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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 290, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937867

RESUMO

The Short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ-short) and the STarT Back Tool (SBT) have been developed to screen for risk factors for future low back pain (LBP) -related disability and work loss respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the accordance of the two questionnaires and to evaluate the accumulation of risk factors in the risk groups of both screening tools in a large population-based sample. The study population consisted of 3079 participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 who had reported LBP over the previous 12 months and had SBT and ÖMPSQ-short data. We evaluated the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hopkins symptom check list-25, Generalized anxiety disorder 7 questionnaire, and Beck's Depression Inventory 21), psychological features (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), lifestyle characteristics (BMI, smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity) and social factors (education level) with the SBT and ÖMPSQ-short risk groups. The high-risk groups of both questionnaires were associated (p < 0.001) with depressive and anxiety symptoms and fear-avoidance beliefs. In addition, adverse lifestyle factors accumulated in the higher risk groups, especially from the ÖMPSQ-short. Agreement between the two questionnaires was moderate for men and fair for women.

2.
J Sleep Res ; 29(1): e12940, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691408

RESUMO

Adolescents are at risk of sleep deficit, which has serious consequences for their daytime functioning. However, school-based interventions to improve sleep have shown limited success. This might be due to the content of the programmes (e.g., not targeting central factors such as daytime stress and technology use) or because changes have not been captured due to a lack of long-term follow-ups. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a school-based sleep education curriculum including time-management training. The study used a quasi-experimental design. Participants were 3,622 adolescents (mean age 13.7, 48% girls); 286 were in the intervention group and 3,336 were followed as a natural control group. Data were collected before the intervention and at a 1-year follow-up. We divided participants into three groups according to baseline sleep duration (calculated from self-reported bed- and wake times, minus sleep onset latency): insufficient (<7 hr), borderline (7-8 hr) and adequate (>8 hr). Adolescents in the intervention group were ~2 times less likely to report insufficient sleep at follow-up as compared to controls. Sleep knowledge improved significantly in the intervention group but there were no changes in emotional sleep hygiene (e.g., bedtime worry) and perceived stress. Surprisingly, technology use increased and behavioural sleep hygiene worsened in the intervention group. Although the mechanisms of change need further investigation, the results of this study point to potential long-term benefits of school-based sleep programmes.

3.
Clin J Pain ; 36(3): 172-177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because musculoskeletal pain problems are so prevalent, new methods of evaluating and treating patients are needed to increase effectiveness. Subgrouping is a method wherein patients are classified into defined groups on the basis of psychosocial factors with the expectation of more specific and tailored treatments can be prescribed for them. For those seeking care for a new episode, the risk of developing chronic pain-related disability is assessed, whereas, for those with existing pain, the risk for the maintenance of the chronic pain problem is evaluated. AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to examine how patients are classified into subgroups with regard to methods of evaluation and to ascertain whether subgrouping actually facilitates treatment. RESULTS: For the development of disability, screening tools, for example, the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, accurately stratify patients into groups (eg, high, medium, low risk) that predict future pain-related work disability. In addition, several studies show that treatments that directly key in on risk groups enjoy enhanced outcomes compared with treatment as usual. For the maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain problems, there are several instruments that classify patients into specific groups or profiles, for example, on the basis of the avoidance and endurance model or the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment. Although some evidence shows that these classifications are related to treatment outcome, we found no study that directly tested a system for providing treatment matched to the subgrouping for maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is possible to reliably subgroup patients with musculoskeletal problems. Likewise, treatments that address the risk factors in the screening procedure may enhance outcomes compared with treatment as usual. More work is needed, however, to better understand the mechanism, so that assessment methods can be improved, and treatment specific to subgroups can be developed and evaluated.

4.
Scand J Pain ; 20(1): 9-10, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785197
5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430355

