion protection, as even in their intact state they are highly likely to be, at best, semiprotective.

8.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(6): 768-776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily and Nocturnal trials aimed to compare the effects of hemodialysis (HD) given 6 versus 3 times per week. More frequent in-center HD significantly reduced left-ventricular mass (LVM), with more pronounced effects in patients with low urine volumes. In this study, we aimed to explore another potential effect modifier: the predialysis serum sodium (SNa) and related proxies of plasma tonicity. METHODS: Using data from the FHN Daily and Nocturnal Trials, we compared the effects of frequent HD on LVM among patients stratified by SNa, dialysate-to-predialysis serum-sodium gradient (GNa), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, time-integrated sodium-adjusted fluid load (TIFL), and extracellular fluid volume estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 197 enrolled subjects in the FHN Daily Trial, the treatment effect of frequent HD on ∆LVM was modified by SNa. When the FHN Daily Trial participants are divided into lower and higher predialysis SNa groups (less and greater than 138 mEq/L), the LVM reduction in the lower group was substantially higher (-28.0 [95% CI -40.5 to -15.4] g) than in the higher predialysis SNa group (-2.0 [95% CI -15.5 to 11.5] g). Accounting for GNa, TIFL also showed more pronounced effects among patients with higher GNa or higher TIFL. Results in the Nocturnal Trial were similar in direction and magnitude but did not reach statistical significance. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In the FHN Daily Trial, the favorable effects of frequent HD on left-ventricular hypertrophy were more pronounced among patients with lower predialysis SNa and higher GNa and TIFL. Whether these metrics can be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from frequent HD or other dialytic or nondialytic interventions remains to be determined. Prospective, adequately powered studies studying the effect of GNa reduction on mortality and hospitalization are needed.


Assuntos
Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Sódio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046441, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of evidence to inform the delivery and follow-up of bariatric surgery for people with severe obesity. The SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS) is a national longitudinal cohort of people undergoing bariatric surgery. Here, we describe characteristics of the recruited SCOTS cohort, and the relationship between health and socioeconomic status with body mass index (BMI) and age. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: 445 participants scheduled for bariatric surgery at any of 14 centres in Scotland, UK, were recruited between 2013 and 2016 for this longitudinal cohort study (1 withdrawal); 249 completed health-related preoperative patient-reported outcome measures. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of a 10-unit increase in age or BMI, adjusting for sex, smoking and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Mean age was 46 years and median BMI was 47 kg/m2. For each 10 kg/m2 higher BMI, there was a change of -5.2 (95% CI -6.9 to -3.5; p<0.0001) in Rand 12-item Short Form Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS), -0.1 (95% CI -0.2 to -0.1; p<0.0001) in EuroQoL 5-level EQ-5D version index score and 14.2 (95% CI 10.7 to 17.7; p<0.0001) in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite Physical Function Score. We observed a 3.1 times higher use of specialist aids and equipment at home (OR: 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 5.0; p<0.0001). Broadly, similar results were seen for each 10-year higher age, including a change of -2.1 (95% CI -3.7 to -0.5; p<0.01) in SF-12 PCS. CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI combined with older age is associated with poor physical functioning and quality of life in people seeking bariatric surgery treatment. Policy-makers must consider the health and care needs of these individuals and invest to provide increased access to effective weight management. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN47072588.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early detection and treatment of diabetes as well as its prevention help lessen longer-term complications. