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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671151

RESUMO

Three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) occur in mammals. High levels of NO produced by NOS2/iNOS can protect against bacterial and parasitic infections, but the role of NOS in fungal innate immunity is less clear. Compared to wild type mice, Nos3-/- mice showed significantly higher survival of candidemia caused by Candida albicans SC5314. NOS3/eNOS is expressed by endothelial cells in the kidney, and colonization of this organ was decreased during the sub-acute stage of disseminated candidiasis. Nos3-/- mice more rapidly eliminated Candida from the renal cortex and exhibited more balanced local inflammatory reactions, with similar macrophage but less neutrophil infiltration than in infected wild type. Levels of the serum cytokines IL-9, IL-12, IL-17 and chemokines GM-CSF, MIP1α, and MIP1ß were significantly elevated, and IL-15 was significantly lower in infected Nos3-/- mice. Spleens of infected Nos3-/- mice had significantly more Th2 and Th9 but not other CD4+ T cells compared with wild type. Inflammatory genes associated with leukocyte chemotaxis, IL-1 signaling, TLR signaling and Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation pathways were significantly overexpressed in infected Nos3-/- kidneys, with Nos2 being the most strongly induced. Conversely, the general NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increased virulence in the mouse candidemia model, suggesting that iNOS contributes to the protective mechanism in infected Nos3-/- mice. By moderating neutrophil infiltration, the absence of eNOS may reduce the collateral damage to kidney cortex, and Th-9 CD4+ cells may enhance clearance of the infection. These data suggest that selective eNOS inhibition could mitigate candidemia by a combination of systemic and local responses that promote a more effective host immune response.

2.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567735

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) most often occur secondary to acquired immunodeficiency states such as transplantation, AIDS or immune-modulatory treatment for neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. Apart from these acquired conditions, several primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) can present with IFIs in the absence of iatrogenic immunosuppression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of PIDs that cause IFIs, which may help clinicians in the diagnosis and management of such infections. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing number of PIDs that cause varying combinations of invasive infections by commensal Candida, inhaled molds (primarily Aspergillus), Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis, endemic dimorphic fungi, dermatophytes, and/or agents of phaeohyphomycosis has uncovered the organ- and fungus-specific requirements for effective antifungal host defense in humans. Employing certain diagnostic algorithms tailored to the infecting fungus can facilitate the genetic diagnosis of the underlying PID, which has implications for the optimal management of affected patients. SUMMARY: Heightened clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of underlying genetic defects in patients who develop IFIs in the absence of acquired immunodeficiency. Early initiation of antifungal therapy followed by long-term secondary prophylaxis is typically needed to achieve remission, but hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation may sometimes be necessary to promote immune restoration and infection control.

3.
Trends Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494023

RESUMO

The mammalian immune system has evolved the capacity to detect and destroy tumor cells. Tumors utilize multiple strategies to evade host immune surveillance, including the induction of the checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) to suppress antitumor immunity. Pharmacologic blockade of these molecules with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) restores T cell function and prolongs survival in patients with various malignancies. Emerging evidence suggests that the same checkpoint pathways may play a crucial role during infections. Indeed, CPIs appear promising as immunotherapeutic agents in infectious diseases, although their efficacy varies depending on pathogen-, cell-, and organ-specific factors. More research will be necessary to clarify the effects and safety of CPIs on clinically relevant outcomes of human infection.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 220(9): 1477-1488, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidalysin is a cytolytic peptide toxin secreted by Candida albicans hyphae and has significantly advanced our understanding of fungal pathogenesis. Candidalysin is critical for mucosal C albicans infections and is known to activate epithelial cells to induce downstream innate immune responses that are associated with protection or immunopathology during oral or vaginal infections. Furthermore, candidalysin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and causes cytolysis in mononuclear phagocytes. However, the role of candidalysin in driving systemic infections is unknown. METHODS: In this study, using candidalysin-producing and candidalysin-deficient C albicans strains, we show that candidalysin activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and chemokine secretion in endothelial cells in vitro. RESULTS: Candidalysin induces immune activation and neutrophil recruitment in vivo, and it promotes mortality in zebrafish and murine models of systemic fungal infection. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate a key role for candidalysin in neutrophil recruitment and fungal virulence during disseminated systemic C albicans infections.

