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1.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 7, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caseous mitral annular calcification (CMAC) is a rare liquefactive variant of mitral annular calcification (MAC) and superficially mimics a cardiac vegetation or abscess. CMAC is viewed as a benign condition of MAC, while MAC has clinical implications for patients' lives. Correctly diagnosing CMAC is essential in order to avoid unnecessary interventions, cardiac surgery or even psychological suffering for the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on 6 patients with suspected intra-cardiac masses of the mitral annulus that were referred to our institution for further clarification. A definitive diagnosis of CMAC was achieved by combining echocardiography (Echo), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cardiac computed tomography (CT) for these patients. Echo assessed the mass itself and possible interactions with the mitral valve. MRI was useful in differentiating the tissue from other benign or malign neoplasms. CT revealed the typical structure of CMAC with a "soft" liquefied centre and an outer capsule with calcification. CONCLUSION: CMAC is a rare condition, and most clinicians and even radiologists are not familiar with it. CMAC can be mistaken for an intra-cardiac tumour, thombus, vegetation, or abscess. Non-invasive multimodality imaging (i.e. Echo, MRI, and CT) helps to establish a definitive diagnosis of CMAC and avoid unnecessary interventions especially in uncertain cases.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS121011325, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are an established treatment strategy for coronary artery disease. Randomized data on the application of DCBs in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are limited. We evaluated the impact of clinical presentation (ACS versus chronic coronary syndrome) on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing DCB or drug-eluting stent (DES) treatment in a prespecified analysis of the BASKET-SMALL 2 trial (Basel Kosten Effektivitäts Trial-Drug-Coated Balloons Versus Drug-Eluting Stents in Small Vessel Interventions). METHODS: BASKET-SMALL 2 randomized 758 patients with small vessel coronary artery disease to DCB or DES treatment and followed them for 3 years regarding major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization). RESULTS: Among 758 patients, 214 patients (28.2%) presented with an ACS (15 patients [7%], ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction; 109 patients [50.9%], non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction; 90 patients [42.1%], unstable angina pectoris). At 1-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary end point by randomized treatment in patients with ACS (hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.19-1.26] for DCB versus DES) or chronic coronary syndrome (hazard ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.67-2.47] for DCB versus DES). There was no significant interaction between clinical presentation and treatment effect (P for interaction, 0.088). For cardiac death (P for interaction, 0.049) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (P for interaction, 0.010), a significant interaction between clinical presentation and treatment was seen at 1 year with lower rates of these secondary end points in patients with ACS treated by DCB. At 3 years, there were similar major adverse cardiac event rates throughout groups without significant interaction between clinical presentation and treatment (P for interaction, 0.301). All-cause mortality was higher in ACS compared with chronic coronary syndrome; however, there was no difference between DCB and DES irrespective of clinical presentation. CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis of the BASKET-SMALL 2 trial, there was no interaction between indication for percutaneous coronary intervention (acute versus chronic coronary syndrome) and treatment effect of DCB versus DES in patients with small vessel coronary artery disease. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01574534.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947370

