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2.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.

4.
Cancer ; 125(14): 2497-2505, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) rates have increased over time in the United States and worldwide. Improvements in imaging for the diagnosis of DTC have been hypothesized as a potential driver of these increases. This study stratifies temporal trends in pediatric DTC by stage and tumor size to assess whether rates of large, late-stage cancers, which are likely to be clinically meaningful, are increasing over time. METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of DTC and annual percent changes (APCs) in primary DTC rates were estimated for 0- to 19-year-olds with data from 39 US cancer registries during 1998-2013. RESULTS: During 1998-2013, 7296 cases of DTC were diagnosed (6652 papillary cases and 644 follicular cases). APCs of pediatric DTCs significantly increased by 4.43%/y [95% CI, 3.74%/y-5.13%/y], primarily because of increases in papillary histologies. Increasing trends were observed for children aged 10 to 19 years for both sexes and for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Rates increased significantly over the time period for all tumor stages (APClocalized , +4.06%/y [95% CI, 2.84%/y-5.29%/y]; APCregional , +5.68%/y [95% CI, 4.64%/y-6.73%/y]; APCdistant , +8.55%/y [95% CI, 5.03%/y-12.19%/y]) and across tumor sizes (APC<1 cm , +9.46%/y [95% CI, 6.13%/y-12.90%/y]; APC1-2 cm , +6.92%/y [95% CI, 4.31%/y-9.60%/y]; APC>2 cm , +4.69%/y [95% CI, 2.75%/y-6.67%/y]). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly increasing rates of DTC over time among 10- to 19-year-olds in the United States are unlikely to be entirely explained by increases in medical surveillance during childhood because rates of large and late-stage DTC are increasing over time. Future studies should examine environmental and other factors that may be contributing to rising DTC rates.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(5): 317-325, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess radiation exposure-related work history and risk of cataract and cataract surgery among radiologic technologists assisting with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIP). METHODS: This retrospective study included 35 751 radiologic technologists who reported being cataract-free at baseline (1994-1998) and completed a follow-up questionnaire (2013-2014). Frequencies of assisting with 21 types of FGIP and use of radiation protection equipment during five time periods (before 1970, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009) were derived from an additional self-administered questionnaire in 2013-2014. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for self-reported cataract diagnosis and cataract surgery were estimated according to FGIP work history. RESULTS: During follow-up, 9372 technologists reported incident physician-diagnosed cataract; 4278 of incident cases reported undergoing cataract surgery. Technologists who ever assisted with FGIP had increased risk for cataract compared with those who never assisted with FGIP (RR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25). Risk increased with increasing cumulative number of FGIP; the RR for technologists who assisted with >5000 FGIP compared with those who never assisted was 1.38 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.53; p trend <0.001). These associations were more pronounced for FGIP when technologists were located ≤3 feet (≤0.9 m) from the patient compared with >3 feet (>0.9 m) (RRs for >5000 at ≤3 feet vs never FGIP were 1.48, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.74 and 1.15, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.35, respectively; pdifference=0.04). Similar risks, although not statistically significant, were observed for cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Technologists who reported assisting with FGIP, particularly high-volume FGIP within 3 feet of the patient, had increased risk of incident cataract. Additional investigation should evaluate estimated dose response and medically validated cataract type.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4891, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894578

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation underlies many autoimmune diseases, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and rheumatoid arthritis, also type-2 diabetes and osteoarthritis. Associations have been suggested of high-dose ionising radiation exposure with type-2 diabetes and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation. In this analysis we used a proportional hazards model to assess effects of radiotherapy on risks of subsequent inflammatory disease morbidity in 110,368 US radiologic technologists followed from a baseline survey (1983-1989/1994-1998) through 2008. We used a linear model to assess log-transformed C-reactive protein concentration following radiotherapy in 1326 technologists. Relative risk of diabetes increased following radiotherapy (p < 0.001), and there was a borderline significant increasing trend per treatment (p = 0.092). For osteoarthritis there was increased relative risk associated with prior radiotherapy on all questionnaires (p = 0.005), and a significant increasing trend per previous treatment (p = 0.024). No consistent increases were observed for other types of inflammatory disease (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis) associated with radiotherapy. There was a borderline significant (p = 0.059) increasing trend with dose for C-reactive protein with numbers of prior radiotherapy treatments. Our results suggest that radiotherapy is associated with subsequent increased risk of certain inflammatory conditions, which is reinforced by our finding of elevated levels of C-reactive protein.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(3): 318-325, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570657

