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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483157

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in both men and women. While women are protected until the onset of menopause, after menopause women have increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease events. Animal models of myocardial infarction recapitulate many of the sex differences observed in humans, and proteomics evaluations offer mechanistic insights to explain sex differences. Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss how proteomics has helped us understand the hormonal, chromosomal, and immune mechanisms behind sex differences in response to ischemic injury and the development of heart failure. Expert opinion: There are a number of ways in which proteomics has and will continue to facilitate our understanding of sex differences in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction.

2.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(5): 37, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418072

RESUMO

In response to myocardial infarction (MI), neutrophils (PMNs) are early responders that initiate the inflammatory reaction. Because macrophages and fibroblasts show polarization states after MI, we hypothesized PMNs also undergo phenotypic changes over the MI time course. The objective of the current study was to map the continuum of polarization phenotypes in cardiac neutrophils over the first week of MI. C57BL/6J male mice (3-6 months old) underwent permanent coronary artery ligation to induce MI, and PMNs were isolated from the infarct region at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after MI. Day 0 served as a no MI negative control. Aptamer proteomics was performed on biological replicates (n = 10-12) for each time point. Day (D)1 MI neutrophils had a high degranulation profile with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. D3 MI neutrophil profiles showed upregulation of apoptosis and induction of extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. D5 MI neutrophils further increased their ECM reorganization profile. D7 MI neutrophils had a reparative signature that included expression of fibronectin, galectin-3, and fibrinogen to contribute to scar formation by stimulating ECM reorganization. Of note, fibronectin was a key modulator of degranulation, as it amplified MMP-9 release in the presence of an inflammatory stimulus. Our results indicate that neutrophils selectively degranulate over the MI time course, reflective of both their intrinsic protein profiles as well as the ECM environment in which they reside. MMPs, cathepsins, and ECM proteins were prominent neutrophil degranulation indicators.

3.
Stress ; 22(5): 530-547, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161843

RESUMO

Psychiatric illnesses and cardiovascular disease (CVD) contribute to significant overall morbidity, mortality, and health care costs, and are predicted to reach epidemic proportions with the aging population. Within the Veterans Administration (VA) health care system, psychiatric illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and CVD such as heart failure (HF), are leading causes of hospital admissions, prolonged hospital stays, and resource utilization. Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between PTSD symptoms and CVD endpoints, particularly in the Veteran population. Not only does PTSD increase the risk of HF, but this relationship is bi-directional. Accordingly, a VA-sponsored conference entitled "Cardiovascular Comorbidities in PTSD: The Brain-Heart Consortium" was convened to explore potential relationships and common biological pathways between PTSD and HF. The conference was framed around the hypothesis that specific common systems are dysregulated in both PTSD and HF, resulting in a synergistic acceleration and amplification of both disease processes. The conference was not intended to identify all independent pathways that give rise to PTSD and HF, but rather identify shared systems, pathways, and biological mediators that would be modifiable in both disease processes. The results from this conference identified specific endocrine, autonomic, immune, structural, genetic, and physiological changes that may contribute to shared PTSD-CVD pathophysiology and could represent unique opportunities to develop therapies for both PTSD and HF. Some recommendations from the group for future research opportunities are provided.

4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(7): 1845-1852, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109452

RESUMO

Establishing molecular and cellular indicators that reflect the extent of dilation of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) may improve diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. We queried the Mouse Heart Attack Research Tool (mHART) 1.0 for day 7 post-MI mice (age 3-9 months, untreated males and females) with serial echocardiographic data at days 0, 1, and 7 (n = 51). Mice were classified into two subgroups determined by a median fold change of 1.6 in end-diastolic dimensions (EDD) normalized to pre-MI values; n = 26 fell below (moderate; mean of 1.42 ±â€¯0.01) and n = 25 fell above this cut-off (extreme; mean of 1.79 ±â€¯0.01; p < 0.001 vs. moderate). Plasma proteomic profiling of 34 analytes measured at day 7 post-MI from male mice (n = 12 moderate and 12 extreme) were evaluated as the test dataset, and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to assess strength of biomarkers. Females (n = 6 moderate and 9 extreme) were used as the validation dataset. Both by t-test and characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, lower macrophage inflammatory protein-1 gamma (MIP-1γ), lymphotactin, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) were identified as plasma indicators for dilation status (p < 0.05 for all). Macrophage numbers were decreased and complement C5, laminin 1, and Ccr8 gene levels were significantly higher in the LV infarcts of the extreme dilation group (p < 0.05 for all). A composite panel including plasma MIP-1γ, lymphotactin, and GCP-2, and LV infarct Ccr8 and macrophage numbers strongly mirrored LV dilation status (AUC = 0.92; p < 0.0001). Using the mHART 1.0 database, we determined that a failure to mount sufficient macrophage-mediated inflammation was indicative of exacerbated LV dilation.