RESUMO

The biocompatibility and degradation behavior of pure molybdenum (Mo) as a bioresorbable metallic material (BMM) for implant applications were investigated. In vitro degradation of a commercially available Mo wire (ø250 µm) was examined after immersion in modified Kokubo's SBF for 28 days at 37 °C and pH 7.4. For assessment of in vivo degradation, the Mo wire was implanted into the abdominal aorta of female Wistar rats for 3, 6 and 12 months. Microstructure and corrosion behavior were analyzed by means of SEM/EDX analysis. After explantation, Mo levels in serum, urine, aortic vessel wall and organs were investigated via ICP-OES analysis. Furthermore, histological analyses of the liver, kidneys, spleen, brain and lungs were performed, as well as blood count and differentiation by FACS analysis. Levels of the C-reactive protein were measured in blood plasma of all the animals. In vitro and in vivo degradation behavior was very similar, with formation of uniform, non-passivating and dissolving product layers without occurrence of a localized corrosion attack. The in vitro degradation rate was 101.6 µg/(cm2·d) which corresponds to 33.6 µm/y after 28 days. The in vivo degradation rates of 12, 33 and 36 µg/(cm2·d) were observed after 3, 6 and 12 months for the samples properly implanted in the aortic vessel wall. This corresponds with a degradation rate of 13.5 µm/y for the 12-month cohort. However, the magnitude of degradation strongly depended on the implant site, with the wires incorporated into the vessel wall showing the most severe degradation. Degradation of the implanted Mo wire neither induced an increase in serum or urine Mo levels nor were elevated Mo levels found in the liver and kidneys compared with the respective controls. Only in the direct vicinity of the implant in the aortic vessel wall, a significant amount of Mo was found, which, however, was far below the amounts to be expected from degrading wires. No abnormalities were detected for all timepoints in histological and blood analyses compared to the control group. The C-reactive protein levels were similar between all the groups, indicating no inflammation processes. These findings suggest that dissolved Mo from a degrading implant is physiologically transported and excreted. Furthermore, radiographic and µCT analyses revealed excellent radiopacity of Mo in tissues. These findings and the unique combination with its extraordinary mechanical properties make Mo an interesting alternative for established BMMs.

4.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 28: 101162, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761128

RESUMO

Background: Calpains are calcium activated cysteine proteases that play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling. Methods: Here, we performed left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in rats as a model for ischemic systolic heart failure and examined the time- and region-specific regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the left ventricular myocardium. Results: Following anterior wall myocardial infarction, calpain activity was significantly increased restricted to the ischemic anterior area at days 1, 5 and 14. No changes in calpain activity at neither time point were detected in the borderzone and remote posterior area of the left ventricle. Of note, calpain activity in the infarcted anterior myocardium was regulated differentially in the acute vs. subacute and chronic phase. In the acute phase, calpain translocation to the plasma membrane and attenuation of the expression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, were identified as the driving forces. In the subacute and chronic phase, calpain activity was regulated at the level of protein expression that was shown to be essentially independent of transcriptional activity. Conclusions: We conclude that myocardial infarction leads to a distinct calpain regulation pattern in the left ventricular myocardium that is region specific and time dependent. Considering the results from our previous studies, a spatio-temporal interaction between calpains and calcium dependent natriuretic peptide production in the infarcted myocardium is possible. General significance: Our results shed more light in the differential regulation of calpain activity in the myocardium and might aid in the development of targeted post-infarct and/or heart failure therapeutics.

6.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is superior to angiography-guided PCI. The clinical uptake of FFR has been limited, however, by the need to advance a wire in the coronary artery, the additional time required and the need for hyperaemic agents which can cause patient discomfort. FFR derived from routine coronary angiography eliminates these issues. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance and accuracy of three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA)-based vessel FFR (vFFR) compared to pressure wire-based FFR (≤0.80). METHODS: The FAST II (Fast Assessment of STenosis severity) study was a prospective observational multicentre study designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vFFR compared to the reference standard (pressure wire-based FFR ≤0.80). A total of 334 patients from six centres were enrolled. Both site-determined and blinded independent core lab vFFR measurements were compared to FFR. RESULTS: The core lab vFFR was 0.83±0.09 and pressure wire-based FFR 0.83±0.08. A good correlation was found between core lab vFFR and pressure wire-based FFR (R=0.74; p<0.001; mean bias 0.0029±0.0642). vFFR had an excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying lesions with an invasive wire-based FFR ≤0.80 (AUC 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.96; p<0.001). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of vFFR were 90%, 90%, 90%, 81% and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: 3D-QCA-based vFFR has excellent diagnostic performance to detect FFR ≤0.80. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT03791320.