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in the UK Biobank and standardized the results to the UK general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed baseline UK Biobank data on plasma glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to compare the prevalence of pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in white, South Asian, black, and Chinese participants. The overall and ethnic-specific results were standardized to the UK general population aged 40-70 years of age. RESULTS: Within the UK Biobank, the overall crude prevalence was 3.6% for pre-diabetes, 0.8% for undiagnosed diabetes, and 4.4% for either. Following standardization to the UK general population, the results were similar at 3.8%, 0.8%, and 4.7%, respectively. Crude prevalence was much higher in South Asian (11.0% pre-diabetes; 3.6% undiagnosed diabetes; 14.6% either) or black (13.8% pre-diabetes; 3.0% undiagnosed diabetes; 16.8% either) participants. Only six middle-aged or old-aged South Asian individuals or seven black would need to be tested to identify an HbA1c result that merits action. CONCLUSIONS: Single-stage population screening for pre-diabetes or undiagnosed diabetes in middle-old or old-aged South Asian and black individuals using HbA1c could be efficient and should be considered.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 2010-2017, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether advances in the management of type 1 diabetes are reducing rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unclear. We investigated time trends in DKA rates in a national cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes monitored for 14 years, overall and by socioeconomic characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All individuals in Scotland with type 1 diabetes who were alive and at least 1 year old between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2018 were identified using the national register (N = 37,939). DKA deaths and hospital admissions were obtained through linkage to Scottish national death and morbidity records. Bayesian regression was used to test for DKA time trends and association with risk markers, including socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: There were 30,427 DKA admissions and 472 DKA deaths observed over 393,223 person-years at risk. DKA event rates increased over the study period (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year 1.058 [95% credibility interval 1.054-1.061]). Males had lower rates than females (IRR male-to-female 0.814 [0.776-0.855]). DKA incidence rose in all age-groups other than 10- to 19-year-olds, in whom rates were the highest, but fell over the study. There was a large socioeconomic differential (IRR least-to-most deprived quintile 0.446 [0.406-0.490]), which increased during follow-up. Insulin pump use or completion of structured education were associated with lower DKA rates, and antidepressant and methadone prescription were associated with higher DKA rates. CONCLUSIONS: DKA incidence has risen since 2004, except in 10- to 19-year-olds. Of particular concern are the strong and widening socioeconomic disparities in DKA outcomes. Efforts to prevent DKA, especially in vulnerable groups, require strengthening.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Teorema de Bayes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia
12.
Resusc Plus ; 6: 100094, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pre-pause imaging during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) involves the acquisition of poor-quality, brief images immediately prior to stopping CPR to allow shorter, better-quality images during the pause. We hypothesize that pre-pause imaging is associated with a decrease in CPR pause length and shorter image acquisition time. METHODS: Prospective, interventional cohort study enrolling out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiac arrest patients. Pre-pause imaging involves pre-localizing of the approximate sonographic window during CPR to support subsequent fine tuning when CPR pauses. Physicians were educated on pre-pause imaging and data was recorded prior- and post- introduction of pre-pause imaging into American cardiac life support (ACLS). Timing of CPR pauses and identification of interventions and events during pause were recorded (e.g., intubation, defibrillation, multiple cardiac ultrasounds). Ultrasound (US) images were reviewed for image quality using a 5-point scale. Primary outcome was length of CPR pause with and without pre-pause imaging. Secondary outcome included US length. RESULTS: One hundred and forty five subjects presenting after OOH cardiac arrest were enrolled over 13 months, 70 during the baseline period prior to pre-pause imaging and 75 after pre-pause imaging was integrated into ACLS. Pre-pause imaging decreased CPR pause length from 28.3 s (95%CI 25.1-31.5) to 12.8 s (95%CI 11.9-13.7). US image acquisition time decreased with pre-pause imaging from 20.4 (95%CI 18.0-22.7) to 11.0 s (95%CI 10.1-11.8). US image quality was unchanged despite the decrease in image acquisition time. (3.0 (95%CI 2.8-3.2) vs 2.7 (95%CI 2.5-2.9)). Multivariate modeling showed that ultrasound did not prolong CPR pause length. CONCLUSION: Pre-pause imaging was associated with significant decrease in CPR pause length and US image acquisition time. Pre-pause imaging should be encouraged for any clinicians who use ultrasound during ACLS.

15.