RESUMO

Chronic pain patients enter treatment with different problem profiles making careful assessment a necessity for more individualized treatment plans. In this cross-sectional study we assigned 320 patients entering tertiary multidisciplinary pain treatment into four categories based on whether they scored low or high on the activity and the affective pain interference dimensions of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). To determine whether this categorization system delineates issues that should be assessed further, the categories were compared with ANOVA and MANOVA analyses on three domains: variables affecting physical well-being (body mass index, exercise, substance use), psychological resources (mood), and pain-specific psychological factors (pain anxiety, pain acceptance). The results indicated that subjects who scored low on both interference dimensions compared similarly in weight: mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 27.0 (SD 6.0) kg/m2, and exercise: mean of 2.4 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions over 20 minutes per week, to the general population, had no depressive symptoms on average: mean Beck Depression Index II (BDI-II) score 11.7 (SD 7.5), and had the most favorable psychological reactions to pain relative to the other categories: mean total Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20) score 36.4 (SD 17.9). In contrast, when interference was high on activity, more physical well-being problems were evident e.g. weight: mean BMI 31.0 (SD 7.3) kg/m2, diminished exercise: mean of 1.5 (SD 1.6) exercising sessions per week, and avoidance behavior: mean PASS-20 Escape/Avoidance subscale 3.7 (95% CI: 1.7 to 5.8) scores higher in comparison to activity interference remaining low. With high affective interference, more depressive symptoms: mean BDI-II score 17.7 (SD 7.3), and more cognitive pain anxiety: mean PASS-20 Cognitive Anxiety subscale 2.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 4.8) scores higher in comparison to affective interference remaining low, emerged. Having high interference on both dimensions indicated accumulated risks for reduced physical well-being: mean BMI 29.9 (SD 6.1) kg/m2, mean of 1.2 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions per week, mood problems: mean BDI-II 20.3 (SD 10.6), and negative psychological reactions to pain: mean total PASS-20 score 53.2 (18.4). The results suggest that low interference on both dimensions may allow assessment with only physician consultations, while high interference on either dimension may call attention to distinct issues to be addressed with the help of a physiotherapist or a psychologist, whereas high interference on both dimensions highlights the need for a full multidisciplinary assessment.

6.
Pain ; 160(8): 1708-1718, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335641

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.

7.
Pain ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985624

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

8.
Behav Res Ther ; 117: 28-39, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853096

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the process of change at an individual level, this study used a single-case experimental design to evaluate how change in potential mediators related to change in disability over time, during an exposure-based behavioural intervention in four people with chronic low back pain and high pain-related fear. A second aim was to evaluate whether the change (sequential or simultaneous) in mediators and disability occurred at the same timepoint for all individuals. RESULTS: For all participants, visual and statistical analyses indicated that changes in disability and proposed mediators were clearly related to the commencement of Cognitive Functional Therapy. This was supported by standard outcome assessments at pre-post timepoints. Cross-lag correlation analysis determined that, for all participants, most of the proposed mediators (pain intensity, pain controllability, and fear) were most strongly associated with disability at lag zero, suggesting that mediators changed concomitantly and not before disability. Importantly, these changes occurred at different rates and patterns for different individuals, highlighting the individual temporal variability of change. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the interplay of factors associated with treatment response, highlighting 'how change unfolded' uniquely for each individual. The findings that factors underpinning treatment response and the outcome changed simultaneously, challenge the traditional understanding of therapeutic change.

9.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4(1): 52, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546064

RESUMO

Low back pain affects individuals of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Despite advancements in assessment and treatment methods, the management of low back pain remains a challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. One reason for the limited success in identifying effective treatments is the large variation in the manifestations, possible causes, precipitating and maintaining factors, course, prognosis and consequences in terms of activity interference and quality of life. However, despite these challenges, steady progress has been achieved in the understanding of back pain, and important steps in the understanding of the psychological and social risk factors, genetics and brain mechanisms of low back pain have been made. These new findings have given impetus to the development of new diagnostic procedures, evidence-based screening methods and more targeted interventions, which underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of low back pain that integrates biological, psychological and social aspects.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/terapia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Humanos , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 44(5): 521-529, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893981