9.
CJC Open ; 3(7): 845-853, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401691

RESUMO

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard of care in the majority of patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Data on long-term mortality and durability of transcatheter heart valves (THVs) beyond 5 years are limited. Our study aimed to assess elderly and high-risk patients' long-term outcomes treated with TAVR in a prospective single-centre registry focusing on the durability of THVs. Methods: We included 795 patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis treated by transfemoral TAVR between 2006 and 2011. Echocardiography was performed at baseline; discharge; 1 year; and afterward, annually, until the longest available follow-up. Mortality rates were estimated for 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 years. The rates of structural valve deterioration (SVD) and bioprosthetic valve failure (BVF) were assessed in accordance with consensus definitions. Outcome measures were adjudicated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2). Results: Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 1345 (316; 2015) days. One-year, 5-year, 6-year, 7-year, and 8-year overall mortality was 25.4%, 59.0%, 64.6%, 67.9%, and 69.2%, respectively. At 8 years, no significant differences in mortality were found comparing self-expanding vs balloon-expandable valves (69.5% vs 68.0%, P = 0.709) and postdilatation (PD) vs no-PD (69.4% vs 69.2%, P = 0.363). SVD was detected in 26 patients (3.3%), and 19 (2.4%) of the 795 patients had evidence of BVF during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates good long-term results for high-risk patients who were alive up to 8 years after TAVR.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Evolut R FORWARD study confirmed safety and effectivenesss of the Evolut R THV in routine clinical practice out to 1 year. Herein, we report the final 3-year clinical follow up of the FORWARD study. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a proven alternative to surgery in elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Long-term clinical outcome data with the Evolut R platform are scarce. METHODS: FORWARD is a prospective multicenter observational study that evaluated the Evolut R system in routine clinical practice at 53 centres. Eligible patients had symptomatic native aortic valve stenosis or failed surgical aortic bioprosthesis and elevated operative risk per Heart-Team assessment. TAVR was attempted in 1039 patients. RESULTS: Mean age was 81.8 ± 6.2 years, 64.9% were women, STS score was 5.5 ± 4.5% and 34.2% were frail. Rates of all-cause mortality and disabling stroke were 24.8% and 4.8% at 3 years. Early need for a new pacemaker implantation after TAVR (all-cause mortality: with new PPI; 21.0% vs. without; 22.8%, p = 0.55) and the presence of > trace paravalvular regurgitation (all-cause mortality: no or trace; 22.0% vs. ≥ mild; 25.5%, p = 0.29) did not affect survival. Between 1 and 3 years incidence rates of valve related intervention, endocarditis and clinically relevant valve thrombosis were low. CONCLUSIONS: The Evolut R valve maintained a favorable safety profile through 3 years in routine clinical practice. Rates of transcatheter heart valve-related adverse events were low.

11.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 88: 90-95, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153885

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the various cardiac manifestations of the two core neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes, namely chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and McLeod syndrome (MLS). So far, cardiac involvement has been described as specific feature only for MLS. METHODS: We studied six patients with ChAc (mean age 44.5 years, five men, one woman) and six patients with MLS (mean age 57.1 years, all men). Cardiac evaluation included echocardiography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI), 24-h ECG-recording and examination of cardiac biomarkers. RESULTS: Cardiac involvement of ChAc was found in four of six patients. Two patients showed mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), two other patients mild to moderate left ventricular (LV) dilatation. Neither an increase in ventricular ectopic beats nor ventricular tachycardia were evident in ChAc. Four of five MLS patients showed left ventricle dilatation and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Two of these, in addition, had critical ventricular tachycardia. High sensitive troponin T was elevated in all patients, for whom data were available (n = 10). In contrast, elevation of high sensitive troponin I was found in one of six ChAc and one of two MLS patients. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we reveal cardiac involvement in a cohort of six ChAc patients, while the risk to develop heart failure seems lower than in MLS. Our study confirms the malignant nature of MLS in terms of ventricular arrhythmias and progression to advanced heart failure. Herein, we define disease-specific recommendations for cardiac assessment in both conditions.

