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1.
ACS Nano ; 14(2): 2542-2552, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049493

RESUMO

Successful translation of laboratory-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms to clinical applications requires multiplex and ultratrace detection of small biomarker molecules from a complex biofluid. However, these biomarker molecules generally exhibit low Raman scattering cross sections and do not possess specific affinity to plasmonic nanoparticle surfaces, significantly increasing the challenge of detecting them at low concentrations. Herein, we demonstrate a "confine-and-capture" approach for multiplex detection of two families of urine metabolites correlated with miscarriage risks, 5ß-pregnane-3α,20α-diol-3α-glucuronide and tetrahydrocortisone. To enhance SERS signals by 1012-fold, we use specific nanoscale surface chemistry for targeted metabolite capture from a complex urine matrix prior to confining them on a superhydrophobic SERS platform. We then apply chemometrics, including principal component analysis and partial least-squares regression, to convert molecular fingerprint information into quantifiable readouts. The whole screening procedure requires only 30 min, including urine pretreatment, sample drying on the SERS platform, SERS measurements, and chemometric analyses. These readouts correlate well with the pregnancy outcomes in a case-control study of 40 patients presenting threatened miscarriage symptoms.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040295

RESUMO

Two-photon lithography (TPL) is an emerging approach to fabricate complex multifunctional micro/nanostructures. This is because TPL can easily develop various 2D and 3D structures on a variety of surfaces, and there has been a rapidly expanding pool of processable photoresists to create different materials. However, challenges in developing two-photon processable photoresists currently impede progress in TPL. In this review, we critically discuss the importance of photoresist formulation in TPL. We begin by evaluating the commercial photoresists to design micro/nanostructures for promising applications in anti-counterfeiting, superomniphobicity, and micromachines with movable parts. Next, we discuss emerging hydrogel/organogel photoresists, focusing on customizing photoresist formulations to fabricate reconfigurable structures that can respond to changes in local pH, solvent, and temperature. We also review the development of metal salt-based photoresists for direct metal writing, whereby various formulations have been developed to enable applications in online sensing, catalysis, and electronics. Finally, we provide a critical outlook and highlight various outstanding challenges in formulating processable photoresists for TPL.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 28-117, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478375

RESUMO

The discovery of the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on nanostructured metal surfaces is a landmark in the history of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Significant experimental and theoretical effort has been directed toward understanding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and demonstrating its potential in various types of ultrasensitive sensing applications in a wide variety of fields. In the 45 years since its discovery, SERS has blossomed into a rich area of research and technology, but additional efforts are still needed before it can be routinely used analytically and in commercial products. In this Review, prominent authors from around the world joined together to summarize the state of the art in understanding and using SERS and to predict what can be expected in the near future in terms of research, applications, and technological development. This Review is dedicated to SERS pioneer and our coauthor, the late Prof. Richard Van Duyne, whom we lost during the preparation of this article.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(50): 25008-25012, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772014

RESUMO

There is a huge interest in developing superrepellent surfaces for antifouling and heat-transfer applications. To characterize the wetting properties of such surfaces, the most common approach is to place a millimetric-sized droplet and measure its contact angles. The adhesion and friction forces can then be inferred indirectly using Furmidge's relation. While easy to implement, contact angle measurements are semiquantitative and cannot resolve wetting variations on a surface. Here, we attach a micrometric-sized droplet to an atomic force microscope cantilever to directly measure adhesion and friction forces with nanonewton force resolutions. We spatially map the micrometer-scale wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces and observe the time-resolved pinning-depinning dynamics as the droplet detaches from or moves across the surface.

5.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 12090-12099, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518107

RESUMO

Stand-off Raman spectroscopy combines the advantages of both Raman spectroscopy and remote detection to retrieve molecular vibrational fingerprints of chemicals at inaccessible sites. However, it is currently restricted to the detection of pure solids and liquids and not widely applicable for dispersed molecules in air. Herein, we realize real-time stand-off SERS spectroscopy for remote and multiplex detection of atmospheric airborne species by integrating a long-range optic system with a 3D analyte-sorbing metal-organic framework (MOF)-integrated SERS platform. Formed via the self-assembly of Ag@MOF core-shell nanoparticles, our 3D plasmonic architecture exhibits micrometer thick SERS hotspot to allow active sorption and rapid detection of aerosols, gas, and volatile organic compounds down to parts-per-billion levels, notably at a distance up to 10 m apart. The platform is highly sensitive to changes in atmospheric content, as demonstrated in the temporal monitoring of gaseous CO2 in several cycles. Importantly, we demonstrate the remote and multiplex quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in real time under outdoor daylight. By overcoming core challenges in current remote Raman spectroscopy, our strategy creates an opportunity in the long-distance and sensitive monitoring of air/gaseous environment at the molecular level, which is especially important in environmental conservation, disaster prevention, and homeland defense.