RESUMO

Objectives Spinal (ie, back and neck) pain often develops as early as during adolescence and can set a trajectory for later life. However, whether early-life spinal-pain-related behavioral responses of missing school/work are predictive of future work absenteeism is yet unknown. We assessed the association of adolescent spinal-pain-related work or school absenteeism with early adulthood work absenteeism in a prospective population-based cohort. Methods Six year follow-up data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were used (N=476; with a 54% response rate). At age 17, participants reported spinal pain (using the Nordic questionnaire) and adolescent spinal-pain-related work/school absenteeism (with a single item question). Annual total and health-related work absenteeism was assessed with the Health and Work Performance questionnaire distributed in four quarterly text messages during the 23rd year of age. We modelled the association of adolescent spinal-pain-related absenteeism with work absenteeism during early adulthood, using negative binomial regression adjusting for sex, occupation and comorbidities. Results Participants with adolescent low-back or neck pain with work/school absenteeism reported higher total work absenteeism in early adulthood [148.7, standard deviation (SD) 243.4 hours/year], than those without pain [43.7 (SD 95.2) hours/year); incidence rate ratio 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-9.2)]. Comparable findings were found when considering low-back and neck separately, and when considering health-related absenteeism. Conclusions We found a more than three-fold higher risk of work absenteeism in early adulthood among those with adolescent spinal-pain-related absenteeism, compared to those without. These findings suggest that, to keep a sustainable workforce, pain prevention and management should focus on pain-related behaviors as early as in adolescence.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Cervicalgia/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 111, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people suffering chronic pain are plagued by sleeping difficulties. Cognitive behaviour therapy has produced promising results for insomnia comorbid with chronic pain, but the access to such treatment is often limited. Over the last ten years, interventions aiming to increase cognitive flexibility and physical activity have been assumed to be effective treatments for a variety of conditions, including insomnia and chronic pain. If proven effective, these treatments could constitute the first steps in a stepped care model for chronic pain and insomnia. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-nine chronic pain subjects were randomized to Exercise, ACT-based stress management (ACT-bsm), or an active control group. Two hundred thirty-two participants (78%) received their allocated intervention at least to some extent. These participants were evaluated using mixed model analyses for changes in sleep (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI), pain intensity, depression, and anxiety immediately after treatment, six months and twelve months after treatment. RESULTS: The mixed model analyses revealed that Exercise had a positive effect on insomnia compared with the control group and the effect remained after 12 months. No clear effect (i.e., both for completers and for completers together with treatment non-completers) upon ISI was found for the ACT-bsm. Pain intensity decreased significantly both in the exercise group and in the control group. For the two psychological variables (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) were found significant improvements over time but no group differences. The treatment effects for ISI and pain intensity did not reach clinical significance per definitions presented in other relevant studies. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficial significant effects on insomnia was confirmed in the exercise condition. However, these changes were probably not clinically important. For pain intensity a general decrease was found in the Exercise condition and in the control condition, while no change occurred in ACT-bsm. No group differences were found for the two psychological variables. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Clinical Trials (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT02399644 , 21 January 2015, retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Dor Crônica/terapia , Exercício Físico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Dor Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia
13.
Phys Ther ; 98(5): 315-324, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669087

