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1.
J Organomet Chem ; 9212020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773887

RESUMO

[Cp*Rh] complexes (Cp* = η 5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) supported by bidentate chelating ligands are useful in studies of redox chemistry and catalysis, but little information is available for derivatives bearing "hybrid" [P,N] chelates. Here, the preparation, structural characterization, and chemical and electrochemical properties of a [Cp*Rh] complex bearing the κ2-[P,N]-2-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine ligand (PN) are reported. Cyclic voltammetry data reveal that [Cp*Rh(PN)Cl]PF6 (1) undergoes a chemically reversible, net two-electron reduction at -1.28 V vs. ferrocenium/ferrocene, resulting in generation of a rhodium(I) complex (3) that is stable on the timescale of the voltammetry. However, 1H and 31P{1H} NMR studies reveal that chemical reduction of 1 generates a mixture of products over a 1 h timescale; this mixture forms as a result of deprotonation of the methylene group of 1 by 3 followed by further reactivity. The analogous complex [Cp*Rh(PQN)Cl]PF6 (2; PQN = κ2-[P,N]-8-(diphenylphosphino)quinoline) does not undergo self-deprotonation or further reactivity upon two-electron reduction, confirming the reactivity of the acidic backbone methylene C-H bonds in the PN complexes. Comparison of the electrochemical properties 1 and 2 also shows that the extended conjugated system of PQN contributes to an additional ligand-centered redox event for 2 that is absent for 1.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 3032-3041, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927996

RESUMO

Capture and activation of the water-soluble uranyl dication (UO22+) remains a challenging problem, as few rational approaches are available for modulating the reactivity of this species. Here, we report the divergent synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes in which UO22+ is held in close proximity to a range of redox-inactive metals by a tailored macrocyclic ligand. Crystallographic and spectroscopic studies confirm assembly of homologous UVI(µ-OAr)2Mn+ cores with a range of mono-, di-, and trivalent Lewis acids (Mn+). Cyclic voltammetry data demonstrate that the UVI/UV reduction potential in these complexes is modulated over a span of 600 mV, depending linearly on the Lewis acidity of the redox-inactive metal with a sensitivity of 61 ± 9 mV/pKa unit. These findings suggest that interactions with Lewis acids could be effectively leveraged for rational tuning of the electronic and thermochemical properties of the 5f elements, reminiscent of strategies more commonly employed with 3d transition metals.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 48(33): 12396-12406, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168559

RESUMO

[Cp*Rh] complexes (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) supported by bidentate chelating ligands are a useful class of compounds for studies of redox chemistry and catalysis. Here, we show that the bis(2-pyridyl)methane ligand, also known as dipyridylmethane or dpma, can support [Cp*Rh] complexes in the formally +iii and +ii rhodium oxidation states. Specifically, two new rhodium complexes ([Cp*Rh(dpma)(L)]n+, L = Cl-, CH3CN) have been isolated and structurally characterized, and the properties of the complexes have been compared with those of [Cp*Rh] complexes bearing the related dimethyldipyridylmethane (Me2dpma) ligand. Complex [Cp*Rh(dpma)(NCCH3)]2+ displays a quasireversible rhodium(iii/ii) reduction by cyclic voltammetry; related electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies confirm access to the unusual rhodium(ii) oxidation state. Further reduction to the formally rhodium(i) oxidation state, however, is followed by deprotonation of dpma, as observed in electrochemical studies and chemical reduction experiments. This reactivity can be understood to occur as a consequence of the presence of doubly benzylic protons in the dpma ligand, since use of the analogous Me2dpma enables reduction to rhodium(i) without involvement of ligand deprotonation. These findings highlight the important role of the ligand backbone substitution pattern in influencing the stability of highly-reduced complexes, a key class of metal species for study of electron and proton management in catalysis.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 58(4): 2336-2345, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730725