6.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(7): 1844-1854, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180637

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a molecular-specific spectroscopic technique that provides up to 1010-fold enhancement of signature Raman fingerprints using nanometer-scale 0D to 2D platforms. Over the past decades, 3D SERS platforms with additional plasmonic materials in the z-axis have been fabricated at sub-micrometer to centimeter scale, achieving higher hotspot density in all x, y, and z spatial directions and higher tolerance to laser misalignment. Moreover, the flexibility to construct platforms in arbitrary sizes and 3D shapes creates attractive applications besides traditional SERS sensing. In this Account, we introduce our library of substrate-based and substrate-less 3D plasmonic platforms, with an emphasis on their non-sensing applications as microlaboratories and data storage labels. We aim to provide a scientific synopsis on these high-potential yet currently overlooked applications of SERS and ignite new scientific discoveries and technology development in 3D SERS platforms to tackle real-world issues. One highlight of our substrate-based SERS platforms is multilayered platforms built from micrometer-thick assemblies of plasmonic particles, which can achieve up to 1011 enhancement factor. As an alternative, constructing 3D hotspots on non-plasmonic supports significantly reduces waste of plasmonic materials while allowing high flexibility in structural design. We then introduce our emerging substrate-less plasmonic capsules including liquid marbles and colloidosomes, which we further incorporate the latter within an aerosol to form centimeter-scale SERS-active plasmonic cloud, the world's largest 3D SERS platform to date. We then discuss the various emerging applications arising only from these 3D platforms, in the fields of sensing, microreactions, and data storage. An important novel sensing application is the stand-off detection of airborne analytes that are several meters away, made feasible with aerosolized plasmonic clouds. We also describe plasmonic capsules as excellent miniature lab-in-droplets that can simultaneously provide in situ monitoring at the molecular level during reaction, owing to their ultrasensitive 3D plasmonic shells. We highlight the emergence of 3D SERS-based data storage platforms with 10-100-fold higher storage density than 2D platforms, featuring a new approach in the development of level 3 security (L3S) anti-counterfeiting labels. Ultimately, we recognize that 3D SERS research can only be developed further when its sensing capabilities are concurrently strengthened. With this vision, we foresee the creation of highly applicable 3D SERS platforms that excel in both sensing and non-sensing areas, providing modern solutions in the ongoing Fourth Industrial Revolution.

7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(3): 731-756, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475351

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a molecule-specific spectroscopic technique with diverse applications in (bio)chemistry, clinical diagnosis and toxin sensing. While hotspot engineering has expedited SERS development, it is still challenging to detect molecules with no specific affinity to plasmonic surfaces. With the aim of improving detection performances, we venture beyond hotspot engineering in this tutorial review and focus on emerging material design strategies to capture and confine analytes near SERS-active surfaces as well as various promising hybrid SERS platforms. We outline five major approaches to enhance SERS performance: (1) enlarging Raman scattering cross-sections of non-resonant molecules via chemical coupling reactions; (2) targeted chemical capturing of analytes through surface-grafted agents to localize them on plasmonic surfaces; (3) physically confining liquid analytes on non-wetting SERS-active surfaces and (4) confining gaseous analytes using porous materials over SERS hotspots; (5) synergizing conventional metal-based SERS platforms with functional materials such as graphene, semiconducting materials, and piezoelectric polymers. These approaches can be integrated with engineered hotspots as a multifaceted strategy to further boost SERS sensitivities that are unachievable using hotspot engineering alone. Finally, we highlight current challenges in this research area and suggest new research directions towards efficient SERS designs critical for real-world applications.