5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(2): H415-H423, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099612

RESUMO

Although it is known that the prevalence and severity of hypertension increases in women after menopause, the contribution of T cells to this process has not been explored. Although the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (ANG II) hypertension in men, we have demonstrated that premenopausal women are protected from T cell-mediated hypertension. The goal of the current study was to test the hypotheses that 1) female protection against T cell-mediated ANG II hypertension is eliminated following progression into menopause and 2) T regulatory cells (Tregs) provide premenopausal protection against ANG II-induced hypertension. Menopause was induced in Rag-1-/- mice (via 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide), and all mice received a 14-day ANG II infusion. Donor CD3+ T cells were adoptively transferred 3 wk before ANG II infusion. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to ANG II were similar to those seen in premenopausal mice (Δ12 mmHg). After adoptive transfer of T cells, ANG II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in postmenopausal females (Δ28 mmHg). A significant increase in F4/80 positive renal macrophages, an increase in renal inflammatory gene expression, along with a reduction in renal expression of mannose receptor C-type 1, a marker for M2 macrophages, accompanied the increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Flow cytometric analysis identified that Tregs were significantly decreased in the spleen and kidneys of Rag-1-/- menopausal mice versus premenopausal females, following ANG II infusion. In a validation study, an anti-CD25 antibody was used to deplete Tregs in premenopausal mice, which induced a significant increase in SBP. These results demonstrate that premenopausal protection against T cell-mediated ANG II hypertension is eliminated once females enter menopause, suggesting that a change in hormonal status upregulates macrophage-induced proinflammatory and T cell-dependent responses. Furthermore, we are the first to report that the presence of Tregs are required to suppress ANG II hypertension in premenopausal females.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Whether progression into menopause eliminated female protection against T cell-mediated hypertension was examined. Menopausal mice without T cells remained protected against angiotensin II (ANG II) hypertension; however, in the presence of T cells, blood pressure responses to ANG II increased significantly in menopause. Underlying mechanisms examined were anti-inflammatory protection provided by T regulatory cells in premenopausal females and renal inflammatory processes involving macrophage infiltration and cytokine activation.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

7.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(2): 6, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635789

RESUMO

Cardiac fibroblasts are the major producers of extracellular matrix (ECM) to form infarct scar. We hypothesized that fibroblasts undergo a spectrum of phenotype states over the course of myocardial infarction (MI) from early onset to scar formation. Fibroblasts were isolated from the infarct region of C57BL/6J male mice (3-6 months old, n = 60) at days 0 (no MI control) and 1, 3, or 7 after MI. Whole transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA-sequencing. Of the genes sequenced, 3371 were differentially expressed after MI. Enrichment analysis revealed that MI day 1 fibroblasts displayed pro-inflammatory, leukocyte-recruiting, pro-survival, and anti-migratory phenotype through Tnfrsf9 and CD137 signaling. MI day 3 fibroblasts had a proliferative, pro-fibrotic, and pro-angiogenic profile with elevated Il4ra signaling. MI day 7 fibroblasts showed an anti-angiogenic homeostatic-like myofibroblast profile and with a step-wise increase in Acta2 expression. MI day 7 fibroblasts relied on Pik3r3 signaling to mediate Tgfb1 effects and Fgfr2 to regulate PI3K signaling. In vitro, the day 3 MI fibroblast secretome stimulated angiogenesis, while day 7 MI fibroblast secretome repressed angiogenesis through Thbs1 signaling. Our results reveal novel mechanisms for fibroblasts in expressing pro-inflammatory molecules and regulating angiogenesis following MI.


