Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1360-1372, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385710

RESUMO

Most aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) have gain-of-function somatic mutations of ion channels or transporters. However, their frequency in aldosterone-producing cell clusters of normal adrenal gland suggests a requirement for codriver mutations in APAs. Here we identified gain-of-function mutations in both CTNNB1 and GNA11 by whole-exome sequencing of 3/41 APAs. Further sequencing of known CTNNB1-mutant APAs led to a total of 16 of 27 (59%) with a somatic p.Gln209His, p.Gln209Pro or p.Gln209Leu mutation of GNA11 or GNAQ. Solitary GNA11 mutations were found in hyperplastic zona glomerulosa adjacent to double-mutant APAs. Nine of ten patients in our UK/Irish cohort presented in puberty, pregnancy or menopause. Among multiple transcripts upregulated more than tenfold in double-mutant APAs was LHCGR, the receptor for luteinizing or pregnancy hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin). Transfections of adrenocortical cells demonstrated additive effects of GNA11 and CTNNB1 mutations on aldosterone secretion and expression of genes upregulated in double-mutant APAs. In adrenal cortex, GNA11/Q mutations appear clinically silent without a codriver mutation of CTNNB1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Adenoma Adrenocortical/genética , Aldosterona/biossíntese , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Masculino , Menopausa/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Puberdade/metabolismo
2.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 67(3): 83-94, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223822

RESUMO

Corticotrophinomas represent 10% of all surgically removed pituitary adenomas, however, current treatment options are often not effective, and there is a need for improved pharmacological treatments. Recently, JQ1+, a bromodomain inhibitor that promotes gene transcription by binding acetylated histone residues and recruiting transcriptional machinery, has been shown to reduce proliferation in a murine corticotroph cell line, AtT20. RNA-Seq analysis of AtT20 cells following treatment with JQ1+ identified the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene as significantly downregulated, which was subsequently confirmed using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. CaSR is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays a central role in calcium homeostasis but can elicit non-calcitropic effects in multiple tissues, including the anterior pituitary where it helps regulate hormone secretion. However, in AtT20 cells, CaSR activates a tumour-specific cAMP pathway that promotes ACTH and PTHrP hypersecretion. We hypothesised that the Casr promoter may harbour binding sites for BET proteins, and using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing demonstrated that the BET protein Brd3 binds to the promoter of the Casr gene. Assessment of CaSR signalling showed that JQ1+ significantly reduced Ca2+e-mediated increases in intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilisation and cAMP signalling. However, the CaSR-negative allosteric modulator, NPS-2143, was unable to reduce AtT20 cell proliferation, indicating that reducing CaSR expression rather than activity is likely required to reduce pituitary cell proliferation. Thus, these studies demonstrate that reducing CaSR expression may be a viable option in the treatment of pituitary tumours. Moreover, current strategies to reduce CaSR activity, rather than protein expression for cancer treatments, may be ineffective.

4.
Surgery ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who commenced tumor surveillance at ≤18 years of age. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (70%) developed an endocrine tumor by age ≤18 years (median age = 14 years, range = 6-18 years). Primary hyperparathyroidism occurred in >80% of patients, with >70% undergoing parathyroidectomy, in which less-than-subtotal (<3-gland) resection resulted in decreased disease-free outcomes versus subtotal (3-3.5-gland) or total (4-gland) parathyroidectomy (median 27 months versus not reached; P = .005). Pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors developed in ∼35% of patients, of whom >70% had nonfunctioning tumors, >35% had insulinomas, and <5% had gastrinomas, with ∼15% having metastases and >55% undergoing surgery. Pituitary tumors developed in >30% of patients, and ∼35% were macroprolactinomas. Tumor occurrence in male patients and female patients was not significantly different. Genetic analyses revealed 38 germline MEN1 mutations, of which 3 were novel. CONCLUSION: Seventy percent of children aged ≤18 years with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 develop endocrine tumors, which include parathyroid tumors for which less-than-subtotal parathyroidectomy should be avoided; pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors that may metastasize; and pituitary macroprolactinomas.