RESUMO

The modulation of the reactivity of metal oxo species by redox inactive metals has attracted much interest due to the observation of redox inactive metal effects on processes involving electron transfer both in nature (the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II) and in heterogeneous catalysis (mixed-metal oxides). Studies of small-molecule models of these systems have revealed numerous instances of effects of redox inactive metals on electron- and group-transfer reactivity. However, the heterometallic species directly involved in these transformations have rarely been structurally characterized and are often generated in situ. We have previously reported the preparation and structural characterization of multiple series of heterometallic clusters based on Mn3 and Fe3 cores and described the effects of Lewis acidity of the heterometal incorporated in these complexes on cluster reduction potential. To determine the effects of Lewis acidity of redox inactive metals on group transfer reactivity in structurally well-defined complexes, we studied [Mn3MO4], [Mn3MO(OH)], and [Fe3MO(OH)] clusters in oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions with phosphine substrates. The qualitative rate of OAT correlates with the Lewis acidity of the redox inactive metal, confirming that Lewis acidic metal centers can affect the chemical reactivity of metal oxo species by modulating cluster electronics.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(6): 3606-3615, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256096

RESUMO

Monomeric half-sandwich rhodium hydride complexes are often proposed as intermediates in catalytic cycles, but relatively few such compounds have been isolated and studied, limiting understanding of their properties. Here, we report preparation and isolation of a monomeric rhodium(III) hydride complex bearing the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) and bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (dppb) ligands. The hydride complex is formed rapidly upon addition of weak acid to a reduced precursor complex, Cp*Rh(dppb). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the [Cp*Rh] hydride, which were previously unavailable for this class of compounds, provide evidence of the direct Rh-H interaction. Complementary infrared spectra show the Rh-H stretching frequency at 1986 cm-1. In contrast to results with other [Cp*Rh] complexes bearing diimine ligands, treatment of the isolated hydride with strong acid does not result in H2 evolution. Electrochemical studies reveal that the hydride complex can be reduced only at very negative potentials (ca. -2.5 V vs ferrocenium/ferrocene), resulting in Rh-H bond cleavage and H2 generation. These results are discussed in the context of catalytic H2 generation, and development of design rules for improved catalysts bearing the [Cp*] ligand.

6.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400193

RESUMO

[Cp*Rh] complexes (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) are attracting renewed interest in coordination chemistry and catalysis, but these useful compounds often undergo net two-electron redox cycling that precludes observation of individual one-electron reduction events. Here, we show that a [Cp*Rh] complex bearing the 4,4'-dinitro-2,2'-bipyridyl ligand (dnbpy) (3) can access a distinctive manifold of five oxidation states in organic electrolytes, contrasting with prior work that found no accessible reductions in aqueous electrolyte. These states are readily generated from a newly isolated and fully characterized rhodium(III) precursor complex 3, formulated as [Cp*Rh(dnbpy)Cl]PF6. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, previously unavailable for the dnbpy ligand bound to the [Cp*Rh] platform, confirm the presence of both [η5-Cp*] and [κ²-dnbpy]. Four individual one-electron reductions of 3 are observed, contrasting sharply with the single two-electron reductions of other [Cp*Rh] complexes. Chemical preparation and the study of the singly reduced species with electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies indicate that the first reduction is predominantly centered on the dnbpy ligand. Comparative cyclic voltammetry studies with [NBu4][PF6] and [NBu4][Cl] as supporting electrolytes indicate that the chloride ligand can be lost from 3 by ligand exchange upon reduction. Spectroelectrochemical studies with ultraviolet (UV)-visible detection reveal isosbestic behavior, confirming the clean interconversion of the reduced forms of 3 inferred from the voltammetry with [NBu4][PF6] as supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction in the presence of triethylammonium results in an irreversible response, but does not give rise to catalytic H2 evolution, contrasting with the reactivity patterns observed in [Cp*Rh] complexes bearing bipyridyl ligands with less electron-withdrawing substituents.