8.
J Chem Phys ; 151(24): 244709, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893908

RESUMO

Hybrid materials of earth abundant transition metal dichalcogenides and noble metal nanoparticles, such as molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) and gold nanoparticles, exhibit synergistic effects that can enhance electrocatalytic reactions. However, most current hybrid MoSx-gold synthesis requires an energy intensive heat source of >500 °C or chemical plating to achieve deposition of MoSx on the gold surface. Herein, we demonstrate the direct overgrowth of MoSx over colloidal nanoporous gold (NPG), conducted feasibly under ambient conditions, to form hybrid particles with enhanced electrocatalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution reaction. Our strategy exploits the localized surface plasmon resonance-mediated photothermal heating of NPG to achieve >230 °C surface temperature, which induces the decomposition of the (NH4)2MoS4 precursor and direct overgrowth of MoSx over NPG. By tuning the concentration ratio between the precursor and NPG, the amount of MoSx particles deposited can be systematically controlled from 0.5% to 2% of the Mo/(Au + Mo) ratio. Importantly, we find that the hybrid particles exhibit higher bridging and an apical S to terminal S atomic ratio than pure molybdenum sulfide, which gives rise to their enhanced electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction. We demonstrate that hybrid MoSx-NPG exhibits >30 mV lower onset potential and a 1.7-fold lower Tafel slope as compared to pure MoSx. Our methodology provides an energy- and cost-efficient synthesis pathway, which can be extended to the synthesis of various functional hybrid structures with unique properties for catalysis and sensing applications.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(52): 17058-17062, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382604

RESUMO

Gas-liquid reactions form the basis of our everyday lives, yet they still suffer poor reaction efficiency and are difficult to monitor in situ, especially at ambient conditions. Now, an inert gas-liquid reaction between aniline and CO2 is driven at 1 atm and 298 K by selectively concentrating these immiscible reactants at the interface between metal-organic framework and solid nanoparticles (solid@MOF). Real-time reaction SERS monitoring and simulations affirm the formation of phenylcarbamic acid, which was previously undetectable because they are unstable for post-reaction treatments. The solid@MOF ensemble gives rise to a more than 28-fold improvement to reaction efficiency as compared to ZIF-only and solid-only platforms, emphasizing that the interfacial nanocavities in solid@MOF are the key to enhance the gas-liquid reaction. Our strategy can be integrated with other functional materials, thus opening up new opportunities for ambient-operated gas-liquid applications.

10.
Nanoscale ; 10(34): 16005-16012, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113061

RESUMO

Nanoporous gold (NPG) promises efficient light-to-heat transformation, yet suffers limited photothermal conversion efficiency owing to the difficulty in controlling its morphology for the direct modulation of thermo-plasmonic properties. Herein, we showcase a series of shape-controlled NPG nanoparticles with distinct bowl- (NPG-B), tube- (NPG-T) and plate-like (NPG-P) structures for quantitative temperature regulation up to 140 °C in <1 s using laser irradiation. Notably, NPG-B exhibits the highest photothermal efficiency of 68%, which is >12 and 39 percentage points better than those of other NPG shapes (NPG-T, 56%; NPG-P, 49%) and Au nanoparticles (29%), respectively. We attribute NPG-B's superior photothermal performance to its >13% enhanced light absorption cross-section compared to other Au nanostructures. We further realize an ultrasensitive heat-mediated light-to-mechanical "kill switch" by integrating NPG-B with a heat-responsive shape-memory polymer (SMP/NPG-B). This SMP/NPG-B hybrid is analogous to a photo-triggered mechanical arm, and can be activated swiftly in <4 s simply by remote laser irradiation. Achieving remotely-activated "kill switch" is critical in case of emergencies such as gas leaks, where physical access is usually prohibited or dangerous. Our work offers valuable insights into the structural design of NPG for optimal light-to-heat conversion, and creates opportunities to formulate next-generation smart materials for on-demand and multi-directional responsiveness.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2769, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018282

RESUMO

Organizing nanoparticles into supercrystals comprising multiple structures remains challenging. Here, we achieve one assembly with dual structures for Ag polyhedral building blocks, comprising truncated cubes, cuboctahedra, truncated octahedra, and octahedra. We create two micro-environments in a solvent evaporation-driven assembly system: one at the drying front and one at the air/water interface. Dynamic solvent flow concentrates the polyhedra at the drying front, generating hard particle behaviors and leading to morphology-dependent densest-packed bulk supercrystals. In addition, monolayers of nanoparticles adsorb at the air/liquid interface to minimize the air/liquid interfacial energy. Subsequent solvent evaporation gives rise to various structurally diverse dual-structure supercrystals. The topmost monolayers feature distinct open crystal structures with significantly lower packing densities than their densest-packed supercrystals. We further highlight a 3.3-fold synergistic enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering efficiency arising from these dual-structure supercrystals as compared to a uniform one.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(51): 7022-7025, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873354