5.
Endocr Rev ; 42(2): 133-170, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249439

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a rare tumor syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, is continuing to raise great interest for endocrinology, gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, genetics, and molecular biology specialists. There have been 2 major clinical practice guidance papers published in the past 2 decades, with the most recent published 8 years ago. Since then, several new insights on the basic biology and clinical features of MEN1 have appeared in the literature, and those data are discussed in this review. The genetic and molecular interactions of the MEN1-encoded protein menin with transcription factors and chromatin-modifying proteins in cell signaling pathways mediated by transforming growth factor ß/bone morphogenetic protein, a few nuclear receptors, Wnt/ß-catenin, and Hedgehog, and preclinical studies in mouse models have facilitated the understanding of the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated tumors and potential pharmacological interventions. The advancements in genetic diagnosis have offered a chance to recognize MEN1-related conditions in germline MEN1 mutation-negative patients. There is rapidly accumulating knowledge about clinical presentation in children, adolescents, and pregnancy that is translatable into the management of these very fragile patients. The discoveries about the genetic and molecular signatures of sporadic neuroendocrine tumors support the development of clinical trials with novel targeted therapies, along with advancements in diagnostic tools and surgical approaches. Finally, quality of life studies in patients affected by MEN1 and related conditions represent an effort necessary to develop a pharmacoeconomic interpretation of the problem. Because advances are being made both broadly and in focused areas, this timely review presents and discusses those studies collectively.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(1): 100-109, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780883

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic and pituitary tumors, and is due to mutations in the coding region of the MEN1 gene, which encodes menin. We investigated a family with identical twins that had MEN1, with different MEN1 tumors. DNA sequence analysis of the MEN1 coding region had not identified any abnormalities and we hypothesized that deletions and mutations involving the untranslated regions may be involved. Informed consent and venous blood samples were obtained from five family members. Sanger DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed using leukocyte DNA. This revealed a heterozygous 596bp deletion (Δ596bp) between nucleotides -1087 and -492 upstream of the translation start site, located within the MEN1 5' untranslated region (UTR), and includes the core promoter and multiple cis-regulatory regions. To investigate the effects of this 5'UTR deletion on MEN1 promoter activity, we generated luciferase reporter constructs, containing either wild-type 842bp or mutant 246bp MEN1 promoter, and transfected them into human embryonic kidney HEK293 and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor BON-1 cells. This revealed the Δ596bp mutation to result in significant reductions by 37-fold (p < 0.0001) and 16-fold (p < 0.0001) in luciferase expression in HEK293 and BON-1 cells, respectively, compared to wild-type. The effects of this 5'UTR deletion on MEN1 transcription and translation were assessed using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively, of mRNA and protein lysates obtained from Epstein-Barr-virus transformed lymphoblastoid cells derived from affected and unaffected individuals. This demonstrated the Δ596bp mutation to result in significant reductions of 84% (p < 0.05) and 88% (p < 0.05) in MEN1 mRNA and menin protein, respectively, compared to unaffected individuals. Thus, our results report the first germline MEN1 5'UTR mutation and highlight the importance of investigating UTRs in MEN1 patients who do not have coding region mutations. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1 , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(11): bvaa142, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150274