12.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(9): 1525-1530, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156523

RESUMO

Remote proctoring by advanced digital technologies may help to overcome pandemic, geographic, and resource-related constraints for mentoring and educating interventional cardiology skills. We present a case series of patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HR-PCI) with mechanical circulatory support (MCS) guided by remote proctoring to gain insights into a streaming technology platform with regard to video/audio quality, visibility of all structural and imaging details, and delay in transmission. According to our experience, remote proctoring appears to be a reliable, quick, and resource-conserving way to disseminate, educate and improve MCS-supported HR-PCI with implications far beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Consulta Remota , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 194, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare muscular dystrophies. Subtype 2A (LGMD2A) also known as "calpainopathy" is an inherited autosomal recessive gene defect. Cardiac dysfunction is common in several forms of LGMD. Cardiac involvement in LGMD2A, however, is not clear. The aim of this study was to perform cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-based strain analysis in LGMD2A patients, as this is a diagnostic parameter of subclinical cardiac involvement and a powerful independent predictor of mortality. We conducted the largest prospective cardiac magnetic resonance study to date, including 11 genetically verified LGMD2A patients and 11 age- and sex-matched control subjects and performed CMR-based strain analysis of the left and right ventricles. RESULTS: Left and right global longitudinal strain (GLS) were not significantly different between the two groups and within normal reference ranges (left ventricle: control - 21.8 (5.1) % vs. patients - 22.3 (3.2) %, p = 0.38; right ventricle: control - 26.3 (7.2) % vs. patients - 26.8 (5.8) %, p = 0.85). Also, global circumferential and radial strains did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.95 and p = 0.86, respectively). LGMD2A patients did not show relevant amounts of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) or malignant ventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of even subtle cardiac dysfunction is evident form CMR-based strain analysis in LGMD2A patients. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias were not detected. Thus, in case of non-pathological initial echocardiographic and electrocardiographic examination, a less frequent or even no cardiac follow-up may be acceptable in these patients. However, if there are signs and symptoms that suggest an underlying cardiac condition (e.g. palpitations, angina, shortness of breath), this approach needs to be individualized to account for the unknown.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Gadolínio , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/diagnóstico por imagem , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Eur Heart J ; 42(27): 2670-2679, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000004

