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1.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23104, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is an inflammatory marker that is raised in myocardial fibrosis and inflammation. Recent studies have explored its role in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the association between serum concentration of galectin-3 and AF. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database were searched. A total of 280 studies were identified, of which 28 studies involving 10 830 patients were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: Galectin-3 is present at higher concentrations in patients with AF than those in sinus rhythm (mean difference [MD] = -0.68 ng/mL, 95% CI: -0.92, -0.44, Z = 5.61, P < .00001). Galectin-3 levels were significantly higher in the persistent AF than in the paroxysmal AF group (MD = -0.94 ng/mL, 95% CI: -1.85, -0.03, Z = 2.04, P = .04). Higher galectin-3 levels were associated with a 45% increase in the odds of developing AF (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.83, Z = 3.11, P = .002) and risk of AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] =1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29, Z = 3.12, P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis found that galectin-3 is significantly higher in patients with persistent AF than in those with paroxysmal AF, and can predict both AF development and recurrence after treatment.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ENSURE-AF study, edoxaban had similar efficacy and safety profile versus enoxaparin-warfarin (enox-warf) in patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus enox-warf in patients who were vitamin K antagonists (VKA) naïve or experienced at time of randomisation into ENSURE-AF trial. METHODS: The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death during the overall study period, 28 days on study drug after cardioversion and 30 days follow-up. The primary safety endpoint was the composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding during the on-medication period from time of first dose to last dose of study drug taken + 3 days. RESULTS: Of 2199 patients enrolled in ENSURE-AF, 1095 were randomised to edoxaban and 1104 to enox-warf. There were numerically fewer primary efficacy endpoint events with edoxaban than enox-warf irrespective of whether VKA experienced or naïve (0.5% vs. 0.9%, 0.3% vs. 1.4%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the primary safety endpoint [odds ratio (OR) 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-6.81 in anticoagulant experienced patients, OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.15-3.60 in anticoagulant naïve patients] and in major bleeding rates regardless of treatment or VKA experience (OR 0.69, 95%CI 0.06-6.04, OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.01-9.25, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Edoxaban had comparable efficacy and safety to optimized anticoagulation with enox-warf. The primary efficacy and safety endpoint outcomes were broadly similar between VKA experienced or naïve patients.

3.
Europace ; 22(1): 90-99, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909431

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the safety of discontinuing oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy after apparently successful atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, using data from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 4512 consecutive patients who underwent successful AF ablation between August 2011 and December 2017. Of them, 3149 discontinued OAC 3 months post-ablation (Off-OAC group) and 1363 continued OAC beyond this period (On-OAC group). Regular follow-up examinations were undertaken to detect AF recurrence, monitor OAC therapy, and measure clinical outcomes. Primary outcomes included thromboembolic and major bleeding (MB) events experienced beyond 3 months after ablation. Low thromboembolic and MB event rates were noted in the on-treatment analysis. The incidence rates for thromboembolism were 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.76] and 0.86 (95% CI 0.56-1.30) per 100 patient-years, and that for MB events were 0.19 (95% CI 0.11-0.34) and 0.35 (95% CI 0.18-0.67) per 100 patient-years, for the Off-OAC and On-OAC groups over mean follow-up periods of 24.2 ± 14.7 and 23.0 ± 13.6 months, respectively. Similar results were observed in the intention-to-treat analysis. Previous history of ischaemic stroke (IS)/transient ischaemic attack (TIA)/systemic embolism (SE) [hazard ratio (HR) 3.40, 95% CI 1.92-6.02; P < 0.01] and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P = 0.01) were independently associated with thromboembolic events, while OAC discontinuation (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.41-1.23, P = 0.21) remained insignificant in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that it may be safe to discontinue OAC in post-ablation patients under diligent monitoring, in the absence of AF recurrence, history of IS/TIA/SE, and diabetes mellitus. However, further large-scale randomized trials are required to confirm this. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-13003729. URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=5831.

