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3.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 1060028019886308, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694390

RESUMO

Background: Methenamine is a drug used for the prevention of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, efficacy has not been established in older adults or patients with varying degrees of kidney function. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of methenamine for the prevention of UTI in adults 60 years and older. Methods: This was a retrospective, pre-post, observational study. The study included primary care patients 60 years and older who were taking methenamine between January 1, 2015, and September 30, 2018. The primary outcome was the time to first UTI after methenamine initiation compared with the average time between UTIs in the 12 months prior to methenamine initiation. Results: Of 434 patients reviewed, 150 met inclusion criteria. The average time to UTI was 3.3 months prior to methenamine initiation compared with 5.5 months after methenamine initiation (P = 0.0004). There were 33 patients (22%) who did not have a UTI after methenamine initiation. Also, 14 patients (9.3%) had a calculated CrCl <30 mL/min at baseline. The average time to UTI in these patients was 3.3 months prior to methenamine initiation compared with 12.7 months after initiation (P < 0.0001). Conclusion and Relevance: Methenamine use was associated with a longer time to UTI in older adults with varying degrees of kidney function. The effectiveness of methenamine appeared to be similar regardless of kidney function, which is new evidence. Because of a lack of acquired resistance, methenamine may be an effective option for UTI prophylaxis in older adults.

5.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(12): 2447-2454, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573074

RESUMO

Supporting gender equity for women working in geriatrics is important to the growth of geriatrics across disciplines and is critical in achieving our vision for a future in which we are all able to contribute to our communities and maintain our health, safety, and independence as we age. Discrimination can have a negative impact on public health, particularly with regard to those who care for the health of older Americans and other vulnerable older people. Women working in the field of geriatrics have experienced implicit and explicit discriminatory practices that mirror available data on the entire workforce. In this position article, we outline strategic objectives and accompanying practical recommendations for how geriatrics, as a field, can work together to achieve a future in which the rights of women are guaranteed and women in geriatrics have the opportunity to achieve their full potential. This article represents the official positions of the American Geriatrics Society. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2447-2454, 2019.

6.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 10: 2042098619876749, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579504

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTI) commonly occur in older adults and can lead to more severe, life-threatening infections. Physiological factors that change with age are thought to contribute to the increased frequency of UTI recurrence in older adults. Unfortunately, there are limited methods to prevent UTI in older adults, and utilization of antimicrobial agents for prevention can have many negative consequences. Methenamine has been proposed as a useful drug for the prevention of UTI as it works as a urinary antiseptic, safely producing formaldehyde to prevent bacterial growth while avoiding bacterial resistance. The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing literature and discuss the use of methenamine in older adults for prevention of UTI. A PubMed search was conducted to identify studies evaluating the effectiveness of methenamine to prevent UTI in older adults, and 10 publications were selected based on relevant criteria. Based on the literature, methenamine appears to be a safe and effective option to prevent UTI in older adults with recurrent UTI, genitourinary surgical procedures, and potentially long-term catheterization. Studies have not evaluated the safety of methenamine in patients with impaired renal function or CrCl <30 ml/min. When selecting a treatment approach to preventing UTI in older adults with adequate renal function, clinicians may consider methenamine as a viable option.

7.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(7): 419-431, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review clinical studies evaluating melatonin doses and their effects on sleep in adults 65 years of age and older. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE databases were searched (1946 to October 10, 2018) using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: melatonin and: sleep initiation and maintenance disorders, dyssomnia, sleep wake disorders, insomnia, sleep disorders intrinsic, and sleep disorders circadian rhythm. Sources were limited to English and human data. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: An initial search resulted in 144 publications, with 25 included in this review. Studies were selected for full review based on design, mean age of participants, use of exogenous melatonin, and reports on any sleep-related outcome. DATA SYNTHESIS: Because of the side effect profiles of most prescription and nonprescription sleep aids, safe and effective alternative therapies are necessary. Based on the current literature, no dose-related response to sleep improvement has been identified for melatonin in older adults. Variations in melatonin formulation and dosages, as well as available tools to measure sleep outcomes, make it challenging to compare studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review evaluated a variety of melatonin doses, 0.5 mg to 10 mg, and their effects on sleep in older adults. The results varied, with some studies finding no difference in sleep outcomes when compared with placebo, while other studies found statistically significant improvements in sleep outcomes. Doses of melatonin between 1 mg and 6 mg appear to be effective for improving sleep in older adults; however, further studies are needed to find the optimal minimum effective dose.