RESUMO

A simple and unique surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platform is developed for the precise and sensitive in situ monitoring of nitric oxide (NO) release from an individual bacterium. Using this live bacteria SERS platform, NO release from MRSA under the stress of antibiotics and co-infected bacteria was evaluated.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/citologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Análise Espectral Raman , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Sci Adv ; 4(3): eaar3208, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536047

RESUMO

Electrochemical nitrogen-to-ammonia fixation is emerging as a sustainable strategy to tackle the hydrogen- and energy-intensive operations by Haber-Bosch process for ammonia production. However, current electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) progress is impeded by overwhelming competition from the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across all traditional NRR catalysts and the requirement for elevated temperature/pressure. We achieve both excellent NRR selectivity (~90%) and a significant boost to Faradic efficiency by 10 percentage points even at ambient operations by coating a superhydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) layer over the NRR electrocatalyst. Our reticular chemistry approach exploits MOF's water-repelling and molecular-concentrating effects to overcome HER-imposed bottlenecks, uncovering the unprecedented electrochemical features of NRR critical for future theoretical studies. By favoring the originally unfavored NRR, we envisage our electrocatalytic design as a starting point for high-performance nitrogen-to-ammonia electroconversion directly from water vapor-abundant air to address increasing global demand of ammonia in (bio)chemical and energy industries.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(20): 5792-5796, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569823

RESUMO

Molecular-level airborne sensing is critical for early prevention of disasters, diseases, and terrorism. Currently, most 2D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates used for air sensing have only one functional surface and exhibit poor SERS-active depth. "Aerosolized plasmonic colloidosomes" (APCs) are introduced as airborne plasmonic hotspots for direct in-air SERS measurements. APCs function as a macroscale 3D and omnidirectional plasmonic cloud that receives laser irradiation and emits signals in all directions. Importantly, it brings about an effective plasmonic hotspot in a length scale of approximately 2.3 cm, which affords 100-fold higher tolerance to laser misalignment along the z-axis compared with 2D SERS substrates. APCs exhibit an extraordinary omnidirectional property and demonstrate consistent SERS performance that is independent of the laser and analyte introductory pathway. Furthermore, the first in-air SERS detection is demonstrated in stand-off conditions at a distance of 200 cm, highlighting the applicability of 3D omnidirectional plasmonic clouds for remote airborne sensing in threatening or inaccessible areas.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(20): 2546-2549, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464255

RESUMO

Timely detection of toxic vapor is vital for safeguarding people's lives. Herein, we design a plasmonic nose based on a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-encapsulated Ag nanocube array for ultratrace recognition of VOC vapor. The plasmonic nose enables in situ adsorption kinetics and recognition of various VOCs at ppm levels, eliminating false positives. Our approach provides a paradigm shift to next-generation, effective and specific gas sensors.

16.
Nanoscale ; 10(2): 575-581, 2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242860

RESUMO

The application of aluminum (Al)-based nanostructures for visible-range plasmonics, especially for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), currently suffers from inconsistent local electromagnetic field distributions and/or inhomogeneous distribution of probe molecules. Herein, we lithographically fabricate structurally uniform Al nanostructures which enable homogeneous adsorption of various probe molecules. Individual Al nanostructures exhibit strong local electromagnetic field enhancements, in turn leading to intense SERS activity. The average SERS enhancement factor (EF) for individual nanostructures exceeds 104 for non-resonant probe molecules in the visible spectrum. These Al nanostructures also retain more than 70% of their original SERS intensities after one-month storage, displaying superb stability under ambient conditions. We further achieve tunable polarization-dependent SERS responses using anisotropic Al nanostructures, facilitating the design of sophisticated SERS-based security labels. Our micron-sized security label comprises two-tier security features, including a machine-readable hybrid quick-response (QR) code overlaid with a set of ciphertexts. Our work demonstrates the versatility of Al-based structures in low-cost modern chemical nano-analytics and forgery protection.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39584-39593, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020445