Assuntos
2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Cicloparafinas/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Ródio/química , Eletroquímica , Difração de Raios X
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(14): 1694-1697, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303524

RESUMO

The ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) can support metal centers in low formal oxidation states by delocalization of electron density into its π-system. We show that, in a model rhodium complex supported by the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligand (Cp*), the analogous dimethyldipyridylmethane ligand (Me2dpma) enforces a bpy-like coordination environment but disrupts the inter-ring conjugation responsible for charge delocalization upon metal reduction. As a result, reduction proceeds in discrete one-electron steps (Rh(iii) to Rh(ii) to Rh(i)), contrasting with the 2e- chemistry engendered by bpy. Upon reduction to Rh(i), the Me2dpma ligand rearranges to activate strong π-backbonding via facial coordination of one pyridine motif. Structural and spectroscopic studies confirm stabilization of the Rh(i) center in this compound, revealing a mode of metal-ligand cooperation that represents a useful counterpoint to charge delocalization in conjugated poly(pyridyl) ligands.

8.
Chemistry ; 24(1): 141-149, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024095

RESUMO

Assembly of heterobimetallic complexes is synthetically challenging due to the propensity of ditopic ligands to bind metals unselectively. Here, we employ a novel divergent approach for selective preparation of a variety of bimetallic complexes within a ditopic macrocyclic ligand platform. In our approach, nickel is readily coordinated to a Schiff base cavity, and then a range of redox-inactive cations (M=Na+ , Ca2+ , Nd3+ , and Y3+ ) are installed in a pendant crown-ether-like site. This modular strategy allows access to complexes with the highly Lewis acidic trivalent cations Nd3+ and Y3+ , a class of compounds that were previously inaccessible. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies reveal wide variations in properties that are governed most strongly by the trivalent cations. Exposure to dimethylformamide drives loss of Nd3+ and Y3+ from the pendant crown-ether site, suggesting solvent effects must be carefully considered in future applications involving use of highly Lewis acidic metals.

9.
ChemSusChem ; 10(22): 4589-4598, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024563

RESUMO

We demonstrate that [Cp*Rh] complexes bearing substituted 2,2'-bipyridyl ligands are effective hydrogen evolution catalysts (Cp*=η5 -pentamethylcyclopentadienyl). Disubstitution (at the 4 and 4' positions) of the bipyridyl ligand (namely -tBu, -H, and -CF3 ) modulates the catalytic overpotential, in part due to involvement of the reduced ligand character in formally rhodium(I) intermediates. These reduced species are synthesized and isolated here; protonation results in formation of complexes bearing the unusual η4 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene ligand, and the properties of these protonated intermediates further govern the catalytic performance. Electrochemical studies suggest that multiple mechanistic pathways are accessible, and that the operative pathway depends on the applied potential and solution conditions. Taken together, these results suggest synergy in metal-ligand cooperation that modulates the mechanisms of fuel-forming catalysis with organometallic compounds bearing multiple non-innocent ligands.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Ródio/química , 2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Ligantes , Compostos Organometálicos/química
10.
Inorg Chem ; 56(17): 10824-10831, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832122

RESUMO

There are few examples of the isolation of analogous metal complexes bearing [η5-Cp*] and [η4-Cp*H] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes within the same metal/ligand framework, despite the relevance of such structures to catalytic applications. Recently, protonation of Cp*Rh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) has been shown to yield a complex bearing the uncommon [η4-Cp*H] ligand, rather than generating a [RhIII-H] complex. We now report the purification and isolation of this protonated species, as well as characterization of analogous complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Specifically, reaction of Cp*Rh(bpy) or Cp*Rh(phen) with 1 equiv of Et3NH+Br- affords rhodium compounds bearing endo-η4-pentamethylcyclopentadiene (η4-Cp*H) as a ligand. NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm protonation of the Cp* ligand, rather than formation of metal hydride complexes. Analysis of new structural data and electronic spectra suggests that phen is significantly reduced in Cp*Rh(phen), similar to the case of Cp*Rh(bpy). Backbonding interactions with olefinic motifs are activated by formation of [η4-Cp*H]; protonation of [Cp*] stabilizes the low-valent metal center and results in loss of reduced character on the diimine ligands. In accord with these changes in electronic structure, electrochemical studies reveal a distinct manifold of redox processes that are accessible in the [Cp*H] complexes in comparison with their [Cp*] analogues; these processes suggest new applications in catalysis for the complexes bearing endo-η4-Cp*H.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11779-11789, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829062