4.
Ann Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903788

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia and is associated with poor outcomes. The adverse effects of AF are mediated through multiple pathways, including endothelial dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation. Flow-mediated dilatation has demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in several conditions and is associated with poor outcomes including mortality, yet can be improved with medical therapy. It is thus a useful tool in assessing endothelial function in patients. Endothelial dysfunction is present in patients with AF and is associated with poor outcomes. These patients are generally older and have other co-morbidities such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes. The precise process by which AF is affiliated with endothelial damage/dysfunction remains elusive. This review explores the endothelial structure, its physiology and how it is affected in patients with AF. It also assesses the utility of flow mediated dilatation as a technique to assess endothelial function in patients with AF. Key MessagesEndothelial function is affected in patients with atrial fibrillation as with other cardiovascular conditions.Endothelial dysfunction is associated with poor outcomes such as stroke, myocardial infarction and death, yet is a reversible condition.Flow-mediated dilatation is a reliable tool to assess endothelial function in patients with atrial fibrillation.Patients with atrial fibrillation should be considered for endothelial function assessment and attempts made to reverse this condition.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e014537, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902325

RESUMO

Background It is likely that a proportion of poststroke cognitive impairment is sometimes attributable to unidentified prestroke decline; prestroke cognitive function is also clinically relevant because it is associated with poor functional outcomes, including death. We investigated the radiological and prognostic associations of preexisting cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack associated with atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results We included 1102 patients from the prospective multicenter observational CROMIS-2 (Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke 2) atrial fibrillation study. Preexisting cognitive impairment was identified using the 16-item Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Functional outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale. Preexisting cognitive impairment was common (n=271; 24.6%). The presence of lacunes (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05; P=0.034), increasing periventricular white matter hyperintensity grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17-1.63; P<0.0001), deep white matter hyperintensity grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51; P=0.011), and medial temporal atrophy grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34-1.95; P<0.0001) were independently associated with preexisting cognitive impairment. Preexisting cognitive impairment was associated with poorer functional outcome at 24 months (mRS >2; adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.20; P=0.001). Conclusions Preexisting cognitive impairment in patients with atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack is common, and associated with imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegeneration, as well as with longer-term functional outcome. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02513316.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e013789, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870235

RESUMO

Background Obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist and independently increase mortality. We sought to assess the association between obesity and adverse events in patients receiving oral anticoagulants for AF. Methods and Results Consecutive AF outpatients receiving anticoagulant agents (both vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants) were recruited into the FANTASIIA (Atrial fibrillation: influence of the level and type of anticoagulation on the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke) registry. This observational, multicenter, and prospective registry of AF patients analyzes the quality of anticoagulation, incidence of events, and differences between oral anticoagulant therapies. We analyzed baseline patient characteristics according to body mass index, normal: <25 kg/m2, overweight: 25-30 kg/m2, and obese: ≥30 kg/m2), assessing all-cause mortality, stroke, major bleeding and major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and total mortality) at 3 years' follow-up. In this secondary prespecified substudy, the association of weight on prognosis was evaluated. We recruited 1956 patients (56% men, mean age 73.8±9.4 years): 358 (18.3%) had normal body mass index, 871 (44.5%) were overweight, and 727 (37.2%) were obese. Obese patients were younger (P<0.01) and had more comorbidities. Mean time in the therapeutic range was similar across body mass index categories (P=0.42). After a median follow-up of 1070 days, 255 patients died (13%), 45 had a stroke (2.3%), 146 a major bleeding episode (7.5%) and 168 a major adverse cardiovascular event (8.6%). Event rates were similar between groups for total mortality (P=0.29), stroke (P=0.90), major bleeding (P=0.31), and major adverse cardiovascular events (P=0.24). On multivariate Cox analysis, body mass index was not independently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke, major bleeding, or major adverse cardiovascular events. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of patients anticoagulated for AF, obesity was highly prevalent and was associated with more comorbidities, but not with poor prognosis.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 48-54, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711634

RESUMO

A simple clinical score, C2HEST (C2: CAD/COPD [1 point each]; H: Hypertension; E: Elderly [Age ≥75, doubled]; S: Systolic HF [doubled]; T: Thyroid disease [hyperthyroidism]) has been proposed to predict incident atrial fibrillation (AF), with good discrimination and internal calibration. To define high-risk patients at particular age strata for incident AF in a nationwide population cohort, who could potentially be targeted for AF screening, we used a nationwide cohort study of all Danish citizen aged ≥65 years to evaluate the performance of the C2HEST score. "High risk" subjects at age 65, 70, and 75 had 5-year risks of new onset AF of 11.8%, 14.2% and 13.6%, respectively, and the corresponding event rates were 2.99, 3.67, and 3.38 per 100 person years, respectively. Associated hazard ratios (HR) were 4.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.84 to 4.34), 3.80 (95% CI: 3.68 to 3.92) and 2.17 (95% CI: 2.13 to 2.22), respectively compared with the lowest risk strata within age category. At all age cohorts, the greatest risk component of the C2HEST score on multivariable analysis was by having 2 points for C (C2), that is both CAD and COPD followed by systolic heart failure (S) both with HRs up to 2.0. CAD or COPD alone (C1) or hypertension (H) were associated with increased risk of new onset AF corresponding to HR between 1.44 and 1.64. In conclusion, this nationwide population cohort addresses the question on clinical risk prediction for new onset AF in a population at different age strata, whereby the C2HEST score may help in identifying those at 'high risk' of new onset AF at 3 distinct age cohorts (65, 70, and 75 years). A high risk C2HEST score stratum was associated with a greater risk of new onset AF. These patients could be considered for more intensive efforts for screening and detection of incident AF.