RESUMO

The etiology of chronic pain-related disability is not fully understood, particularly from a clinical perspective. Investigations to date have identified risk factors and elucidated some important processes driving the development of persistent pain problems. Yet this knowledge and its application are not always accessible to practicing physical therapists or other clinicians. This article aims to summarize the main psychological processes involved in the development of chronic pain disability and to derive some guidelines for treatment and future research. To this end, the focus is on the paradox of why coping strategies that are helpful in the short term continue to be used even when-ironically-they maintain the problem in the long term. To aid in summarizing current knowledge, 4 tenets that elucidate the etiology of chronic pain are described. These tenets emphasize that chronic pain disability is a developmental process over time, contextual factors set the stage for this development, underlying transdiagnostic psychological factors fuel this development, and the principles of learning steer the development of pain behaviors. With these tenets, an explanation of how a chronic problem develops for one person but not another is provided. Finally, hypotheses that can be empirically tested to guide clinical application as well as basic research are generated. In conclusion, understanding the psychological processes underlying the etiology of chronic pain provides testable ideas and a path forward for improving treatment interventions.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adaptação Psicológica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Medição da Dor
14.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 54(1): 34-40, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) was developed to identify patients at risk of developing work disability due to pain. So far, neither the ÖMPSQ or its short version (ÖMSPQ-short) have been tested in population-based samples. AIM: We examined the associations between several well-known determinants for chronic pain and ÖMPSQ-Short Score. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: All measurements and tests were made at the University of Oulu. POPULATION: Subjects belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 answered a questionnaire at the age of 46 years (N.=5637). METHODS: The questionnaire included the ÖMPSQ-short as well as questions about smoking, education, location, number of pain sites, and physical activity. In addition, body weight and height were measured in order to calculate the Body Mass Index. RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression analysis, reporting 4-5 pain sites (females OR 3.4; males 3.0), ≥6 pain sites (females OR 12.4; males 7.4) and current smoking (females 1.8; males 2.6) were associated with being classified into the ÖMPSQ high risk group. In females, also obesity (OR 1.6) and less than 9 years of education (2.7) were associated with higher ÖMPSQ Score. The frequency of physical activity was not associated with the ÖMPSQ Score. CONCLUSIONS: High number of pain sites and smoking among both genders, and obesity and low education level among females is associated with higher ÖMPSQ scores. Therefore, the ÖMPSQ-short may be a working instrument for also screening the general population. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Results of this study may improve the detection of patients at high risk of developing work disability due to pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 220-225, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Context insensitivity has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the high co-occurrence of pain and emotional distress. In the pain literature, the concept has only been introduced at a theoretical level and an assessment tool for exploring its impact is lacking. In an interpersonal setting, a core aspect of context sensitivity and insensitivity concerns when to disclose and when to avoid expressing pain and related distress. Both context insensitive disclosure and context insensitive avoidance may hamper interpersonal support and fuel the problem. This exploratory study describes an attempt to develop a self-report instrument to assess tendencies to disclose vs. avoid expressions of pain and related distress, as well as self-perceived adjustment of disclosure vs. avoidance to the context. METHODS: A pool of items was systematically developed to assess different aspects of context insensitivity, including disclosure vs. avoidance of expression. 105 participants with persistent pain were recruited at pain rehabilitation clinics (80% of the sample) and in a university setting (20% of the sample). The participants responded to the pool of items as well as to a number of validated self-report instruments covering pain, pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, emotion regulation tendencies, self-compassion and pain acceptance. The analyses explored the factorial structure of the initial instrument, as well as the criterion and construct validity. RESULTS: The analyses confirmed a stable underlying structure of the initial scale, with four distinct factors explaining 64.4% of the total variance. However, the criterion and construct validity could only be confirmed for one of the factors, which contained items reflecting context insensitive avoidance of expression. Consequently, only this factor, demonstrating very good internal consistency, was kept in the final version of the instrument which was named context insensitive avoidance (CIA). CONCLUSIONS: We found support for the final version of our instrument, capturing one prominent aspect of context insensitivity. Avoidance of expression was related to higher ratings of pain, disability, catastrophizing and suppression as well as to lower levels of self-compassion. We encourage further studies to explore the impact of context insensitive avoidance for regulating pain and associated negative emotions. Yet, more research is needed that goes beyond self-report and includes other aspects of context. It is urgent to develop systematic ways for assessing context insensitivity, as it will enhance our understanding of regulatory strategies as potential transdiagnostic mechanisms in pain and emotion. IMPLICATIONS: This tool for assessing contextually insensitive avoidance of expression could potentially be used both clinically and in future research to advance our understanding of comorbid problems with pain and emotional distress. Further research is needed to develop methods for assessing other aspects of context insensitivity to fully understand its impact in patients suffering from pain.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/psicologia , Emoções , Dor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 302-308, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic vulvovaginal pain is strikingly common and has a serious impact on women's lives. Nevertheless, there are few longitudinal studies focusing on mechanisms involved in the pain development. One area of interest is how women cope with sexual activities and how this affects their pain. In this study, avoidance and endurance coping behaviors were explored as possible mediators of the relation between catastrophizing and pain, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. METHODS: 251 women (18-35 years old) with vulvovaginal pain were recruited in university settings and filled out questionnaires about their pain, catastrophizing and coping behaviors at two occasions, with five months in between. Multiple mediation models were tested, exploring avoidance and endurance as mediators of the relation between catastrophizing and pain. RESULTS: The results showed that avoidance was an influential mediator of the link between catastrophizing and pain. Using multiple mediation models we found that although the indirect effects of both avoidance and endurance were significant cross-sectionally, only avoidance was a significant mediator in the combined model exploring associations over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the strategies women with vulvovaginal pain use for coping with sexual activities are important for the course of pain. Avoidance and, to a lesser degree, endurance strategies were identified as important mediators of the effects of catastrophizing on pain. When exploring the links over time, only avoidance emerged as