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). MEN1 is caused by germline MEN1 mutations in > 75% of patients, and the remaining 25% of patients may have mutations in unidentified genes or represent phenocopies with mutations in genes such as cell cycle division 73 (CDC73), the calcium sensing receptor (CASR), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), which are associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1, and MEN4, respectively. Here, we report a heterozygous c.1138C>T (p.Leu380Phe) CDC73 germline variant in a clinically diagnosed MEN1 patient, based on combined occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, and a PNEN. Characterization of the PNEN confirmed it was a neuroendocrine neoplasm as it immuno-stained positively for chromogranin and glucagon. The rare variant p.Leu380Phe occurred in a highly conserved residue, and further analysis using RNA-Scope indicated that it was associated with a significant reduction in CDC73 expression in the PNEN. Previously, CDC73 mutations have been reported to be associated with tumors of the parathyroids, kidneys, uterus, and exocrine pancreas. Thus, our report of a patient with PNEN and somatotrophinoma who had a CDC73 variant, provides further evidence that CDC73 variants may result in a MEN1 phenocopy.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2521-2528, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776440

RESUMO

Hereditary hyperuricemia may occur as part of a syndromic disorder or as an isolated nonsyndromic disease, and over 20 causative genes have been identified. Here, we report the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to establish a diagnosis in a family in which individuals were affected with gout, hyperuricemia associated with reduced fractional excretion of uric acid, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and secondary hyperparathyroidism, that are consistent with familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN). However, single gene testing had not detected mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) or renin (REN) genes, which cause approximately 30-90% of FJHN. WGS was therefore undertaken, and this identified a heterozygous c.226G>C (p.Gly76Arg) missense variant in the paired box gene 2 (PAX2) gene, which co-segregated with renal tubulopathy in the family. PAX2 mutations are associated with renal coloboma syndrome (RCS), which is characterized by abnormalities in renal structure and function, and anomalies of the optic nerve. Ophthalmological examination in two adult brothers affected with hyperuricemia, gout, and CKD revealed the presence of optic disc pits, consistent with optic nerve coloboma, thereby revising the diagnosis from FJHN to RCS. Thus, our results demonstrate the utility of WGS analysis in establishing the correct diagnosis in disorders with multiple etiologies.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX2/genética , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Renina/genética , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Uromodulina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): R345-R355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590358

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) occur usually as sporadic tumours; however, rarely, they may arise in the context of a hereditary syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the combined development of pancreatic NENs (pNENs) together with parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumours. The therapeutic decision for sporadic pNENs patients is multi-disciplinary and complex: based on the grade and stage of the tumor, various options (and their combinations) are considered, such as surgical excision (either curative or for debulking aims), biological drugs (somatostatin analogues), targeted therapies (mTOR inhibitors or tyrosine kinases (TK)/receptors inhibitors), peptide receptor radioligand therapy (PRRT), chemotherapy, and liver-directed therapies. However, treatment of MEN1-related NENs' patients is even more challenging, as these tumours are usually multifocal with co-existing foci of heterogeneous biology and malignant potential, rendering them more resistant to the conventional therapies used in their sporadic counterparts, and therefore associated with a poorer prognosis. Moreover, clinical data using standard therapeutic options in MEN1-related NENs are scarce. Recent preclinical studies have identified potentially new targeted therapeutic options for treating MEN1-associated NENs, such as epigenetic modulators, Wnt pathway-targeting ß-catenin antagonists, Ras signalling modulators, Akt/mTOR signalling modulators, novel somatostatin receptors analogues, anti-angiogenic drugs, as well as MEN1 gene replacement therapy. The present review aims to summarize these novel therapeutic opportunities for NENs developing in the context of MEN1 syndrome, with an emphasis on pancreatic NENs, as they are the most frequent ones studied in MEN1-NENs models to date; moreover, due to the recent shifting nomenclature of 'pituitary adenomas' to 'pituitary neuroendocrine neoplasms', relevant data on MEN1-pituitary tumours, when appropriate, are briefly described.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311048