Diabetologia ; 64(6): 1320-1331, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686483

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to assess the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland and its association with glycaemic control, as measured by HbA1c levels, frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hospitalised hypoglycaemia (SHH), overall and stratified by baseline HbA1c. METHODS: We included 4684 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the national Scottish register, who commenced CSII between 2004 and 2019. We presented crude within-person differences from baseline HbA1c over time since initiation, crude DKA and SHH event-rates pre-/post-CSII exposure. We then used mixed models to assess the significance of CSII exposure, taking into account: (1) the diffuse nature of the intervention (i.e. structured education often precedes initiation); (2) repeated within-person measurements; and (3) background time-trends occurring pre-intervention. RESULTS: HbA1c decreased after CSII initiation, with a median within-person change of -5.5 mmol/mol (IQR -12.0, 0.0) (-0.5% [IQR -1.1, 0.0]). Within-person changes were most substantial in those with the highest baseline HbA1c, with median -21.0 mmol/mol (-30.0, -11.0) (-1.9% [-2.7, -1.0]) change in those with a baseline >84 mmol/mol (9.8%) within a year of exposure, that was sustained: -19.0 mmol/mol (-27.6, -6.5) (-1.7% [-2.5, -0.6]) at ≥5 years. Statistical significance and magnitude of change were supported by the mixed models results. The crude DKA event-rate was significantly lower in post-CSII person-time compared with pre-CSII person-time: 49.6 events (95% CI 46.3, 53.1) per 1000 person-years vs 67.9 (64.1, 71.9); rate ratio from Bayesian mixed models adjusting for pre-exposure trend: 0.61 (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.47, 0.77; posterior probability of reduction pp = 1.00). The crude overall SHH event-rate in post-CSII vs pre-CSII person-time was also lower: 17.8 events (95% CI 15.8, 19.9) per 1000 person-years post-exposure vs 25.8 (23.5, 28.3) pre-exposure; rate ratio from Bayesian mixed models adjusting for pre-exposure trend: 0.67 (95% CrI 0.45, 1.01; pp = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: CSII therapy was associated with marked falls in HbA1c especially in those with high baseline HbA1c. CSII was independently associated with reduced DKA and SHH rates. CSII appears to be an effective option for intensive insulin therapy in people with diabetes for improving suboptimal glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Glicêmico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Masculino , Escócia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetologia ; 64(6): 1309-1319, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608768

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to map the number of prescribed drugs over age, sex and area-based socioeconomic deprivation, and to examine the association between the number of drugs and particular high-risk drug classes with adverse health outcomes among a national cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Utilising linked healthcare records from the population-based diabetes register of Scotland, we identified 28,245 individuals with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes on 1 January 2017. For this population, we obtained information on health status, predominantly reflecting diabetes-related complications, and information on the total number of drugs and particular high-risk drug classes prescribed. We then studied the association of these baseline-level features with hospital admissions for falls, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hypoglycaemia or death within the subsequent year using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Not considering insulin and treatment for hypoglycaemia, the mean number of prescribed drugs was 4.00 (SD 4.35). The proportion of individuals being prescribed five or more drugs at baseline consistently increased with age (proportion [95% CI]: 0-19 years 2.04% [1.60, 2.49]; 40-49 years 28.50% [27.08, 29.93]; 80+ years 76.04% [67.73, 84.84]). Controlling for age, sex, area-based socioeconomic deprivation and health status, each additional drug at baseline was associated with an increase in the hazard for hospitalisation for falls, hypoglycaemia and death but not for DKA admissions (HR [95% CI]: falls 1.03 [1.01, 1.06]; DKA 1.01 [1.00, 1.03]; hypoglycaemia 1.05 [1.02, 1.07]; death 1.04 [1.02, 1.06]). We found a number of drug classes to be associated with an increased hazard of one or more of these adverse health outcomes, including antithrombotic/anticoagulant agents, corticosteroids, opioids, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, hypnotics and sedatives, and antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is common among the Scottish population with type 1 diabetes and is strongly patterned by sociodemographic factors. The number of prescribed drugs and the prescription of particular high-risk drug classes are strong markers of an increased risk of adverse health outcomes, including acute complications of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Acidentes por Quedas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 82-93, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to ascertain the cumulative risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes and compare it with that of people