RESUMO

Importance: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (tMDS/AML) is a rare, usually fatal complication of chemotherapy, including certain alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors, and platinum compounds. With the introduction of new chemotherapeutic agents, expanded indications for established agents, and increased neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, tMDS/AML risks in the modern age are poorly understood. Objectives: To quantify tMDS/AML risk after chemotherapy for solid cancer among United States adults since 2000 and correlate tMDS/AML risk patterns with chemotherapy treatment practices. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using cancer registries from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and Medicare claims. Risk analyses included 1619 tMDS/AML cases among 700 612 adults (age, 20-84 years) who were diagnosed with first primary solid cancer during 2000 to 2013 (followed up through 2014), received initial chemotherapy, and survived 1 year or longer, as reported to SEER. Descriptive analyses were conducted of SEER records linked with Medicare claims for chemotherapy in 165 820 older adults (age, 66-84 years) receiving initial chemotherapy for a first primary solid cancer in 2000-2013. Data analysis was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018. Exposures: Receipt of initial chemotherapy for solid cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures: Second primary tMDS/AML. Results: Based on 1619 tMDS/AML cases in the SEER database (mean [SD] age, 64.3 [12.2] years; 1148 [70.9%] female), tMDS/AML risks were statistically significantly elevated after chemotherapy for 22 of 23 solid cancers (all except colon). Relative risks ranged from 1.5 to greater than 10 and excess absolute risks from 1.4 to greater than 15 cases per 10 000 person-years compared with the general population. Overall survival following tMDS/AML diagnosis was poor (1270 of 1619 patients [78.4%] died; median overall survival, 7 months). For patients treated with chemotherapy at the present time, approximately three-quarters of tMDS/AML cases expected to occur within the next 5 years will be attributable to chemotherapy. In the SEER-Medicare database, use of known leukemogenic agents, particularly platinum compounds, in initial chemotherapy increased substantially since 2000, most notably for gastrointestinal tract cancers (esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum; 10% in 2000-2001 to 81% during 2012-2013). Conclusions and Relevance: Large-scale, United States population-based data demonstrate excess tMDS/AML risks following chemotherapy for nearly all solid tumor types, consistent with expanded use of known leukemogenic agents in the 21st century. Continued efforts to reduce treatment-related adverse events, particularly for solid cancer patients with favorable prognosis, are needed.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520970

RESUMO

Background: There is international consensus that benzene exposure is causally related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and more recent evidence of association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, there are uncertainties about the exposure response, particularly risks by time since exposure and age at exposure. Methods: In a case-cohort study in 110 631 Chinese workers followed up during 1972-1999 we evaluated combined MDS/AML (n = 44) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 18). We estimated benzene exposures using hierarchical modeling of occupational factors calibrated with historical routine measurements, and evaluated exposure response for cumulative exposure and average intensity using Cox regression; P values were two-sided. Results: Increased MDS/AML risk with increasing cumulative exposure in our a priori defined time window (2 to <10 years) before the time at risk was suggested (Ptrend = 08). For first exposure (within the 2 to <10-year window) before age 30 years, the exposure response was stronger (P = .004) with rate ratios of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27 to 4.29), 5.58 (95% CI = 1.65 to 19.68), and 4.50 (95% CI = 1.22 to 16.68) for cumulative exposures of more than 0 to less than 40, 40 to less than 100, and at least 100 ppm-years, respectively, compared with no exposure. There was little evidence of exposure response after at least 10 years (Ptrend = .94), regardless of age at first exposure. Average intensity results were generally similar. The risk for chronic myeloid leukemia was increased in exposed vs unexposed workers, but appeared to increase and then decrease with increasing exposure. Conclusion: For myeloid neoplasms, the strongest effects were apparent for MDS/AML arising within 10 years of benzene exposure and for first exposure in the 2 to less than 10-year window before age 30 years.