10.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11913708, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838903

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but its association with atrial fibrillation (AF) is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and incident AF. This population-based cohort study used database from the Health Screening Cohort, which contained a complete set of medical claims and a biannual health checkup information of the Koran population. A total of 8 063 922 individuals who had at least 3 health checkups with blood pressure measurement between 2004 and 2010 were collected after excluding subjects with preexisting AF. Blood pressure variability was defined as variability independence of the mean and was divided into 4 quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 6.8 years, 140 086 subjects were newly diagnosed with AF. The highest blood pressure variability (fourth quartile) was associated with an increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 95% CI; systolic blood pressure: 1.06, 1.05-1.08; diastolic blood pressure: 1.07, 1.05-1.08) compared with the lowest (first quartile). Among subjects in the fourth quartile in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability, the risk of AF was 7.6% higher than those in the first quartile. Moreover, this result was consistent in both patients with or without prevalent hypertension. In subgroup analysis, the impact of high blood pressure variability on AF development was stronger in high-risk subjects, who were older (≥65 years), with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. Our findings demonstrated that higher blood pressure variability was associated with a modestly increased risk of AF.

11.
Am Heart J ; 218: 123-127, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806087

RESUMO

GLORIA-AF is a large, ongoing, prospective, global registry program run in 3 phases, assessing long-term safety and effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran) in patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) in clinical practice. This report provides the final analysis of 2-year clinical outcomes of the full cohort of 4873 patients prescribed dabigatran and followed for a mean of 18.0 +/- 9.4 months out of the 15,308 eligible patients enrolled in Phase II (2011-2014). The overall incidence rates per 100 person-years were: stroke 0.65 (95% CI 0.48-0.87), major bleeding 0.97 (0.76-1.23) and myocardial infarction (MI) 0.50 (0.35-0.69), with observed event rates broadly consistent in all study regions, which confirms the sustained safety and effectiveness of dabigatran over 2 years of observation in clinical practice.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(23): 2331-2341, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess if prior oral anticoagulant agent (OAC) use modifies the lower bleeding risk observed with dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran twice daily plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) versus warfarin triple therapy (warfarin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin) in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: In the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, the primary outcome of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was lower with dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent PCI. METHODS: A total of 2,725 patients were randomized to dual therapy with dabigatran (110 or 150 mg twice daily) plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor or triple therapy with warfarin plus aspirin and clopidogrel or ticagrelor. Subgroup analysis compared risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding and a composite thromboembolic endpoint in patients with prior OAC use and in those who were OAC treatment naive. RESULTS: Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was reduced with both dabigatran dual therapies compared with warfarin triple therapy in both the prior OAC use group (hazard ratios: 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42 to 0.81] and 0.61 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.92] with 110 and 150 mg dabigatran, respectively) and the OAC-naive group (hazard ratios: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.63] and 0.76 [95% CI: 0.59 to 0.97] with 110 and 150 mg dabigatran) (p for interaction = 0.42 and 0.37, 110 and 150 mg dabigatran, respectively). The risk for thromboembolic events seemed similar with dabigatran dual therapy (both doses) and warfarin triple therapy across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding risk was reduced with dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation after PCI, regardless of whether they were prior OAC users or OAC treatment naive. These results suggest that it is also safe to switch patients on OAC pre-PCI to dabigatran dual therapy post-PCI.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(23): 2346-2355, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with or without diabetes mellitus in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether dual therapy is as safe and efficacious as triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: In RE-DUAL PCI, 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation (993 with diabetes) who had undergone PCI were assigned to warfarin triple therapy (warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin) or dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and clopidogrel or ticagrelor). Median follow-up was 13 months. The primary outcome was the composite of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and the main efficacy outcome was the composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization. RESULTS: Among patients with diabetes, the incidence of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was 15.2% in the dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy group versus 27.5% in the warfarin triple therapy group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 0.67) and 23.8% in the dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy group versus 25.1% in the warfarin triple therapy group (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.22). Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was also reduced with both dabigatran doses among patients without diabetes (dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.70; dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.83). Risk for the efficacy endpoint was comparable between treatment groups for both patients with and those without diabetes. No interaction between treatment and diabetes subgroup could be observed, either for bleeding or for composite efficacy endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, dabigatran dual therapy had a lower risk for bleeding and a comparable rate of the efficacy endpoint compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18055, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792292