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Clinical multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is diagnosed by the presence of at least 2 MEN-1-associated tumors. Many patients with acromegaly and clinical MEN-1 yield negative testing for MEN1 mutations. While cases of acromegaly and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) with negative genetic testing have been reported, its prevalence among patients with acromegaly is undetermined, and the clinical presentation has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES: The main goals of this study are: (1) To determine the prevalence of clinical MEN-1 with PHP in patients with acromegaly and characterize their clinical features; and (2) to evaluate the genetic basis for the coexistence of acromegaly and PHP. DESIGN: Retrospective record review and genetic analysis. SETTING: Clinical Research Centers. PARTICIPANTS: 414 patients with acromegaly. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical evaluation and DNA sequencing for MEN1, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and AIP genes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Clinical and genetic analysis. RESULTS: Among patients with acromegaly, clinical MEN-1, as defined by the presence of at least one other MEN-1-associated tumor, was present in 6.6%. PHP occurred in 6.1%; more than half had parathyroid hyperplasia. DNA sequencing was unrevealing for genetic mutations, except for 1 case of a CDC73 mutation. Acromegaly was diagnosed at an older age with a higher prevalence of malignancies (specifically breast and thyroid) in patients with coexisting PHP than those with isolated acromegaly. CONCLUSIONS: A distinct phenotype is described in patients with clinical MEN-1 and negative genetic testing for mutations previously associated with this syndrome. Further studies are needed to identify other genes that may explain the association between PHP and acromegaly.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Biomarcadores/análise , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/etiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/patologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Endocr Connect ; 9(5): 426-437, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348957

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by MEN1 germline mutations, is characterised by parathyroid, pancreatic and pituitary tumours. MEN1 mutations also cause familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), a milder condition causing hyperparathyroidism only. Identical mutations can cause either MEN1 or FIHP in different families, thereby implicating a role for genetic modifiers in altering phenotypic expression of tumours. We therefore investigated the effects of genetic background and potential for genetic modifiers on tumour development in adult Men1+/- mice, which develop tumours of the parathyroids, pancreatic islets, anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex and gonads, that had been backcrossed to generate C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEv congenic strains. A total of 275 Men1+/- mice, aged 5-26 months were macroscopically studied, and this revealed that genetic background significantly influenced the development of pituitary, adrenal and ovarian tumours, which occurred in mice over 12 months of age and more frequently in C57BL/6 females, 129S6/SvEv males and 129S6/SvEv females, respectively. Moreover, pituitary and adrenal tumours developed earlier, in C57BL/6 males and 129S6/SvEv females, respectively, and pancreatic and testicular tumours developed earlier in 129S6/SvEv males. Furthermore, glucagon-positive staining pancreatic tumours occurred more frequently in 129S6/SvEv Men1+/- mice. Whole genome sequence analysis of 129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6 Men1+/- mice revealed >54,000 different variants in >300 genes. These included, Coq7, Dmpk, Ccne2, Kras, Wnt2b, Il3ra and Tnfrsf10a, and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Kras was significantly higher in pituitaries of male 129S6/SvEv mice. Thus, our results demonstrate that Kras and other genes could represent possible genetic modifiers of Men1.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820785

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia types 1 and 2 (ADH1 and ADH2) are caused by germline gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its signaling partner, the G-protein subunit α 11 (Gα 11), respectively. More than 70 different gain-of-function CaSR mutations, but only 6 different gain-of-function Gα 11 mutations are reported to date. METHODS: We ascertained 2 additional ADH families and investigated them for CaSR and Gα 11 mutations. The effects of identified variants on CaSR signaling were evaluated by transiently transfecting wild-type (WT) and variant expression constructs into HEK293 cells stably expressing CaSR (HEK-CaSR), and measuring intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) and MAPK responses following stimulation with extracellular calcium (Ca2+e). RESULTS: CaSR variants were not found, but 2 novel heterozygous germline Gα 11 variants, p.Gly66Ser and p.Arg149His, were identified. Homology modeling of these revealed that the Gly66 and Arg149 residues are located at the interface between the Gα 11 helical and GTPase domains, which is involved in guanine nucleotide binding, and this is the site of 3 other reported ADH2 mutations. The Ca2+i and MAPK responses of cells expressing the variant Ser66 or His149 Gα 11 proteins were similar to WT cells at low Ca2+e, but significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner following Ca2+e stimulation, thereby indicating that the p.Gly66Ser and p.Arg149His variants represent pathogenic gain-of-function Gα 11 mutations. Treatment of Ser66- and His149-Gα 11 expressing cells with the CaSR negative allosteric modulator NPS 2143 normalized Ca2+i and MAPK responses. CONCLUSION: Two novel ADH2-causing mutations that highlight the Gα 11 interdomain interface as a hotspot for gain-of-function Gα 11 mutations have been identified.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Hipercalciúria/genética , Hipocalcemia/genética , Hipoparatireoidismo/congênito , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Masculino , Linhagem
13.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 5(5): e276-e281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967052