a significant mediator. IMPLICATIONS: In this longitudinal study, catastrophizing was linked to vulvovaginal pain, via avoidance and endurance of sexual activities. Hence, targeting catastrophizing early on in treatment, as well as addressing coping, may be important in clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Dor Pélvica/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Vaginais/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Vulva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 118-125, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing recall of instructions and advice in a pain consultation is important, since it is a prerequisite for adherence to treatment recommendations. However, interference due to pain-related distress may result in poor recall. Whereas there are some indications that recall can be increased by empathic communication that reduces interference, this interesting possibility remains largely untested experimentally. The current experiment aimed at studying effects of empathic communication, and more specifically validation, on recall during a pain test and possible mediators and moderators of this effect. METHOD: Participants received either validating (N=25) or invalidating responses (N=25) from the experimenter during a pain provoking task, followed by self-report measures of interference (affect, situational pain catastrophizing) and recall (accurate and false memories of words). RESULTS: As expected, the validated group exhibited higher accurate recall and less false memories following the pain test as compared to the invalidated group. This was partly due to the effect of interference being counteracted by moderating the relationship between pain catastrophizing and recall. CONCLUSION: These novel results suggest that validating communication can counteract interference due to pain catastrophizing on recall, at least in a controlled experimental setting. IMPLICATIONS: Good communication by health professionals is of utmost importance for adherence to pain management. The current results expand our knowledge on the effects of pain communication by establishing and explaining a clear link between empathic communication and recall, highlighting the role of pain catastrophizing.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Voluntários Saudáveis , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 77-86, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Validating and invalidating responses play an important role in communication with pain patients, for example regarding emotion regulation and adherence to treatment. However, it is unclear how patients' perceptions of validation and invalidation relate to patient characteristics and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of subgroups based on pain patients' perceptions of validation and invalidation from their physicians. The stability of these perceptions and differences between subgroups regarding pain, pain interference, negative affectivity and treatment outcome were also explored. METHODS: A total of 108 pain patients answered questionnaires regarding perceived validation and invalidation, pain severity, pain interference, and negative affectivity before and after pain rehabilitation treatment. Two cluster analyses using perceived validation and invalidation were performed, one on pre-scores and one on post-scores. The stability of patient perceptions from pre- to post-treatment was investigated, and clusters were compared on pain severity, pain interference, and negative affectivity. Finally, the connection between perceived validation and invalidation and treatment outcome was explored. RESULTS: Three clusters emerged both before and after treatment: (1) low validation and heightened invalidation, (2) moderate validation and invalidation, and (3) high validation and low invalidation. Perceptions of validation and invalidation were generally stable over time, although there were individuals whose perceptions changed. When compared to the other two clusters, the low validation/heightened invalidation cluster displayed significantly higher levels of pain interference and negative affectivity post-treatment but not pre-treatment. The whole sample significantly improved on pain interference and depression, but treatment outcome was independent of cluster. Unexpectedly, differences between clusters on pain interference and negative affectivity were only found post-treatment. This appeared to be due to the pre- and post-heightened invalidation clusters not containing the same individuals. Therefore, additional analyses were conducted to investigate the individuals who changed clusters. Results showed that patients scoring high on negative affectivity ended up in the heightened invalidation cluster post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, most patients felt understood when communicating with their rehabilitation physician. However, a smaller group of patients experienced the opposite: low levels of validation and heightened levels of invalidation. This group stood out as more problematic, reporting greater pain interference and negative affectivity when compared to the other groups after treatment. Patient perceptions were typically stable over time, but some individuals changed cluster, and these movements seemed to be related to negative affectivity and pain interference. These results do not support a connection between perceived validation and invalidation from physicians (meeting the patients pre- and post-treatment) and treatment outcome. Overall, our results suggest that there is a connection between negative affectivity and pain interference in the patients, and perceived validation and invalidation from the physicians. IMPLICATIONS: In clinical practice, it is important to pay attention to comorbid psychological problems and level of pain interference, since these factors may negatively influence effective communication. A focus on decreasing invalidating responses and/or increasing validating responses might be particularly important for patients with high levels of psychological problems and pain interference.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Comunicação , Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin J Pain ; 33(11): 962-975, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is preliminary evidence for the efficacy of positive psychology interventions for pain management. The current study examined the effects of an internet-based positive psychology self-help program for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and compared it with an internet-based cognitive-behavioral program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 3 conditions: an internet-delivered positive psychology program, an internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral program and waitlist control. A total of 276 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 conditions and posttreatment data were obtained from 206 patients. Primary outcomes were happiness, depression, and physical impairments at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses were carried out using mixed regression analyses. RESULTS: Both treatments led to significant increases in happiness and decreases in depression. Physical impairments did not significantly decrease compared with waitlist. Improvements in happiness and depression were maintained until 6-month follow-up. There were no overall differences in the efficacy of the 2 active interventions but effects seemed to be moderated by education. Patients with a higher level of education profited slightly more from the positive psychology intervention than from the cognitive-behavioral program. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that an internet-based positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral self-help interventions for the management of chronic pain are clinically useful. Because the self-help exercises as used in the current program do not require therapist involvement, dissemination potential is large. Further studies should examine whether it can best be used as stand-alone or add-on treatment combined with established pain treatment programs.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Internet , Manejo da Dor , Psicoterapia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Psicoterapia/métodos , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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