10.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

11.
Pediatrics ; 142(6)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478243

RESUMO

Infants, children, and adolescents can be exposed unexpectedly to ionizing radiation from nuclear power plant events, improvised nuclear or radiologic dispersal device explosions, or inappropriate disposal of radiotherapy equipment. Children are likely to experience higher external and internal radiation exposure levels than adults because of their smaller body and organ size and other physiologic characteristics as well as their tendency to pick up contaminated items and consume contaminated milk or foodstuffs. This technical report accompanies the revision of the 2003 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on pediatric radiation emergencies by summarizing newer scientific data from studies of the Chernobyl and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant events, use of improvised radiologic dispersal devices, exposures from inappropriate disposal of radiotherapy equipment, and potential health effects from residential proximity to nuclear plants. Also included are recommendations from epidemiological studies and biokinetic models to address mitigation efforts. The report includes major emphases on acute radiation syndrome, acute and long-term psychological effects, cancer risks, and other late tissue reactions after low-to-high levels of radiation exposure. Results, along with public health and clinical implications, are described from studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, nuclear plant accidents (eg, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima), improper disposal of radiotherapy equipment in Goiania, Brazil, and residence in proximity to nuclear plants. Measures to reduce radiation exposure in the immediate aftermath of a radiologic or nuclear disaster are described, including the diagnosis and management of external and internal contamination, use of potassium iodide, and actions in relation to breastfeeding.

12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1494-1505, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased liver cancer risk. However, most studies have examined all primary liver cancers or hepatocellular carcinoma, with few studies evaluating intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Thus, we examined the association between obesity and diabetes and ICC risk in a pooled analysis and conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of the literature. DESIGN: For the pooled analysis, we utilized the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 13 US-based, prospective cohort studies with data from 1,541,143 individuals (ICC cases n = 414). In our systematic review, we identified 14 additional studies. We then conducted a meta-analysis, combining the results from LCPP with results from the 5 prospective studies identified through September 2017. RESULTS: In the LCPP, obesity and diabetes were associated with a 62% [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24-2.12] and an 81% (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) increased ICC risk, respectively. In the meta-analysis of prospectively ascertained cohorts and nested case-control studies, obesity was associated with a 49% increased ICC risk [Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.32-1.70; n = 4 studies; I2 = 0%]. Diabetes was associated with a 53% increased ICC risk (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.78; n = 6 studies). While we noted heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 67%) for diabetes, results were consistent in subgroup analyses. Results from hospital-based case-control studies (n = 9) were mostly consistent, but these studies are potentially subject to reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with increased ICC risk, highlighting similar etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, additional prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.

13.
Neuro Oncol ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124908

RESUMO

Background: To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 25 risk variants for glioma, explaining 30% of heritable risk. Most histologies occur with significantly higher incidence in males, and this difference is not explained by currently-known risk factors. A previous GWAS identified sex-specific glioma risk variants, and this analysis aims to further elucidate risk variation by sex using gene- and pathway-based approaches. Methods: Results from the Glioma International Case-Control Study were used as a testing set, and results from three GWAS were combined via meta-analysis and used as a validation set. Using summary statistics for nominally significant autosomal SNPs (p<0.01 in a previous meta-analysis) and nominally significant X-chromosome SNPs (p<0.01), three algorithms (Pascal, BimBam, and GATES) were used to generate gene-scores, and Pascal was used to generate pathway-scores. Results were considered statistically significant in the discovery set when p<3.3x10-6 and in the validation set when p<0.001 in 2/3 algorithms. Results: 25 genes within 5 regions and 19 genes within 6 regions reached statistical significance in at least 2/3 algorithms in males and females, respectively. EGFR was significantly associated with all glioma and glioblastoma in males only, and a female-specific association in TERT, all of which remained nominally significant after conditioning on known risk loci. There were nominal associations with the Biocarta telomeres pathway in both males and females. Conclusions: These results provide additional evidence that there may be differences by sex in genetic risk for glioma. Additional analyses may further elucidate the biological processes through which this risk is conferred.