RESUMO

A new tripodal ligand featuring three appended pyrene moieties has been prepared for studies of noncovalent binding of lanthanide metal complexes to graphitic carbon surfaces. The ligand tightly binds lanthanide(iii) ions by encapsulation within a heptadentate coordination environment; the cerium, neodymium, samarium, and europium complexes (all with formal metal oxidation state of +3) have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds are readily immobilized on graphitic electrodes-this is driven by the presence of the pyrene moieties, as complexes of an analogous ligand without pyrene groups are not stably adherent to the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirm the molecular identity of the pyrene-appended metal complexes upon immobilization, with unique signals appearing for the metal centers as well as all for all symmetry-related nitrogen atoms on the ligand. Consistent with these surface characterization data and studies of a soluble model compound, the surface-immobilized cerium(iii) complex is reversibly oxidized to cerium(iv) near -0.34 V vs. Fc+/0. Based on electrochemical data, this complex is stable for minutes to hours on the surface.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(15): 5008-11, 2016 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028157

RESUMO

The reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O) is a process relevant to biological chemistry as well as to the abatement of certain environmental pollutants. One of the proposed key intermediates in NO reduction is hyponitrite (N2O2(2-)), the product of reductive coupling of two NO molecules. We report the reductive coupling of NO by an yttrium-tricopper complex generating a trans-hyponitrite moiety supported by two µ-O-bimetallic (Y,Cu) cores, a previously unreported coordination mode. Reaction of the hyponitrite species with Brønsted acids leads to the generation of N2O, demonstrating the viability of the hyponitrite complex as an intermediate in NO reduction to N2O. The additional reducing equivalents stored in each tricopper unit are employed in a subsequent step for N2O reduction to N2, for an overall (partial) conversion of NO to N2. The combination of Lewis acid and multiple redox active metals facilitates this four electron conversion via an isolable hyponitrite intermediate.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Ácidos de Lewis/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Nitritos/química , Óxido Nitroso/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(44): 14094-106, 2015 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390375

RESUMO

A series of tetranuclear iron complexes displaying a site-differentiated metal center was synthesized. Three of the metal centers are coordinated to our previously reported ligand, based on a 1,3,5-triarylbenzene motif with nitrogen and oxygen donors. The fourth (apical) iron center is coordinatively unsaturated and appended to the trinuclear core through three bridging pyrazolates and an interstitial µ4-oxide moiety. Electrochemical studies of complex [LFe3(PhPz)3OFe][OTf]2 revealed three reversible redox events assigned to the Fe(II)4/Fe(II)3Fe(III) (-1.733 V), Fe(II)3Fe(III)/Fe(II)2Fe(III)2 (-0.727 V), and Fe(II)2Fe(III)2/Fe(II)Fe(III)3 (0.018 V) redox couples. Combined Mössbauer and crystallographic studies indicate that the change in oxidation state is exclusively localized at the triiron core, without changing the oxidation state of the apical metal center. This phenomenon is assigned to differences in the coordination environment of the two metal sites and provides a strategy for storing electron and hole equivalents without affecting the oxidation state of the coordinatively unsaturated metal. The presence of a ligand-binding site allowed the effect of redox modulation on nitric oxide activation by an Fe(II) metal center to be studied. Treatment of the clusters with nitric oxide resulted in binding of NO to the apical iron center, generating a {FeNO}(7) moiety. As with the NO-free precursors, the three reversible redox events are localized at the iron centers distal from the NO ligand. Altering the redox state of the triiron core resulted in significant change in the NO stretching frequency, by as much as 100 cm(-1). The increased activation of NO is attributed to structural changes within the clusters, in particular, those related to the interaction of the metal centers with the interstitial atom. The differences in NO activation were further shown to lead to differential reactivity, with NO disproportionation and N2O formation performed by the more electron-rich cluster.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(51): 19075-8, 2013 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24304416