without diabetes, and to investigate risk factors for and build a cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 among people with diabetes. METHODS: In this cohort study, we captured the data encompassing the first wave of the pandemic in Scotland, from March 1, 2020, when the first case was identified, to July 31, 2020, when infection rates had dropped sufficiently that shielding measures were officially terminated. The participants were the total population of Scotland, including all people with diabetes who were alive 3 weeks before the start of the pandemic in Scotland (estimated Feb 7, 2020). We ascertained how many people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in this period from the Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland database (on virology), the RAPID database of daily hospitalisations, the Scottish Morbidity Records-01 of hospital discharges, the National Records of Scotland death registrations data, and the Scottish Intensive Care Society and Audit Group database (on critical care). Among people with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, diabetes status was ascertained by linkage to the national diabetes register, Scottish Care Information Diabetes. We compared the cumulative incidence of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with and without diabetes using logistic regression. For people with diabetes, we obtained data on potential risk factors for fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 from the national diabetes register and other linked health administrative databases. We tested the association of these factors with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes, and constructed a prediction model using stepwise regression and 20-fold cross-validation. FINDINGS: Of the total Scottish population on March 1, 2020 (n=5 463 300), the population with diabetes was 319 349 (5·8%), 1082 (0·3%) of whom developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 by July 31, 2020, of whom 972 (89·8%) were aged 60 years or older. In the population without diabetes, 4081 (0·1%) of 5 143 951 people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19. As of July 31, the overall odds ratio (OR) for diabetes, adjusted for age and sex, was 1·395 (95% CI 1·304-1·494; p<0·0001, compared with the risk in those without diabetes. The OR was 2·396 (1·815-3·163; p<0·0001) in type 1 diabetes and 1·369 (1·276-1·468; p<0·0001) in type 2 diabetes. Among people with diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration and type, those who developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were more likely to be male, live in residential care or a more deprived area, have a COVID-19 risk condition, retinopathy, reduced renal function, or worse glycaemic control, have had a diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycaemia hospitalisation in the past 5 years, be on more anti-diabetic and other medication (all p<0·0001), and have been a smoker (p=0·0011). The cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes had a C-statistic of 0·85 (0·83-0·86). INTERPRETATION: Overall risks of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were substantially elevated in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the background population. The risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, and therefore the need for special protective measures, varies widely among those with diabetes but can be predicted reasonably well using previous clinical history. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 390-398, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship of residual C-peptide secretion to glycemic outcomes and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: C-peptide was measured in an untimed blood sample in the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource (SDRNT1BIO) cohort of 6,076 people with type 1 diabetes monitored for an average of 5.2 years. RESULTS: In regression models adjusted for age at onset and duration, effect sizes for C-peptide ≥200 vs. <5 pmol/L were as follows: insulin dose at baseline, 27% lower (P = 2 × 10-39); HbA1c during follow-up, 4.9 mmol/mol lower (P = 3 × 10-13); hazard ratio for hospital admission for diabetic ketoacidosis during follow-up, 0.44 (P = 0.0001); odds ratio for incident retinopathy, 0.51 (P = 0.0003). Effects on the risk of serious hypoglycemic episodes were detectable at lower levels of C-peptide, and the form of the relationship was continuous down to the limit of detection (3 pmol/L). In regression models contrasting C-peptide 30 to <200 pmol/L with <5 pmol/L, the odds ratio for self-report of at least one serious hypoglycemic episode in the last year was 0.56 (P = 6 × 10-8), and the hazard ratio for hospital admission for hypoglycemia during follow-up was 0.52 (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: These results in a large representative cohort suggest that even minimal residual C-peptide secretion could have clinical benefit in type 1 diabetes, in contrast to a follow-up study of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) intensively treated cohort where an effect on hypoglycemia was seen only at C-peptide levels ≥130 pmol/L. This has obvious implications for the design and evaluation of trials of interventions to preserve or restore pancreatic islet function in type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Glicemia , Peptídeo C , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...