RESUMO

Objective: To report the first case of 2 synchronous pituitary adenomas, 1 corticotroph and 1 somatotroph, with distinct molecular lineages confirmed by differential hormone and S-100 protein expression. Methods: A case report followed by a literature review are presented. Results: A 68-year-old woman presented for evaluation of resistant hypertension. Biochemical testing demonstrated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolemia and growth hormone (GH) excess. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 2 cm left sellar lesion consistent with a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient therefore underwent transsphenoidal surgery for a presumed cosecreting ACTH and GH macroadenoma. Tumor immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was positive for ACTH, but negative for GH. Postoperative biochemical testing confirmed remission from Cushing disease, but the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level remained elevated. Postoperative MRI demonstrated a small right sellar lesion that, in retrospect, had been present on the preoperative MRI. Resection of the right lesion confirmed a GH-secreting adenoma with negative ACTH staining. After the second surgery, the IGF-1 level normalized and blood pressure improved. Further pathologic examination of both surgical specimens demonstrated differential expression of S-100 protein, a folliculostellate cell marker. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of messenger ribonucleic acid from the left sellar lesion was positive for ACTH and negative for GH, confirming the IHC results. Germline mutations in genes known to be associated with pituitary adenoma syndromes (MEN1, CDC73, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and AIP) were not detected. Conclusion: Although the pathogenesis of synchronous pituitary adenomas has not been fully elucidated, this case report suggests that they can have distinct molecular lineages.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(6): 1023-1037, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445560

RESUMO

Prolactinomas are the most frequent type of pituitary tumors, which represent 10-20% of all intracranial neoplasms in humans. Prolactinomas develop in mice lacking the prolactin receptor (PRLR), which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily that signals via Janus kinase-2-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (JAK2-STAT5) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathways to mediate changes in transcription, differentiation and proliferation. To elucidate the role of the PRLR gene in human prolactinomas, we determined the PRLR sequence in 50 DNA samples (35 leucocytes, 15 tumors) from 46 prolactinoma patients (59% males, 41% females). This identified six germline PRLR variants, which comprised four rare variants (Gly57Ser, Glu376Gln, Arg453Trp and Asn492Ile) and two low-frequency variants (Ile76Val, Ile146Leu), but no somatic variants. The rare variants, Glu376Gln and Asn492Ile, which were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and are located in the PRLR intracellular domain, occurred with significantly higher frequencies (P < 0.0001) in prolactinoma patients than in 60 706 individuals of the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort and 7045 individuals of the Oxford Biobank. In vitro analysis of the PRLR variants demonstrated that the Asn492Ile variant, but not Glu376Gln, when compared to wild-type (WT) PRLR, increased prolactin-induced pAkt signaling (>1.3-fold, P < 0.02) and proliferation (1.4-fold, P < 0.02), but did not affect pSTAT5 signaling. Treatment of cells with an Akt1/2 inhibitor or everolimus, which acts on the Akt pathway, reduced Asn492Ile signaling and proliferation to WT levels. Thus, our results identify an association between a gain-of-function PRLR variant and prolactinomas and reveal a new etiology and potential therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Prolactinoma/etiologia , Prolactinoma/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Prolactinoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/química , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
J Endocrinol ; 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389902