RESUMO

A series of tetranuclear oxo/hydroxo clusters comprised of three Fe centers and a redox-inactive metal (M) of various charge is reported. Crystallographic studies show an unprecedented Fe3M(µ4-O)(µ2-OH) core that remains intact upon changing M or the oxidation state of iron. Electrochemical studies reveal that the reduction potentials (E1/2) span a window of 500 mV and depend upon the Lewis acidity of M. Using the pKa of the M-aqua complex as a measure of Lewis acidity, these compounds display a linear dependence between E1/2 and acidity, with a slope of ∼70 mV per pKa unit. The current study of [Fe3MO(OH)] and previous ones of [Mn3MOn] (n = 2,4) moieties support the generality of the above relationship between the reduction potentials of heterometallic oxido clusters and the Lewis acidity of incorporated cations, as applied to clusters of different redox-active metals.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Ferro/química , Metais Alcalinoterrosos/química , Metais Pesados/química , Oxigênio/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Eletroquímica , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução
16.
Chem Sci ; 4(2): 785-790, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539341

RESUMO

A trinucleating framework was assmbled by templation of a heptadentate ligand around yttrium and lanthanides. The generated complexes orient three sets of two or three N-donors each for binding additional metal centers. Addition of three equivalents of copper(I) leads to the formation of tricopper(I) species. Reactions with dioxygen at low temperatures generate species whose spectroscopic features are consistent with a µ3,µ3-dioxo-tricopper complex. Reactivity studies were performed with a variety of substrates. The dioxo-tricopper species deprotonates weak acids, undergoes oxygen atom transfer with one equivalent of triphenylphosphine to yield triphenylphosphine oxide, and abstracts two hydrogen atom equivalents from tetramethylpiperidine-N-hydroxide (TEMPO-H). Thiophenols reduce the oxygenated species to a CuI3 complex and liberate two equivalents of disulfide, consistent with a four-electron four-proton process.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 49(10): 4687-97, 2010 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20397715

RESUMO

New sterically encumbered tripodal aminetris(aryloxide) ligands N(CH(2)C(6)H(2)-3-(t)Bu-5-X-2-OH)(3) ((tBu,X)LH(3)) with relatively electron-rich phenols are prepared by Mannich condensation (X = OCH(3)) or by a reductive amination/Hartwig-Buchwald amination sequence on the benzyl-protected bromosalicylaldehyde (X = N[C(6)H(4)-p-OCH(3)](2)), followed by debenzylation using Pearlman's catalyst (Pd(OH)(2)/C). The analogous dianisylamino-substituted compound lacking the tert-butyl group ortho to the phenol ((H,An(2)N)LH(3)) is also readily prepared. The ligands are metalated by titanium(IV) tert-butoxide to form the five-coordinate alkoxides LTi(O(t)Bu). Treatment of the tert-butoxides with aqueous HCl yields the five-coordinate chlorides LTiCl, and with acetylacetone gives the six-coordinate diketonates LTi(acac). The diketonate complexes (tBu,X)LTi(acac) show reversible ligand-based oxidations with first oxidation potentials of +0.57, +0.33, and -0.09 V (vs ferrocene/ferrocenium) for X = (t)Bu, MeO, and An(2)N, respectively. Both dianisylamine-substituted complexes (R,An(2)N)LTi(acac) (R = (t)Bu, H) show similar electrochemistry, with three one-electron oxidations closely spaced at approximately 0 V and three oxidations due to removal of a second electron from each diarylaminoaryloxide arm at approximately + 0.75 V. The new electron-rich tripodal ligands therefore have the capacity to release multiple electrons at unusually low potentials for aryloxide groups.

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