5.
Cell Rep ; 28(2): 423-433.e5, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291578

RESUMO

During oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), Candida albicans proliferates and invades the superficial oral epithelium. Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) functions as an oral epithelial cell ß-glucan receptor that triggers the production of proinflammatory mediators in response to fungal infection. Because EphA2 is also expressed by neutrophils, we investigated its role in neutrophil candidacidal activity during OPC. We found that EphA2 on stromal cells is required for the accumulation of phagocytes in the oral mucosa of mice with OPC. EphA2 on neutrophils is also central to host defense against OPC. The interaction of neutrophil EphA2 with serum-opsonized C. albicans yeast activates the MEK-ERK signaling pathway, leading to NADPH subunit p47phox site-specific phospho-priming. This priming increases intracellular reactive oxygen species production and enhances fungal killing. Thus, in neutrophils, EphA2 serves as a receptor for ß-glucans that augments Fcγ receptor-mediated antifungal activity and controls early fungal proliferation during OPC.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(5): 559-570, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996332

RESUMO

The C-type lectin receptor-Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) adaptor CARD9 facilitates protective antifungal immunity within the central nervous system (CNS), as human deficiency in CARD9 causes susceptibility to fungus-specific, CNS-targeted infection. CARD9 promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to the fungus-infected CNS, which mediates fungal clearance. In the present study we investigated host and pathogen factors that promote protective neutrophil recruitment during invasion of the CNS by Candida albicans. The cytokine IL-1ß served an essential function in CNS antifungal immunity by driving production of the chemokine CXCL1, which recruited neutrophils expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR2. Neutrophil-recruiting production of IL-1ß and CXCL1 was induced in microglia by the fungus-secreted toxin Candidalysin, in a manner dependent on the kinase p38 and the transcription factor c-Fos. Notably, microglia relied on CARD9 for production of IL-1ß, via both transcriptional regulation of Il1b and inflammasome activation, and of CXCL1 in the fungus-infected CNS. Microglia-specific Card9 deletion impaired the production of IL-1ß and CXCL1 and neutrophil recruitment, and increased fungal proliferation in the CNS. Thus, an intricate network of host-pathogen interactions promotes antifungal immunity in the CNS; this is impaired in human deficiency in CARD9, which leads to fungal disease of the CNS.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Candida albicans/imunologia , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candidíase/genética , Candidíase/microbiologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/microbiologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/genética , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/microbiologia
8.
Sci Immunol ; 4(34)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979797

RESUMO

Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations result in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome characterized by defective central T cell tolerance and the production of many autoantibodies targeting tissue-specific antigens and cytokines. By studying CD3- and AIRE-deficient patients, we found that lack of either T cells or AIRE function resulted in the peripheral accumulation of autoreactive mature naïve B cells. Proteomic arrays and Biacore affinity measurements revealed that unmutated antibodies expressed by these autoreactive naïve B cells recognized soluble molecules and cytokines including insulin, IL-17A, and IL-17F, which are AIRE-dependent thymic peripheral tissue antigens targeted by autoimmune responses in APECED. AIRE-deficient patients also displayed decreased frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that lacked common TCRß clones found instead in their conventional T cell compartment, thereby suggesting holes in the Treg TCR repertoire of these patients. Hence, AIRE-mediated T cell/Treg selection normally prevents the expansion of autoreactive naïve B cells recognizing peripheral self-antigens.

9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(3): 347-349, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870617

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a commensal fungus of the human gut, but also causes life-threatening systemic infections. Recent studies published in Cell Host & Microbe (Witchley et al., 2019) and Science (Tso et al., 2018) provide insights into the determinants of C. albicans commensal fitness within the mammalian gut.