RESUMO

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the combined occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary and pancreatic islet tumours, and is due to mutations of the MEN1 gene, which encodes the tumour suppressor protein menin. Menin has multiple roles in genome stability, transcription, cell division and proliferation, but its mechanistic roles in tumourigenesis remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are non-coding single stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and have been associated with tumour development, although the contribution of miRNAs to MEN1-associated tumourigenesis and their relationship with menin expression are not fully understood. Alterations in miRNA expression, including downregulation of three putative 'tumour suppressor' miRNAs, miR-15a, miR-16-1 and let-7a, have been reported in several tumour types including non-MEN1 pituitary adenomas. We have therefore investigated the expression of miR-15a, miR-16-1 and let-7a in pituitary tumours that developed after 12 months of age in female mice with heterozygous knock out of the Men1 gene (Men1+/- mice). The miRNAs miR-15a, miR-16-1 and let-7a were significantly downregulated in pituitary tumours (by 2.3-fold, p<0.05; 2.1-fold p<0.01 and 1.6-fold p<0.05, respectively) of Men1+/- mice, compared to normal wild type pituitaries. MiR-15a and miR-16-1 expression inversely correlated with expression of cyclin D1, a known pro-tumourigenic target of these miRNAs, and knock down of menin in a human cancer cell line (HeLa), and AtT20 mouse pituitary cell line resulted in significantly decreased expression of miR-15a (p<0.05), indicating that the decrease in miR-15a may be a direct result of lost menin expression.

16.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 47(3): 525-548, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098714

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise sporadically or as part of familial syndromes. Genetic studies of hereditary syndromes and whole exome sequencing analysis of sporadic NETs have revealed the roles of some genes involved in PNET tumorigenesis. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene is most commonly mutated. Its encoded protein, menin, has roles in transcriptional regulation, genome stability, DNA repair, protein degradation, cell motility and adhesion, microRNA biogenesis, cell division, cell cycle control, and epigenetic regulation. Therapies targeting epigenetic regulation and MEN1 gene replacement have been reported to be effective in preclinical models.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
17.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 14(4): 216-227, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449689

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) might occur as a non-familial isolated endocrinopathy or as part of a complex hereditary syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of PNETs with tumours of the parathyroids and anterior pituitary. Treatments for primary PNETs include surgery. Treatments for non-resectable PNETs and metastases include biotherapy (for example, somatostatin analogues, inhibitors of receptors and monoclonal antibodies), chemotherapy and radiological therapy. All these treatments are effective for PNETs in patients without MEN1; however, there is a scarcity of clinical trials reporting the efficacy of the same treatments of PNETs in patients with MEN1. Treatment of PNETs in patients with MEN1 is challenging owing to the concomitant development of other tumours, which might have metastasized. In recent years, preclinical studies have identified potential new therapeutic targets for treating MEN1-associated neuroendocrine tumours (including PNETs), and these include epigenetic modification, the ß-catenin-wingless (WNT) pathway, Hedgehog signalling, somatostatin receptors and MEN1 gene replacement therapy. This Review discusses these advances.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/terapia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Terapia Biológica , Quimioprevenção , Terapia Combinada , Epigênese Genética , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética
18.
Endocrinology ; 157(5): 1789-98, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26990064