RESUMO

Although chronic kidney disease is known to increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), the impact of the variability of renal function on the risk of incident AF is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between variability of renal function and the risk of developing AF among the general population. We evaluated a total of 3,551,249 adults who had three annual health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service. The variability of renal function was defined as GFR-VIM, which is variability independent of the mean (VIM) of creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The study population was divided into four groups (Q1-4) based on the quartiles of GFR-VIM, and the risks of incident AF by each group were compared. During a mean of 3.2 ± 0.5 years follow-up, incident AF occurred in 15,008 (0.42%) subjects. The incidence rates of AF increased from Q1 to Q4 (0.98, 1.42, 1.27, and 1.63 per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Adjusting with multiple variables, Q4 showed an increased risk of incident AF compared to Q1 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.125, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.071-1.181). Variability of serum creatinine or other definitions of variability showed consistent results. On subgroup analyses, Q4 in males or those with a decreasing trend of eGFR had significantly increased risks of incident AF compared to Q1 (HR 1.127, 95% CI 1.082-1.175; and HR 1.115, 95% CI 1.059-1.173, respectively). High variability of eGFR was associated with an increased risk of incident AF, particularly in males or those with decreasing trends of eGFR during follow-up.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785775

RESUMO

Prospective studies evaluating persistence to nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation are needed to improve our understanding of drug discontinuation. The study objective was to evaluate if and when patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation stop dabigatran treatment and to report outcomes following discontinuation. Patients prescribed dabigatran in diverse clinical practice settings were consecutively enrolled and followed for 2 years. Dabigatran persistence over time, reasons for discontinuation, and outcomes post discontinuation were assessed. Of 4,859 patients, aged 70.2 ± 10.4 years, 55.7% were male. Overall 2-year dabigatran persistence was 70.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 69.6 to 72.2). Persistence probability was lower in the first 6-month period (83.7% [82.7 to 84.8]) than in subsequent periods for patients on dabigatran at the start of each period (6 to 12 months, 92.5% [91.6 to 93.3]; 12 to 18 months, 95.1% [94.3 to 95.8]; 18 to 24 months, 96.3% [95.6 to 96.9]). Of 1,305 patients (26.9%) who discontinued dabigatran, adverse events were reported as the reason for discontinuation in 457 (35.0%). Standardized stroke incidence rate post discontinuation (per 100 patient-years) in patients discontinuing without switching to another oral anticoagulant was 1.76 (95% CI 0.89 to 2.76) and 1.02 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.76) in those who switched, consistent with the expected benefit of remaining on treatment. Patients persistent with treatment at 1 year had >90% probability of remaining persistent at 2 years suggesting clinical interventions to improve persistence should be focused on the early period following treatment initiation.

17.
Chest ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be challenging, requiring a balance between thromboembolism prevention and serious bleeding. Comparisons of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin in the elderly, at different age strata (age 65-74, 75-89, ≥90) in the daily practice have not been well described, particularly in Asians. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of NOACs compared to warfarin for stroke prevention in elderly patients with AF. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 64,169 AF patients aged ≥ 65 years who received at least 1 NOAC (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) or warfarin prescription were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The risks of ischemic stroke, intra-cranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding, mortality and composite adverse events were compared between NOACs and warfarin in all patients age ≥65 and specifically, with different age strata; that is 65-74 years, 75-89 years and >90 years. RESULTS: Overall NOACs were associated with a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.869, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.812-0.931), ICH (aHR 0.524, 95%CI 0.456-0.601), major bleeding (aHR 0.824, 95%CI 0.776-0.875), mortality (aHR 0.511, 95%CI 0.491-0.532) and composite adverse events (aHR 0.646, 95%CI 0.625-0.667) compared to warfarin. There was heterogeneity in treatment effect for NOACs versus warfarin in different age strata, but the results still favored NOACs even among the very elderly (> 90 years). The results were generally consistent with propensity matching analysis. The absolute risk difference and reductions in ICH and composite adverse events with NOAC use were even greater among the elderly compared to warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to warfarin, NOACs were associated with a significantly lower risk of adverse events, with heterogeneity in treatment effects among different age strata. Overall, the clear safety signal in favor of NOACs over warfarin was evident irrespective of age strata, being most marked in the most elderly.