Assuntos
Candidíase/microbiologia , Animais , Candida albicans , Humanos , Mamíferos , Simbiose
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1952: 219-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825178

RESUMO

Matrigel is extracted from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma in C57BL/6 mice, a tumor rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. It consists mainly of laminin (approximately 60%), collagen IV (approximately 30%), and nidogen-1/entactin (approximately 8%), while it also contains heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as perlecan, other ECM proteins, as well as growth factors bound to the ECM. Matrigel mimics the physiological cell matrix and is the most commonly used matrix substrate to study in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. Here, we describe the in vivo Matrigel plug assay and how it can be used for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Laminina/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Proteoglicanas/química , Animais , Separação Celular/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microtomia/métodos , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27732, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900813

RESUMO

Invasive fusariosis (IF) most commonly occurs in patients with hematologic malignancies and severe neutropenia, particularly during concomitant corticosteroid use. Breakthrough infections can occur in high-risk patients despite Aspergillus-active antifungal prophylaxis. We describe a patient with rapid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) progression who presented with multifocal skin nodules thought to be choloromatous disease. These lesions were ultimately diagnosed as IF and the patient had two simultaneously active disease processes. This case highlights the importance of pathologic diagnosis of new skin lesions in ALL patients, even during leukemia progression, and demonstrates that IF can occur despite normal neutrophil counts and Aspergillus-active prophylaxis.

12.
Blood ; 133(18): 1977-1988, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723080

RESUMO

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), through interactions with reduced NAD phosphate oxidase component p67 phox , activates neutrophil superoxide production, whereas interactions with p21-activated kinase are necessary for fMLF-induced actin remodeling. We identified 3 patients with de novo RAC2[E62K] mutations resulting in severe T- and B-cell lymphopenia, myeloid dysfunction, and recurrent respiratory infections. Neutrophils from RAC2[E62K] patients exhibited excessive superoxide production, impaired fMLF-directed chemotaxis, and abnormal macropinocytosis. Cell lines transfected with RAC2[E62K] displayed characteristics of active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound RAC2 including enhanced superoxide production and increased membrane ruffling. Biochemical studies demonstrated that RAC2[E62K] retains intrinsic GTP hydrolysis; however, GTPase-activating protein failed to accelerate hydrolysis resulting in prolonged active GTP-bound RAC2. Rac2+/E62K mice phenocopy the T- and B-cell lymphopenia, increased neutrophil F-actin, and excessive superoxide production seen in patients. This gain-of-function mutation highlights a specific, nonredundant role for RAC2 in hematopoietic cells that discriminates RAC2 from the related, ubiquitous RAC1.

13.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 103-120, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565240

RESUMO

The discovery of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein and the delineation of its critical contributions in the establishment of central immune tolerance has significantly expanded our understanding of the immunological mechanisms that protect from the development of autoimmune disease. The parallel identification and characterization of patient cohorts with the monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), which is typically caused by biallelic AIRE mutations, has underscored the critical contribution of AIRE in fungal immune surveillance at mucosal surfaces and in prevention of multiorgan autoimmunity in humans. In this review, we synthesize the current clinical, genetic, molecular and immunological knowledge derived from basic studies in Aire-deficient animals and from APECED patient cohorts. We also outline major advances and research endeavors that show promise for informing improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with APECED.

14.
Curr Fungal Infect Rep ; 12(2): 92-97, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393511

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Candida infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a life-threatening complication of invasive infections that most often affect vulnerable groups of patients, including neonates and children with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). Here, we review the currently known risk factors for CNS candidiasis, focusing predominantly on the PID caused by biallelic mutations in CARD9. Recent Findings: How the CNS is protected itself against fungal invasion is poorly understood. CARD9 promotes neutrophil recruitment and function, and is the only molecule shown to be critical for protection against CNS candidiasis in humans thus far. Summary: Fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of CNS candidiasis gained from studying rare CARD9-deficient patients has significant implications for other patients at risk for this disease, such as CARD9-sufficient neonates. These findings will be important for the development of adjunctive immune-based therapies, which are urgently needed to tackle the global burden of invasive fungal diseases.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4260, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323213