14.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 25(5-6): 403-411, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examine the risk of cataract and cataract surgery with measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and UVR sensitivity in a large, nationwide population of indoor workers. METHODS: Participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study were followed from age at baseline survey (2003-2005) to age at earliest of cataract diagnosis, cataract surgery, or completion of last survey (2012-2013). UVR-related factors included satellite-based ambient UVR linked to lifetime residences, time spent outdoors across various age periods, history of blistering sunburns, prior diagnosis of keratinocyte carcinoma, and iris color. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as timescale to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cataract and cataract surgery. RESULTS: Participants had a median age of entry of 54.0 years, were 80.0% female, and 95.7% white. Of the 44, 891 eligible participants, 9399 cases of cataract and 3826 cases of cataract surgery were reported. Ambient UVR (quintile 5 vs. 1) was associated with an increased risk of cataract (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.16) and cataract surgery (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.05-1.29). Lifetime average time spent outdoors was not associated with cataract risk. History of blistering sunburns before and after age 15, but not previous keratinocyte carcinoma diagnosis was associated with both cataract and cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a modest role for residence-based ambient UVR and cataract risk among indoor workers in the United States.

15.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e022394, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of long-term prospective follow-up and ascertainment of cancer in offspring and mothers from the 1993-1995 Chinese Community Intervention Program that provided folic acid supplements before and during early pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects. DESIGN: Feasibility pilot study for a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Families residing during 2012-2013 in one rural and one urban county from 21 counties in 3 provinces in China included in the Community Intervention Program campaign. PARTICIPANTS: The feasibility study targeted 560 families, including 280 from the rural and 280 from the urban county included in the large original study; about half of mothers in each group had taken and half had not taken folic acid supplements. INTERVENTION: The planned new study is observational. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: incidence of paediatric cancers in offspring; secondary: other chronic diseases in offspring and chronic diseases in mothers RESULTS: Only 3.4% of pilot study families could not be found, 3.9% had moved out of the study area and 8.8% refused to participate. Interviews were completed by 82% of mothers, 79% of fathers and 83% of offspring in the 560 families. Almost all mothers and offspring who were interviewed also participated in anthropometric measurements. We found notable urban-rural differences in sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the parents, but fewer differences among the offspring. In eight catchment area hospitals, we identified a broad range of paediatric cancers diagnosed during 1994-2013, although paediatric brain tumours, lymphomas and rarer cancers were likely under-represented. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 20 years after the original Community Intervention Program, the pilot study achieved high levels of follow-up and family member interview participation, and identified substantial numbers of paediatric malignancies during 1994-2013 in catchment area hospitals. Next steps and strategies for overcoming limitations are described.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151727

RESUMO

It has long been known that relatively high-dose ionising radiation exposure (> 1 Gy) can induce cataract, but there has been no evidence that this occurs at low doses (< 100 mGy). To assess low-dose risk, participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, a large, prospective cohort, were followed from date of mailed questionnaire survey completed during 1994-1998 to the earliest of self-reported diagnosis of cataract/cataract surgery, cancer other than non-melanoma skin, or date of last survey (up to end 2014). Cox proportional hazards models with age as timescale were used, adjusted for a priori selected cataract risk factors (diabetes, body mass index, smoking history, race, sex, birth year, cumulative UVB radiant exposure). 12,336 out of 67,246 eligible technologists reported a history of diagnosis of cataract during 832,479 person years of follow-up, and 5509 from 67,709 eligible technologists reported undergoing cataract surgery with 888,420 person years of follow-up. The mean cumulative estimated 5-year lagged eye-lens absorbed dose from occupational radiation exposures was 55.7 mGy (interquartile range 23.6-69.0 mGy). Five-year lagged occupational radiation exposure was strongly associated with self-reported cataract, with an excess hazard ratio/mGy of 0.69 × 10-3 (95% CI 0.27 × 10-3 to 1.16 × 10-3, p < 0.001). Cataract risk remained statistically significant (p = 0.030) when analysis was restricted to < 100 mGy cumulative occupational radiation exposure to the eye lens. A non-significantly increased excess hazard ratio/mGy of 0.34 × 10-3 (95% CI - 0.19 × 10-3 to 0.97 × 10-3, p = 0.221) was observed for cataract surgery. Our results suggest that there is excess risk for cataract associated with radiation exposure from low-dose and low dose-rate occupational exposures.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 143(10): 2359-2366, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152087

