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J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 66-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529808


BACKGROUND: United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) is one of six US Defense Department's geographic combatant commands and is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for military relations with African nations, the African Union, and African regional security organizations. A full-spectrum combatant command, US AFRICOM is responsible for all US Department of Defense operations, exercises, and security cooperation on the African continent, its island nations, and surrounding waters. We seek to characterize blood product administration within AFRICOM using the in-transit visibility tracking tool known as TRAC2ES (TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of TRAC2ES medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. RESULTS: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM, of which 10 (1%) cases received blood products. All patients were males. One was a Department of State employee, one was a military working dog, and the remainder were military personnel. Of the ten humans, seven were the result of trauma, most by way of gunshot wound, and three were due to medical causes. Among human subjects receiving blood products for traumatic injuries, a total of 5 units of type O negative whole blood, 29 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and 9 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused. No subjects underwent massive transfusion of blood products, and only one subject received pRBCs and FFP in 1:1 fashion. All subjects survived until evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Within the TRAC2ES database, blood product administration within AFRICOM was infrequent, with some cases highlighting lack of access to adequate blood products. Furthermore, the limitations within this database highlight the need for systems designed to capture medical care performance improvement, as this database is not designed to support such analyses. A mandate for performance improvement within AFRICOM that is similar to that of the US Central Command would be beneficial if major improvements are to occur.

Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S174-S182, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269446


BACKGROUND: The Compensatory Reserve Measurement (CRM) is a novel method used to provide early assessment of shock based on arterial wave form morphology changes. We hypothesized that (1) CRM would be significantly lower in those trauma patients who received life-saving interventions compared with those not receiving interventions, and (2) CRM in patients who received interventions would recover after the intervention was performed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We captured vital signs along with analog arterial waveform data from trauma patients meeting major activation criteria using a prospective study design. Study team members tracked interventions throughout their emergency department stay. RESULTS: Ninety subjects met inclusion with 13 receiving a blood product and 10 a major airway intervention. Most trauma was blunt (69%) with motor vehicle collisions making up the largest proportion (37%) of injury mechanism. Patients receiving blood products had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (50% versus 58%, p = .045), and lower systolic pressure (SBP; 95 versus 123 mmHg, p = .005), diastolic (DBP; 62 versus 79, p = .007), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 75 versus 95, p = .006), and a higher pulse rate (HR; 101 versus 89 bpm, p = .039). Patients receiving an airway intervention had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (48% versus 58%, p = .062); however, SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR were not statistically distinguishable (p ≥ .645). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypotheses that the CRM distinguished those patients who received blood or an airway intervention from those who did not, and increased appropriately after interventions were performed.

Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Traumático/diagnóstico , Choque Traumático/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(1): 13-16, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161706


Introduction: With personnel scattered throughout a continent 3 times larger than the United States, a lack of mature medical facilities necessitates a significant transportation network for medical evacuation in US Africa Command (AFRICOM). We describe medical evacuations analyzed from the US Air Force Transportation Command Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES). Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all TRAC2ES medical records for medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. We abstracted free text data entry in TRAC2ES for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed prior to the patient movement request. Results: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM. 961 records were complete for analysis. Most patients were male (82%) and military personnel (92%). Most transports originated in Djibouti (72%), and Germany (93%) was the most common destination. Medical evacuations were largely routine (66%), and routine evacuations were proportionally highest amongst US military personnel compared to all other groups. A small portion of patients were evacuated for battle injuries (4%), compared to non-battle injury (33%) and disease (63%). Within disease, the largest proportion of patient complaints centered on gastrointestinal symptoms (13%), behavioral health (11%) and chest pain (8%). Prior to evacuation, only 55% of patients were document as receiving any medication. Pain control was documented in 21% of cases, most commonly being NSAIDs (7%). Discussion: Extremely low numbers of battle injuries highlight the unique nature of AFRICOM operations compared to areas with more intense combat operations. Limitations of the dataset highlight the need for a data collection mandate within AFRICOM as within other areas for optimization and performance improvement.