RESUMO

Clearance of invading microbes requires phagocytes of the innate immune system. However, successful pathogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade immune killing. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages, but causes inflammasome activation, host cytolysis, and escapes after hypha formation. Previous studies suggest that macrophage lysis by C. albicans results from early inflammasome-dependent cell death (pyroptosis), late damage due to glucose depletion and membrane piercing by growing hyphae. Here we show that Candidalysin, a cytolytic peptide toxin encoded by the hypha-associated gene ECE1, is both a central trigger for NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation via potassium efflux and a key driver of inflammasome-independent cytolysis of macrophages and dendritic cells upon infection with C. albicans. This suggests that Candidalysin-induced cell damage is a third mechanism of C. albicans-mediated mononuclear phagocyte cell death in addition to damage caused by pyroptosis and the growth of glucose-consuming hyphae.

16.
JCI Insight ; 3(17)2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185668

RESUMO

Studies in patients with genetic defects can provide unique insights regarding the role of specific genes and pathways in humans. Patients with defects in the Th17/IL-17 axis, such as patients harboring loss-of-function STAT3 mutations (autosomal-dominant hyper IgE syndrome; AD-HIES) present with recurrent oral fungal infections. Our studies aimed to comprehensively evaluate consequences of STAT3 deficiency on the oral commensal microbiome. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in AD-HIES in the presence and absence of oral fungal infection compared with healthy volunteers. Analyses of oral mucosal fungal communities in AD-HIES revealed severe dysbiosis with dominance of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in actively infected patients and minimal representation of health-associated fungi and/or opportunists. Bacterial communities also displayed dysbiosis in AD-HIES, particularly in the setting of active Candida infection. Active candidiasis was associated with decreased microbial diversity and enrichment of the streptococci Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis) and S. mutans, suggesting an interkingdom interaction of C. albicans with oral streptococci. Increased abundance of S. mutans was consistent with susceptibility to dental caries in AD-HIES. Collectively, our findings illustrate a critical role for STAT3/Th17 in the containment of C. albicans as a commensal organism and an overall contribution in the establishment of fungal and bacterial oral commensal communities.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1836, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127791

RESUMO

CARD9 is a signaling adaptor protein that is involved in the transduction of signals from a variety of innate pattern recognition receptors, including the C-type lectin receptors and intracellular NOD receptors and nucleic acid sensors. As a result, CARD9 has been shown in animal models to be an important regulator of immunity to bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Studies in humans with autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency have indicated a highly specific role for this molecule in the activation of antifungal immune responses in the central nervous system, the oral mucosa, and the skin. Moreover, CARD9-dependent functions have recently been indicated to modulate the development of autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer. In this mini-review, we highlight the recent studies that have identified several novel functions of CARD9 in various disease contexts, and we summarize the contemporary understanding of the genetics and immunology of human CARD9 deficiency.

19.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(9): 1074, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895959

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the authors described the ANT compound used in their study as 4-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ANT). The authors now wish to clarify that the ANT compound used was actually a 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid derivative1 that has been shown to inhibit not only the enzymatic activity of EphA2, but also several unrelated enzymes2. The description of the compound in the Article has now been changed to 4-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid derivative (ANT) to reflect this.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(10): 1621-1630, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860307

RESUMO

Although the widespread use of mold-active agents (especially the new generation of triazoles) has resulted in reductions of documented invasive mold infections (IMIs) in patients with hematological malignancies and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a subset of such patients still develop breakthrough IMIs (bIMIs). There are no data from prospective randomized clinical trials to guide therapeutic decisions in the different scenarios of bIMIs. In this viewpoint, we present the current status of our understanding of the clinical, diagnostic, and treatment challenges of bIMIs in high-risk adult patients with hematological cancer and/or HSCT receiving mold-active antifungals and outline common clinical scenarios. As a rule, managing bIMIs demands an individualized treatment plan that takes into account the host, including comorbidities, certainty of diagnosis and site of bIMIs, local epidemiology, considerations for fungal resistance, and antifungal pharmacological properties. Finally, we highlight areas that require future investigation in this complex area of clinical mycology.

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