Assuntos
Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Fenótipo , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 137: 252-258, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394317

RESUMO

Following myocardial infarction (MI), timely resolution of inflammation promotes wound healing and scar formation while limiting excessive tissue damage. Resolution promoting factors (RPFs) are agents that blunt leukocyte trafficking and inflammation, promote necrotic and apoptotic cell clearance, and stimulate scar formation. Previously identified RPFs include mediators derived from lipids (resolvins, lipoxins, protectins, and maresins), proteins (glucocorticoids, annexin A1, galectin 1, and melanocortins), or gases (CO, H2S, and NO). Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12; macrophage elastase) has shown promising RPF qualities in a variety of disease states. We review here the evidence that MMP-12 may serve as a novel RPF with potential therapeutic efficacy in the setting of MI.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239231

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) actively participates in diverse aspects of cardiovascular development and physiology, as well as during disease development and progression. ECM roles are determined by its physical and mechanical properties and by its capacity to both release bioactive signals and activate cell signaling pathways. The ECM serves as a storage depot for a wide variety of molecules released in response to injury or with aging. Indeed, there is a plethora of examples describing how cells react to or modify ECM stiffness, how cells initiate intracellular signaling pathways, and how cells respond to ECM. This Perspectives article reviews the contributions of twenty-one articles published in The American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology in response to a call for papers on this topic. Here we summarize the contributions of these studies focused on cardiac and vascular ECM. We highlight the translational importance of these studies and conclude that the ECM is a critical component of both the heart and vasculature. Readers are urged to examine and learn from this special call for papers.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169632

RESUMO

Aims: Macrophage phagocytosis of dead cells is a prerequisite for inflammation resolution. Because CXCL4 induces macrophage phagocytosis in vitro, we examined the impact of exogenous CXCL4 infusion on cardiac wound healing and macrophage phagocytosis following myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results: CXCL4 expression significantly increased in the infarct region beginning at day 3 post-MI, and macrophages were the predominant source. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to coronary artery occlusion, and MI mice were randomly infused with recombinant mouse CXCL4 or saline beginning at 24 h post-MI by mini-pump infusion. Compared to saline controls, CXCL4 infusion dramatically reduced 7 day post-MI survival (10% (3/30) for CXCL4 vs. 47% (7/15) for saline, p < 0.05) as a result of acute congestive heart failure. By echocardiography, CXCL4 significantly increased LV volumes and dimensions at day 5 post-MI (all p < 0.05), despite similar infarct areas compared with saline controls. While macrophage numbers were similar at day 5 post-MI, CXCL4 infusion increased Ccr4 and Itgb4 and decreased Adamts8 gene levels in the infarct region, all of which linked to CXCL4-mediated cardiac dilation. Isolated day 5 post-MI macrophages exhibited comparable levels of M1 and M4 markers between saline and CXCL4 groups. Interestingly, by both ex vivo and in vitro phagocytosis assays, CXCL4 reduced macrophage phagocytic capacity, which was connected to decreased levels of the phagocytosis receptor CD36. In vitro, a CD36 neutralizing antibody (CD36Ab) significantly inhibited macrophage phagocytic capacity. The combination of CXCL4 and CD36 Ab did not have an additive effect, indicating that CXCL4 regulated phagocytosis through CD36 signaling. CXCL4 infusion significantly elevated infarct matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels at day 5 post-MI, and MMP-9 can cleave CD36 as a downregulation mechanism. Conclusion: CXCL4 infusion impaired macrophage phagocytic capacity by reducing CD36 levels through MMP-9 dependent and independent signaling, leading to higher mortality and LV dilation.