RESUMO

Pasireotide, a somatostatin analog, is reported to have anti-proliferative effects in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We therefore assessed the efficacy of pasireotide for treating pancreatic and pituitary NETs that develop in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Men1(+/-) mice were treated from age 12 mo with 40 mg/kg pasireotide long-acting release formulation, or PBS, intramuscularly monthly for 9 mo. The Men1(+/-) mice had magnetic resonance imaging at 12 and 21 mo, and from 20 mo oral 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine for 1 mo, to assess tumor development and proliferation, respectively. NETs were collected at age 21 mo, and proliferation and apoptosis assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays, respectively. Pasireotide-treated Men1(+/-) mice had increased survival (pasireotide, 80.9% vs PBS, 65.2%; P < .05), with fewer mice developing pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 86.9% vs PBS, 96.9%; P < .05) and smaller increases in pituitary NET volumes (pre-treated vs post-treated, 0.803 ± 0.058 mm(3) vs 2.872 ± 0.728 mm(3) [pasireotide] compared with 0.844 ± 0.066 mm(3) vs 8.847 ±1.948 mm(3) [PBS]; P < .01). In addition, pasireotide-treated mice had fewer pancreatic NETs compared with PBS-treated mice (2.36 ± 0.25 vs 3.72 ± 0.32, respectively; P < .001), with decreased proliferation in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.35 ± 0.03% vs PBS, 0.78 ± 0.08%; P < .0001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 0.73 ±0.07% vs PBS, 1.81 ± 0.15%; P < .0001), but increased apoptosis in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.42 ± 0.05% vs PBS, 0.19 ± 0.03%; P < .001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 14.75 ± 1.58% vs PBS, 2.35 ± 0.44%; P < .001). Thus, pasireotide increased survival and inhibited pancreatic and pituitary NET growth, thereby indicating its potential as an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Alelos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Camundongos , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla/genética , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Somatostatina/farmacologia , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico
19.
Int J Cancer ; 138(1): 137-45, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26178670

RESUMO

Studies have shown that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mediates the antitumorigenic effects of calcium against colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression of the CaSR in colorectal tumors is often reduced. We have reported previously that silencing of CaSR in CRC is caused in part by methylation of CaSR promoter 2 and loss of histone acetylation. We investigated the impact of aberrant microRNA expression on loss of CaSR expression. A microarray study in two Caco-2 subclones (Caco2/AQ and Caco2/15) that have similar genetic background, but different CaSR expression levels (Caco2/AQ expressing more CaSR than Caco2/15), identified 22 differentially expressed microRNAs that potentially target the CaSR. We validated these results by performing gain- and loss-of-function studies with the top candidates: miR-9, miR-27a, miR-135b, and miR-146b. Modulation of miR-135b or miR-146b expression by mimicking or inhibiting their expression regulated CaSR protein levels in two different colon cancer cell lines: Caco2/AQ (moderate endogenous CaSR expression) and HT29 (low endogenous CaSR levels). Inhibition of miR-135b and miR-146b expression led to high CaSR levels and significantly reduced proliferation. In samples of colorectal tumors we observed overexpression of miR-135b and miR-146b, and this correlated inversely with CaSR expression (miR-135b: r = -0.684, p < 0.001 and miR-146b: r = -0.448, p < 0.001), supporting our in vitro findings. We demonstrate that miR-135b and miR-146b target the CaSR and reduce its expression in colorectal tumors, reducing the antiproliferative and prodifferentiating actions of calcium. This provides a new approach for finding means to prevent CaSR loss, developing better treatment strategies for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Inativação Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo
20.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 10(1): 35-53, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289047

RESUMO

Pituitary adenomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that may occur as part of a complex syndrome or as an isolated endocrinopathy and both forms can be familial or non-familial. Studies of syndromic and non-syndromic pituitary adenomas have yielded important insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Thus, syndromic forms, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), MEN4, Carney Complex and McCune Albright syndrome, have been shown to be due to mutations of the tumor-suppressor protein menin, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (p27Kip1), the protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1-α, and the G-protein α-stimulatory subunit (Gsα), respectively. Non-syndromic forms, which include familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and sporadic tumors, have been shown to be due to abnormalities of: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; Gsα; signal transducers; cell cycle regulators; transcriptional modulators and miRNAs. The roles of these molecular abnormalities and epigenetic mechanisms in pituitary tumorigenesis, and their therapeutic implications are reviewed.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...