RESUMO

AIMS: The REFLECT I trial investigated the safety and effectiveness of the TriGuard™ HDH (TG) cerebral embolic deflection device in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective, multicentre, single-blind, 2:1 randomized (TG vs. no TG) study aimed to enrol up to 375 patients, including up to 90 roll-in patients. The primary combined safety endpoint (VARC-2 defined early safety) at 30 days was compared with a performance goal. The primary efficacy endpoint was a hierarchical composite of (i) all-cause mortality or any stroke at 30 days, (ii) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) worsening at 2-5 days or Montreal Cognitive Assessment worsening at 30 days, and (iii) total volume of cerebral ischaemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 2-5 days. Cumulative scores were compared between treatment groups using the Finkelstein-Schoenfeld method. A total of 258 of the planned, 375 patients (68.8%) were enrolled (54 roll-in and 204 randomized). The primary safety outcome was met compared with the performance goal (21.8% vs. 35%, P < 0.0001). The primary hierarchical efficacy endpoint was not met (mean efficacy score, higher is better: -5.3 ± 99.8 TG vs. 11.8 ± 96.4 control, P = 0.31). Covert central nervous system injury was numerically lower with TG both in-hospital (46.1% vs. 60.3%, P = 0.0698) and at 5 days (61.7 vs. 76.2%, P = 0.054) compared with controls. CONCLUSION: REFLECT I demonstrated that TG cerebral protection during TAVR was safe in comparison with historical TAVR data but did not meet the predefined effectiveness endpoint compared with unprotected TAVR controls.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Dispositivos de Proteção Embólica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(4): 2556-2568, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle (SM) alterations contribute to exercise intolerance in heart failure patients with preserved (HFpEF) or reduced (HFrEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS), nuclear apoptosis, and reduced mitochondrial energy supply is associated with SM weakness in HFrEF. These mechanisms are incompletely studied in HFpEF, and a direct comparison between these groups is missing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 50%, septal E/e' > 15 or >8 and NT-proBNP > 220 pg/mL, n = 20), HFrEF (LVEF ≤ 35%, n = 20) and sedentary control subjects (Con, n = 12) were studied. Inflammatory markers were measured in serum, and markers of the UPS, nuclear apoptosis, and energy metabolism were determined in percutaneous SM biopsies. Both HFpEF and HFrEF showed increased proteolysis (MuRF-1 protein expression, ubiquitination, and proteasome activity) with proteasome activity significantly related to interleukin-6. Proteolysis was more pronounced in patients with lower exercise capacity as indicated by peak oxygen uptake in per cent predicted below the median. Markers of apoptosis did not differ between groups. Mitochondrial energy supply was reduced in HFpEF and HFrEF (complex-I activity: -31% and -53%; malate dehydrogenase activity: -20% and -29%; both P < 0.05 vs. Con). In contrast, short-term energy supply via creatine kinase was increased in HFpEF but decreased in HFrEF (47% and -45%; P < 0.05 vs. Con). CONCLUSIONS: Similarly to HFrEF, skeletal muscle in HFpEF is characterized by increased proteolysis linked to systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity. Energy metabolism is disturbed in both groups; however, its regulation seems to be severity-dependent.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Metabolismo Energético , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
EuroIntervention ; 17(10): 809-817, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has limited treatment options and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. AIMS: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the Cardioband tricuspid valve reconstruction system from the ongoing European single-arm, multicentre, prospective TriBAND post-market clinical follow-up study. METHODS: Eligible patients had chronic symptomatic functional TR despite diuretic therapy and were deemed candidates for transcatheter tricuspid repair by the local Heart Team. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients had ≥severe functional TR. At baseline, 85% of patients were in NYHA Class III-IV, 94% had ≥severe TR (core laboratory-assessed) with 6.8% EuroSCORE II and 53% LVEF. Device success was 96.7%. At discharge, 59% (p<0.001) of patients achieved ≤moderate TR and 78% had at least one grade TR reduction. At 30 days, all-cause mortality and composite MAE rates were 1.6% and 19.7%, respectively; septolateral annular diameter was reduced by 20%, where 69% of patients achieved ≤moderate TR and 85% of patients had at least one grade TR reduction (all p<0.001). Mid-RVEDD, RA volume, and IVC diameter decreased by 10% (p=0.005), 21% (p<0.001), and 11% (p=0.022), respectively; 74% were in NYHA Class I-II (p<0.001) with improvements in overall KCCQ score by 17 points (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the TriBAND study, the Cardioband tricuspid system demonstrated favourable outcomes at discharge and 30 days in a challenging patient population with symptomatic ≥severe functional TR. Results showed significant reductions in annular diameter and TR severity, accompanied by early evidence of right heart remodelling and improvements in functional status and quality of life.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Seguimentos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808232

RESUMO

The angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor Sacubitril/Valsartan (Sac/Val) has been shown to be beneficial in patients suffering from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, the impact of Sac/Val in patients presenting with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is not yet clearly resolved. The present study aimed to reveal the influence of the drug on the functionality of the myocardium, the skeletal muscle, and the vasculature in a rat model of HFpEF. Female obese ZSF-1 rats received Sac/Val as a daily oral gavage for 12 weeks. Left ventricle (LV) function was assessed every four weeks using echocardiography. Prior to organ removal, invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed in both ventricles. Vascular function of the carotid artery and skeletal muscle function were monitored. Sac/Val treatment reduced E/é ratios, left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and myocardial stiffness as well as myocardial fibrosis and heart weight compared to the obese control group. Sac/Val slightly improved endothelial function in the carotid artery but had no impact on skeletal muscle function. Our results demonstrate striking effects of Sac/Val on the myocardial structure and function in a rat model of HFpEF. While vasodilation was slightly improved, functionality of the skeletal muscle remained unaffected.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Valsartana/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Conectina/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/sangue , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Diástole/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Combinação de Medicamentos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Mutantes , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(21): 2717-2746, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888385