12.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 113(5): 40, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132266

RESUMO

Sex differences in heart failure development following myocardial infarction (MI) are not fully understood. We hypothesized that differential MI signaling could explain variations in outcomes. Analysis of the mouse heart attack research tool 1.0 (422 mice; young = 5.4 ± 0.1; old = 23.3 ± 0.1 months of age) was used to dissect MI signaling pathways, which was validated in a new cohort of mice (4.8 ± 0.2 months of age); and substantiated in humans. Plasma collected at visit 2 from the MI subset of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS; a community-based study consisting of middle aged and older adults of African ancestry) underwent glycoproteomics grouped by outcome: (1) heart failure hospitalization after visit 2 (n = 3 men/12 women) and (2) without hospitalization through 2012 (n = 24 men/21 women). Compared to young male mice, the infarct region of young females had fewer, but more efficient tissue clearing neutrophils with reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression. Apolipoprotein (Apo) F, which acts upstream of the liver X receptors/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) pathway, was elevated in the day 7 infarcts of old mice compared to young controls and was increased in both men and women with heart failure. In vitro, Apo F stimulated CD36 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation in male neutrophils to turn off NF-κB activation and stimulate LXR/RXR signaling to initiate resolution. Female neutrophils were desensitized to Apo F and instead relied on thrombospondin-1 stimulation of CD36 to upregulate AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in an overall better wound healing strategy. With age, female mice were desensitized to LXR/RXR signaling, resulting in enhanced interleukin-6 activation, a finding replicated in the JHS community cohort. This is the first report to uncover sex differences in post-MI neutrophil signaling that yielded better outcomes in young females and worse outcomes with age.

13.
Pharmacol Ther ; 2018 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149103

RESUMO

Whereas hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are age-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), aging alone is an independent risk factor. With advancing age, the heart and kidney gradually but significantly undergo inflammation and subsequent fibrosis, which eventually results in an irreversible decline in organ physiology. Through cardiorenal network interactions, cardiac dysfunction leads to and responds to renal injury, and both facilitate aging effects. Thus, a comprehensive strategy is needed to evaluate the cardiorenal aging network. Common hallmarks shared across systems include extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, along with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) including MMP-9. The wide range of MMP-9 substrates, including ECM components and inflammatory cytokines, implicates MMP-9 in a variety of pathological and age-related processes. In particular, there is strong evidence that inflammatory cell-derived MMP-9 exacerbates cardiorenal aging. This review explores the potential therapeutic targets against CVD and CKD in the elderly, focusing on ECM and MMP roles.

14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 315(2): H303-H313, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028200

RESUMO

The problem of inadequate statistical reporting is long standing and widespread in the biomedical literature, including in cardiovascular physiology. Although guidelines for reporting statistics have been available in clinical medicine for some time, there are currently no guidelines specific to cardiovascular physiology. To assess the need for guidelines, we determined the type and frequency of statistical tests and procedures currently used in the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. A PubMed search for articles published in the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology between January 1, 2017, and October 6, 2017, provided a final sample of 146 articles evaluated for methods used and 38 articles for indepth analysis. The t-test and ANOVA accounted for 71% (212 of 300 articles) of the statistical tests performed. Of six categories of post hoc tests, Bonferroni and Tukey tests were used in 63% (62 of 98 articles). There was an overall lack in details provided by authors publishing in the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, and we compiled a list of recommended minimum reporting guidelines to aid authors in preparing manuscripts. Following these guidelines could substantially improve the quality of statistical reports and enhance data rigor and reproducibility.

15.
16.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 113(4): 26, 2018 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868933