Assuntos
Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Sono
11.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(5): 325-333, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with adverse renal outcomes in older adults; however, there are little data regarding the magnitude of the change in renal function in this population. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in kidney function associated with chronic PPI therapy at two years in older adults using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
DESIGN: The study was a retrospective, pre/post, observational cohort.
SETTING/PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The study included University of Colorado Health primary care patients 60 to 89 years of age who were newly initiated on a PPI between August 1, 2012, and March 1, 2015, and remained on therapy for at least two years. The primary outcome was the change in kidney function, measured by eGFR, two years after starting PPI therapy. Secondary outcomes included change in kidney function and incidence of reduction in eGFR to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² two years post-index date between patients with and without diabetes mellitus.
RESULTS: Of 877 electronic health records reviewed, 100 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean change in eGFR was -6.15 mL/min/1.73 m² (standard error of the mean = 1.03) at two years compared with baseline
(95% confidence interval -8.20 to -4.10; P < 0.0001). There were no differences in the secondary outcomes based on concomitant diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic PPI use was associated with a significant reduction in eGFR in ambulatory older adults at two years, beyond that expected based on increased age alone. Prescribers should be aware of the potential adverse renal effects of chronic PPI use.


Assuntos
Rim , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prótons , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Pharm Pract ; : 897190019830502, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791857

RESUMO

Transitional care management (TCM) programs have been shown to decrease hospital readmission rates, health-care costs, and medication-related errors and adverse drug events. Pharmacists have been utilized during the medication reconciliation process, during admission, and after hospital discharge to prevent readmission and identify medication discrepancies. There is a lack of data utilizing clinical pharmacists in the geriatric patient population transitional care process after hospital discharge. Less is known about the depth of professional services a pharmacist can perform in the geriatric setting. We analyzed the scope of pharmacist-assisted implementation of transitional care. A total of 365 patients received the clinical pharmacist comprehensive medication review during a 14-month time period. During these reviews, clinical pharmacists identified more than 600 medication discrepancies and offered more than 1000 recommendations to the primary care physician. Additionally, specific medication classes that have been identified to increase the risk of adverse drug events, specifically in older adults, were identified and used to screen for adverse drug events. Using this list, clinical pharmacists were able to identify 39 adverse drug events. The implementation of clinical pharmacists into the TCM program was successful; however, full salary compensation is unlikely with TCM reimbursement alone.

13.
Consult Pharm ; 33(12): 702-705, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545433

RESUMO

A 78-year-old Hispanic woman presented to an ambulatory care clinic for older adults describing memory impairment and requesting an assessment of her cognitive status. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was performed and found to be 29/30 (normal). One year later, the same situation occurred and her MMSE was again found to be 29/30 (normal). However, a Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination administered that same day demonstrated a different result: a score of 19/30 (dementia). Fourteen months later, the patient returned again and scored 26/30 (normal) on the MMSE and 22/30 (mild neurocognitive disorder) on the SLUMS. Our patient case illustrates inherent differences between the MMSE and SLUMS in the ability to detect mild cognitive impairment and dementia, along with the variability that may occur with testing.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(11): 2167-2171, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand patterns of marijuana use in community-dwelling older adults in Colorado. DESIGN: Anonymous survey. SETTING: Two academic geriatric primary care clinics. PARTICIPANTS: English-speaking individuals. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed self-reported characteristics and patterns of marijuana use and effect on targeted symptoms. Survey analysis focused on current users, defined as individuals who had used marijuana in the past 3 years. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-five individuals completed the survey (55% response rate); 113 (32%) had used marijuana in the past, of whom 55 (16%) had used since legalization. More than half of current users were aged 75 and older, and one-quarter were aged 85 and older. Most current users were white women. Of current users, 44% used marijuana products at least weekly for common conditions including chronic pain, depression, anxiety, and insomnia, and most found marijuana helpful for these conditions. Most respondents reported obtaining marijuana recreationally (67%) without a prescription. Nine respondents reported negative side effects attributable to marijuana use. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize marijuana use of older adults in a state in which it is legal for medical and recreational use. Marijuana was used for several common geriatric conditions, and respondents reported few side effects. The small number of survey respondents, the lack of generalizability in states where marijuana sales are illegal, and participation bias were the main study limitations. Further research is needed to better understand useful or harmful effects in this population. J Am Geriatr Soc 66:2167-2171, 2018.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Uso da Maconha/tratamento farmacológico , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Recreação/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Colorado/epidemiologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 75(22): 1805-1811, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The implementation and delivery of a pharmacist-led chronic care management (CCM) service in a geriatric primary care clinic are described. METHODS: A CCM service was provided March 1 through December 31, 2016, at the University of Colorado Hospital Seniors Clinic ("Seniors Clinic"). The electronic health record (EHR) team for the University of Colorado Health system developed a patient registry through EPIC Healthy Planet (Epic Systems Corp., Verona, WI) to identify patients at the Seniors Clinic eligible for CCM services. The EHR team constructed a note type and documentation template within the EHR to ensure documentation of all necessary components for billing and to allow individual clinical staff to document the time spent providing CCM care. RESULTS: Overall, 36 elderly patients enrolled in the pharmacist-provided CCM service over the 10 months. Clinical pharmacists spent a total of 156-849 minutes per month providing CCM services, with a mean outreach time of 45.4 minutes per patient. The clinical pharmacists submitted 95 claims, and all but 5 were paid. The total amount reimbursed from the health plans during the 10 months was $2,775.02. CONCLUSION: Medicare patients were successfully enrolled in a CCM service in a geriatrics primary care clinic led by clinical pharmacists and medical providers. The CCM services were more time-consuming than the allotted 20 minutes per patient per month with the CCM Current Procedural Terminology code used during this study.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Colorado , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/economia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
16.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 9(7): 367-372, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034778