RESUMO

AIMS: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Valvopatia Aórtica/cirurgia , Cardiologia/normas , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valvopatia Aórtica/mortalidade , Humanos
19.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1825-1857, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871579

RESUMO

AIMS: The Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC), founded in 2010, was intended to (i) identify appropriate clinical endpoints and (ii) standardize definitions of these endpoints for transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical trials. Rapid evolution of the field, including the emergence of new complications, expanding clinical indications, and novel therapy strategies have mandated further refinement and expansion of these definitions to ensure clinical relevance. This document provides an update of the most appropriate clinical endpoint definitions to be used in the conduct of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve clinical research. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several years after the publication of the VARC-2 manuscript, an in-person meeting was held involving over 50 independent clinical experts representing several professional societies, academic research organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry representatives to (i) evaluate utilization of VARC endpoint definitions in clinical research, (ii) discuss the scope of this focused update, and (iii) review and revise specific clinical endpoint definitions. A writing committee of independent experts was convened and subsequently met to further address outstanding issues. There were ongoing discussions with FDA and many experts to develop a new classification schema for bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure. Overall, this multi-disciplinary process has resulted in important recommendations for data reporting, clinical research methods, and updated endpoint definitions. New definitions or modifications of existing definitions are being proposed for repeat hospitalizations, access site-related complications, bleeding events, conduction disturbances, cardiac structural complications, and bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and failure (including valve leaflet thickening and thrombosis). A more granular 5-class grading scheme for paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is being proposed to help refine the assessment of PVR. Finally, more specific recommendations on quality-of-life assessments have been included, which have been targeted to specific clinical study designs. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the dynamic and evolving nature of less-invasive aortic valve therapies, further refinements of clinical research processes are required. The adoption of these updated and newly proposed VARC-3 endpoints and definitions will ensure homogenous event reporting, accurate adjudication, and appropriate comparisons of clinical research studies involving devices and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Determinação de Ponto Final , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3750-e3758, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Procedural improvements combined with the contemporary clinical profile of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may have influenced the incidence and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) following TAVR. We aimed to determine the temporal trends, characteristics, and outcomes of IE post-TAVR. METHODS: Observational study including 552 patients presenting definite IE post-TAVR. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to the timing of TAVR (historical cohort [HC]: before 2014; contemporary cohort [CC]: after 2014). RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of IE were similar in both cohorts (CC vs HC: 5.45 vs 6.52 per 1000 person-years; P = .12), but the rate of early IE was lower in the CC (2.29‰ vs 4.89‰, P < .001). Enterococci were the most frequent microorganism. Most patients presented complicated IE ( CC: 67.7%; HC: 69.6%; P = .66), but the rate of surgical treatment remained low (CC: 20.7%; HC: 17.3%; P = .32). The CC exhibited lower rates of in-hospital acute kidney injury (35.1% vs 44.6%; P = .036) and in-hospital (26.6% vs 36.4%; P = .016) and 1-year (37.8% vs 53.5%; P < .001) mortality. Higher logistic EuroScore, Staphylococcus aureus etiology, and complications (stroke, heart failure, and acute renal failure) were associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariable analyses (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Although overall IE incidence has remained stable, the incidence of early IE has declined in recent years. The microorganism, high rate of complications, and very low rate of surgical treatment remained similar. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were high but progressively decreased over time.

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