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in the United States. Incidence of GBM increases with age, and younger age-at-diagnosis is significantly associated with improved prognosis. While the relationship between candidate GBM risk SNPs and age-at-diagnosis has been explored, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not previously been stratified by age. Potential age-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs for GBM patients using data from four previous GWAS. Using age distribution tertiles (18-53, 54-64, 65+) datasets were analyzed using age-stratified logistic regression to generate p values, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and then combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,512 total GBM cases, and 10,582 controls used for analysis. Significant associations were detected at two previously identified SNPs in 7p11.2 (rs723527 [p54-63 = 1.50x10-9 , OR54-63 = 1.28, 95%CI54-63 = 1.18-1.39; p64+ = 2.14x10-11 , OR64+ = 1.32, 95%CI64+ = 1.21-1.43] and rs11979158 [p54-63 = 6.13x10-8 , OR54-63 = 1.35, 95%CI54-63 = 1.21-1.50; p64+ = 2.18x10-10 , OR64+ = 1.42, 95%CI64+ = 1.27-1.58]) but only in persons >54. There was also a significant association at the previously identified lower grade glioma (LGG) risk locus at 8q24.21 (rs55705857) in persons ages 18-53 (p18-53 = 9.30 × 10-11 , OR18-53 = 1.76, 95%CI18-53 = 1.49-2.10). Within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) there was higher prevalence of 'LGG'-like tumor characteristics in GBM samples in those 18-53, with IDH1/2 mutation frequency of 15%, as compared to 2.1% [54-63] and 0.8% [64+] (p = 0.0005). Age-specific differences in cancer susceptibility can provide important clues to etiology. The association of a SNP known to confer risk for IDH1/2 mutant glioma and higher prevalence of IDH1/2 mutation within younger individuals 18-53 suggests that more younger individuals may present initially with 'secondary glioblastoma.'

18.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(8): e346-e358, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence links exposure to moderate or high doses of ionising radiation, particularly in childhood, with increased risk of leukaemia. The association of leukaemia with exposure to low-dose (<100 mSv) radiation is less certain, although this is the dose range most relevant to the general population. We aimed to estimate the risk of leukaemia associated with low-dose radiation exposure in childhood (age <21 years). METHODS: In this analysis of historical cohort studies, we pooled eligible cohorts reported up to June 30, 2014. We evaluated leukaemia and myeloid malignancy outcomes in these cohorts with the relevant International Classification of Diseases and International Classification of Diseases for Oncology definitions. The cohorts included had not been treated for malignant disease, had reported at least five cases of the relevant haematopoietic neoplasms, and estimated individual active bone marrow (ABM) doses. We restricted analysis to individuals who were younger than 21 years at first irradiation who had mean cumulative ABM doses of less than 100 mSv. Dose-response models were fitted by use of Poisson regression. The data were received in fully anonymised form by the statistical analyst. FINDINGS: We identified nine eligible cohorts from Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, the UK, and the USA, including 262 573 people who had been exposed to less than 100 mSv enrolled between June 4, 1915, and Dec 31, 2004. Mean follow-up was 19·63 years (SD 17·75) and mean cumulative ABM dose was 19·6 mSv (SD 22·7). 154 myeloid malignancies were identified (which included 79 acute myeloid leukaemias, eight myelodysplastic syndromes, and 36 chronic myeloid leukaemias, in addition to other unspecified myeloid malignancies) and 40 acute lymphoblastic leukaemias, with 221 leukaemias (including otherwise unclassified leukaemias but excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) identified overall. The fitted relative risks at 100 mSv were 3·09 (95% CI 1·41-5·92; ptrend=0·008) for acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes combined, 2·56 (1·09-5·06; ptrend=0·033) for acute myeloid leukaemia, and 5·66 (1·35-19·71; ptrend=0·023) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. There was no clear dose-response for chronic myeloid leukaemia, which had a relative risk at 100 mSv of 0·36 (0·00-2·36; ptrend=0·394). There were few indications of between-cohort heterogeneity or departure from linearity. For acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes combined and for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the dose-responses remained significant for doses of less than 50 mSv. Excess absolute risks at 100 mSv were in the range of 0·1-0·4 cases or deaths per 10 000 person-years. INTERPRETATION: The risks of acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were significantly increased after cumulative doses of ionising radiation of less than 100 mSv in childhood or adolescence, with an excess risk also apparent for cumulative radiation doses of less than 50 mSv for some endpoints. These findings support an increased risk of leukaemia associated with low-dose exposure to radiation and imply that the current system of radiological protection is prudent and not overly protective. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program, National Cancer Institute, and US National Institutes for Health.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/etiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Doses de Radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10481, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992993