RESUMO

We demonstrate a one-step precise direct metal writing of well-defined and densely packed gold nanoparticle (AuNP) patterns with tunable physical and optical properties. We achieve this by using two-photon lithography on a Au precursor comprising poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethylene glycol (EG), where EG promotes higher reduction rates of Au(III) salt via polyol reduction. Hence, clusters of monodisperse AuNP are generated along raster scanning of the laser, forming high-particle-density, well-defined structures. By varying the PVP concentration, we tune the AuNP size from 27.3 to 65.0 nm and the density from 172 to 965 particles/µm2, corresponding to a surface roughness of 12.9 to 67.1 nm, which is important for surface-based applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We find that the microstructures exhibit an SERS enhancement factor of >105 and demonstrate remote writing of well-defined Au microstructures within a microfluidic channel for the SERS detection of gaseous molecules. We showcase in situ SERS monitoring of gaseous 4-methylbenzenethiol and real-time detection of multiple small gaseous species with no specific affinity to Au. This one-step, laser-induced fabrication of AuNP microstructures ignites a plethora of possibilities to position desired patterns directly onto or within most surfaces for the future creation of multifunctional lab-on-a-chip devices.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39635-39640, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048876

RESUMO

Miniaturizing the continuous multistep operations of a factory into a microchemical plant offers a safe and cost-effective approach to promote high-throughput screening in drug development and enforcement of industrial/environmental safety. While particle-assembled microdroplets in the form of liquid marble are ideal as microchemical plant, these platforms are mainly restricted to single-step reactions and limited to ex situ reaction monitoring. Herein, we utilize plasmonic liquid marble (PLM), formed by encapsulating liquid droplet with Ag nanocubes, to address these issues and demonstrate it as an ideal microchemical plant to conduct reaction-and-detection sequences on-demand in a nondisruptive manner. Utilizing a two-step azo-dye formation as our model reaction, our microchemical plant allows rapid and efficient diazotization of nitroaniline to form diazonium nitrobenzene, followed by the azo coupling of this intermediate with target aromatic compound to yield azo-dye. These molecular events are tracked in situ via SERS measurement through the plasmonic shell and further verified with in silico investigation. Furthermore, we apply our microchemical plant for ultrasensitive SERS detection and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) with detection limit down to 10 amol, which is 50 000-fold lower than the BPA safety limit. Together with the protections offered by plasmonic shell against external environments, these collective advantages empower PLM as a multifunctional microchemical plant to facilitate small-volume testing and optimization of processes relevant in industrial and research contexts.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(33): 11513-11518, 2017 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743183

RESUMO

We demonstrate a molecular-level observation of driving CO2 molecules into a quasi-condensed phase on the solid surface of metal nanoparticles (NP) under ambient conditions of 1 bar and 298 K. This is achieved via a CO2 accumulation in the interface between a metal-organic framework (MOF) and a metal NP surface formed by coating NPs with a MOF. Using real-time surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, a >18-fold enhancement of surface coverage of CO2 is observed at the interface. The high surface concentration leads CO2 molecules to be in close proximity with the probe molecules on the metal surface (4-methylbenzenethiol), and transforms CO2 molecules into a bent conformation without the formation of chemical bonds. Such linear-to-bent transition of CO2 is unprecedented at ambient conditions in the absence of chemical bond formation, and is commonly observed only in pressurized systems (>105 bar). The molecular-level observation of a quasi-condensed phase induced by MOF coating could impact the future design of hybrid materials in diverse applications, including catalytic CO2 conversion and ambient solid-gas operation.

20.
Nanoscale ; 9(31): 11239-11248, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753214

RESUMO

Shape-controlled polyhedral particles and their assembled structures have important applications in plasmonics and biosensing, but the interfacial configurations that will critically determine their resultant assembled structures are not well-understood. Hence, a reliable theory is desirable to predict the position and orientation of a polyhedron at the vicinity of a liquid/liquid interface. Here we demonstrate that the free energy change theory can quantitatively predict the position and orientation of an isolated octahedral nanoparticle at a liquid/liquid interface, whose vertices and facets can play crucial roles in biosensing. We focus on two limiting orientations of an octahedral nanoparticle, vertex up and facet up. Our proposed theory indicates that the surface wettability (hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio) of the nanoparticle determines its most stable position and the preferred orientation at a water/oil interface. The surface wettability of an octahedron is adjusted from extremely hydrophobic to extremely hydrophilic by changing the amount of charge on the Ag surface in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD simulations results are in excellent agreement with our theoretical prediction for an Ag octahedral nanoparticle at a hexane/water interface. Our proposed theory bridges the gap between molecular-level simulations and equilibrium configurations of polyhedral nanoparticles in experiments, where insights from nanoparticle intrinsic wettability details can be used to predict macroscopic superlattice formation experimentally. This work advances our ability to precisely predict the final structures of the polyhedral nanoparticle assemblies at a liquid/liquid interface.

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