RESUMO

In response to myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac macrophages regulate inflammation and scar formation. We hypothesized that macrophages undergo polarization state changes over the MI time course and assessed macrophage polarization transcriptomic signatures over the first week of MI. C57BL/6 J male mice (3-6 months old) were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation to induce MI, and macrophages were isolated from the infarct region at days 1, 3, and 7 post-MI. Day 0, no MI resident cardiac macrophages served as the negative MI control. Whole transcriptome analysis was performed using RNA-sequencing on n = 4 pooled sets for each time. Day 1 macrophages displayed a unique pro-inflammatory, extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading signature. By flow cytometry, day 0 macrophages were largely F4/80highLy6Clow resident macrophages, whereas day 1 macrophages were largely F4/80lowLy6Chigh infiltrating monocytes. Day 3 macrophages exhibited increased proliferation and phagocytosis, and expression of genes related to mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, indicative of metabolic reprogramming. Day 7 macrophages displayed a pro-reparative signature enriched for genes involved in ECM remodeling and scar formation. By triple in situ hybridization, day 7 infarct macrophages in vivo expressed collagen I and periostin mRNA. Our results indicate macrophages show distinct gene expression profiles over the first week of MI, with metabolic reprogramming important for polarization. In addition to serving as indirect mediators of ECM remodeling, macrophages are a direct source of ECM components. Our study is the first to report the detailed changes in the macrophage transcriptome over the first week of MI.

17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 15(8): 471-479, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752454

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors have been studied in the myocardium for the past 2 decades. An incomplete knowledge base and experimental design issues with inhibitors have hampered attempts at translation, but clinical interest remains high because of strong associations between MMPs and outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) as well as mechanistic studies showing MMP involvement at multiple stages of the MI wound-healing process. This Review focuses on how our understanding of MMPs has evolved from a one-dimensional early focus on measuring MMP activity, monitoring MMP:inhibitor ratios, and evaluating one MMP-substrate pair to the current use of systems biology approaches to integrate the whole MMP repertoire of roles in the left ventricular response to MI. MMP9 is used as an example MMP to explain these concepts and to provide a template for examining MMPs as mechanistic mediators of cardiac remodelling.

18.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 315(3): H522-H530, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775405

RESUMO

The generation of big data has enabled systems-level dissections into the mechanisms of cardiovascular pathology. Integration of genetic, proteomic, and pathophysiological variables across platforms and laboratories fosters discoveries through multidisciplinary investigations and minimizes unnecessary redundancy in research efforts. The Mouse Heart Attack Research Tool (mHART) consolidates a large data set of over 10 yr of experiments from a single laboratory for cardiovascular investigators to generate novel hypotheses and identify new predictive markers of progressive left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. We designed the mHART REDCap database using our own data to integrate cardiovascular community participation. We generated physiological, biochemical, cellular, and proteomic outputs from plasma and left ventricles obtained from post-MI and no-MI (naïve) control groups. We included both male and female mice ranging in age from 3 to 36 mo old. After variable collection, data underwent quality assessment for data curation (e.g., eliminate technical errors, check for completeness, remove duplicates, and define terms). Currently, mHART 1.0 contains >888,000 data points and includes results from >2,100 unique mice. Database performance was tested, and an example is provided to illustrate database utility. This report explains how the first version of the mHART database was established and provides researchers with a standard framework to aid in the integration of their data into our database or in the development of a similar database. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The Mouse Heart Attack Research Tool combines >888,000 cardiovascular data points from >2,100 mice. We provide this large data set as a REDCap database to generate novel hypotheses and identify new predictive markers of adverse left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction in mice and provide examples of use. The Mouse Heart Attack Research Tool is the first database of this size that integrates data sets across platforms that include genomic, proteomic, histological, and physiological data.

20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 315(1): H71-H79, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600895

RESUMO

After myocardial infarction, remodeling of the left ventricle involves a wound-healing orchestra involving a variety of cell types. In order for wound healing to be optimal, appropriate communication must occur; these cells all need to come in at the right time, be activated at the right time in the right amount, and know when to exit at the right time. When this occurs, a new homeostasis is obtained within the infarct, such that infarct scar size and quality are sufficient to maintain left ventricular size and shape. The ideal scenario does not always occur in reality. Often, miscommunication can occur between infarct and remote spaces, across the temporal wound-healing spectrum, and across organs. When miscommunication occurs, adverse remodeling can progress to heart failure. This review discusses current knowledge gaps and recent development of the roles of inflammation and the extracellular matrix in myocardial infarction remodeling. In particular, the macrophage is one cell type that provides direct and indirect regulation of both the inflammatory and scar-forming responses. We summarize current research efforts focused on identifying biomarker indicators that reflect the status of each component of the wound-healing process to better predict outcomes.

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