RESUMO

There are well-documented associations of glaucoma with high-dose radiation exposure, but only a single study suggesting risk of glaucoma, and less conclusively macular degeneration, associated with moderate-dose exposure. We assessed risk of glaucoma and macular degeneration associated with occupational eye-lens radiation dose, using participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, followed from the date of surveys in 1994-1998, 2003-2005 to the earliest of diagnosis of glaucoma or macular degeneration, cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer, or date of last survey (2012-2014). We excluded those with baseline disease or previous radiotherapy history. Cox proportional hazards models with age as timescale were used. There were 1631 cases of newly self-reported doctor-diagnosed cases of glaucoma and 1331 of macular degeneration among 69,568 and 69,969 eligible subjects, respectively. Estimated mean cumulative eye-lens absorbed dose from occupational radiation exposures was 0.058 Gy. The excess relative risk/Gy for glaucoma was -0.57 (95% CI -1.46, 0.60, p = 0.304) and for macular degeneration was 0.32 (95% CI -0.32, 1.27, p = 0.381), suggesting that there is no appreciable risk for either endpoint associated with low-dose and low dose-rate radiation exposure. Since this is the first examination of glaucoma and macular degeneration associated with low-dose radiation exposure, this result needs to be replicated in other low-dose studies.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2741-2748, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987894

RESUMO

Due to treatment with immunosuppressive medications, solid organ transplant recipients have elevated risk for Kaposi sarcoma (KS), which is caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). Other risk factors for KS are poorly understood. We linked the United States solid organ transplant registry with 17 population-based cancer registries to ascertain KS incidence among 244,964 transplant recipients from 1987-2014. To compare incidence rates of KS according to patient and transplant characteristics, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using Poisson regression. To compare associations of KS with other skin cancers occurring before or within 12 months of KS diagnosis, we computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 163 KS cases during follow-up. Among transplant recipients, we found significantly increased risk of KS associated with male sex (IRR = 1.87; 95%CI:1.32,2.71), nonwhite race (IRR = 2.67; 95%CI:1.92,3.72), non-US citizenship (IRR = 2.10; 95%CI:1.19,3.47), lung transplant (IRR = 2.22; 95%CI:1.03,4.24, vs. kidney), and older age at transplant. KS risk decreased significantly with time since transplant and recent calendar year, however, no specific induction or maintenance medication was associated with KS. KS incidence was not significantly associated with ambient ultraviolet radiation (IRR = 1.32 95%CI:0.87,2.02, tertile 3 vs. 1). KS incidence has decreased in recent calendar years. In a cross-sectional sample, we found cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was associated with KS (OR = 4.83; 95%CI:1.30,14.69). KS risk factors included those potentially associated with HHV8 infection and increased immunosuppression. Our findings suggest that transplant recipients with a non-KS skin cancer may also be at high KS risk.

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