RESUMO

An 84-year-old woman presented to her primary care physician with an unexplained 4-month history of weight and appetite loss after initiation of dofetilide 125 mcg orally twice daily for atrial fibrillation. She was noted to have lost 2.5 kg, which was a 3.6% decrease from her initial body weight of 69.4 kg. After excluding other etiologies for her anorexia, such as medication changes or changes in other diseases or conditions, her primary care physician and cardiologists elected to continue dofetilide but monitor the patient's appetite and body weight. After 7 months of dofetilide use with persistent appetite loss, the cardiology team discontinued dofetilide. Continued weight loss was observed until approximately 1 month after stopping dofetilide, with a maximum weight loss of 2.9 kg or a 4.2% decrease. Improvements in appetite were reported 2 months after discontinuing dofetilide, with minor increases in weight that eventually stabilized. In this case, while taking dofetilide, the patient experienced anorexia leading to weight loss that subsided after discontinuation of the drug. Based on the temporal association between the patient's changes in appetite and body weight and treatment with dofetilide, the drug was most likely the cause of the patient's anorexia. We are unaware of other reports of anorexia associated with dofetilide, but clinicians may want to consider the drug as a potential cause for otherwise unexplained changes in appetite or body weight.

17.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 9(6): 297-308, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854391

RESUMO

Antidepressants are widely used medications for a range of medical conditions such as mood disorders and chronic pain in older adults. A vast body of evidence exists concerning the risks of QT interval prolongation associated with these agents and healthcare providers should critically evaluate the potential for QT prolongation when selecting antidepressant agents. Long QT syndrome is a disorder of myocardial repolarization that manifests as a prolonged QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and has been demonstrated to increase with age. The objective of this review is to present and evaluate existing literature regarding the risk of QT prolongation in older adults, age 60 years and older, and discuss the implications for clinical practice. A PubMed search was conducted to identify studies evaluating the QT prolonging effects of antidepressant medications and publications were chosen based on pertinent criteria. Depending on the antidepressant agent and patient-specific factors, clinicians should assess and monitor electrolytes and EGCs to evaluate the risks and benefits for older adults receiving agents known to prolong the QT interval.

18.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 9(4): 219-221, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623187

RESUMO

An increased risk of bacterial resistance toward fluoroquinolones and the increased risk of disabling and serious adverse effects prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to recommend limiting fluoroquinolone use to the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and skin-structure infections, bacterial sinusitis, plague, chronic bronchitis exacerbations, and complicated intra-abdominal infections. We report a case of moxifloxacin-induced tinnitus in an older adult prescribed oral moxifloxacin 400 mg for 5 days for the treatment of acute diverticulitis, due to allergies to nonfluoroquinolone preferred agents. A thorough literature review provided few other reported incidents of this rare and serious adverse event.

20.
Med Teach ; 40(2): 193-198, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare faculty assessment and third year students' self-assessment of performance in clinical case discussions. The secondary objective was to evaluate if student characteristics influence self-assessments. METHODS: This retrospective analysis compared faculty and student self-assessment scores for two clinical case discussions using Spearman's correlation and Wilcoxon's signed ranks test. Chi-squared test was used to compare frequency of faculty and student self-assessments indicating the highest possible rating for the pooled score and for each individual component. The pooled score included three individual components: level of engagement, quality of contribution, and professionalism. RESULTS: Pooled faculty and student self-assessments correlated for both the first (r = 0.41, p < 0.001) and second (r = 0.35; p < 0.001) clinical case discussions. The frequency that faculty and student self-assessment ratings were the highest possible pooled score was similar for both the first (51.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively, p = 0.25) and second (58.6% vs. 47.4%, p = 0.05) clinical case discussions. Student characteristics (age, gender, and grade point average at graduation) did not influence self-assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Students' self-assessment correlated with faculty assessment of performance during clinical case discussions. Increased use of self-assessments for professional development in pharmacy and other healthcare professional curricula should be considered.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico , Educação em Farmácia , Avaliação Educacional , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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