18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 283, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported on atrial fibrillation (AF) outcomes, including thromboembolism in patients with paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal AF; however the findings still remain controversial on whether risks differ between these clinical subtypes and limited data are available in Asian cohorts. METHODS: We compared the risk of thromboembolism between paroxysmal and persistent AF patients, in a large contemporary Chinese cohort study. A total of 8529 non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry (CAFR) study were enrolled. The study subjects were divided into two groups: paroxysmal AF (PaAF, defined as AF lasting within 7 days, n = 4642) and persistent AF (PeAF, lasting over 7 days, n = 3887) groups. RESULTS: In non-anticoagulated patients, PeAF group demonstrated a higher risk of stroke, all-cause death, cardiac/ non-cardiac death and composition of stroke/ transient ischemic attack (TIA)/peripheral thromboembolism (PT)/all-cause death, compared to the PaAF group. No significant difference was found in anticoagulated subjects. On multivariate analysis in non-anticoagulated patients, age ≥ 75 years (P = 0.046) and prior stroke/TIA/PT (P = 0.018) but not AF type (P = 0.63) were significantly associated with the risk of stroke/TIA/PT events. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke, all-cause death and cardiac/non-cardiac death in Chinese NVAF population was increased in non-anticoagulated PeAF patients compared with PaAF group, but same between anticoagulated PeAF and PaAF patients. After adjustment, AF type was not an independent predictor of thromboembolism in NVAF patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-13003729. Registered 22 October 2013.

19.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119028030, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813363

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Warfarin is associated with a better net clinical benefit compared with no treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and history of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There are limited data on nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in these patients, especially in the Asian population. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of NOACs to warfarin in a large-scale nationwide Asian population with AF and a history of ICH. Methods- Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database from January 2010 to April 2018, we identified patients with oral anticoagulant naïve nonvalvular AF with a prior spontaneous ICH. For the comparisons, warfarin and NOAC groups were balanced using propensity score weighting. Ischemic stroke, ICH, composite outcome (ischemic stroke+ICH), fatal ischemic stroke, fatal ICH, death from composite outcome, and all-cause death were evaluated as clinical outcomes. Results- Among 5712 patients with AF with prior ICH, 2434 were treated with warfarin and 3278 were treated with NOAC. Baseline characteristics were well-balanced after propensity score weighting (mean age 72.5 years and CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.0). Compared with warfarin, NOAC was associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.97]), ICH (HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.47-0.92]), and composite outcome (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). NOAC was associated with lower risks of fatal stroke (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.32-0.89]), death from composite outcome (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.34-0.81]), and all-cause death (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]) than warfarin. NOAC showed nonsignificant trends toward to reduce fatal ICH compared with warfarin (HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.20-1.03]). Conclusions- NOAC was associated with a significant lower risk of ICH and ischemic stroke compared with warfarin. NOAC might be a more effective and safer treatment option for Asian patients with nonvalvular AF and a prior history of ICH.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e033712, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterised by a high stroke risk. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are the most commonly used oral anticoagulants (OACs) in Spain, but their efficacy and safety depend on the time in therapeutic range of International Normalized Ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0 over 65%-70%. Unfortunately, the difficulties of maintaining an optimal level of anticoagulation and the complications of VKAs (particularly haemorrhagic ones), frequently lead to cessation of this therapy, which has been associated with higher risk of adverse events (AEs), including ischaemic stroke. Our aims are as follows: (1) to evaluate the quality of oral anticoagulation with VKAs, the prevalence of poor quality of anticoagulation, and to identify factors predisposing to poor quality anticoagulation; and (2) to identify patients who will stop OAC and to investigate what factors influence the decision of OAC withdrawal. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective observational cohort study including outpatients newly diagnosed with AF and naïve for OACs from July 2016 to June 2018 in an anticoagulation clinic. Patients with prosthetic heart valves, rheumatic mitral valves or valvular AF will be excluded. Follow-up will extend for up to 3 years. During this period, the INR results and changes in the anticoagulant therapy will be recorded, as well as all AEs, or any other information that would be relevant to the proper conduct of research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All patients were informed about the nature and purpose of the study, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hospital General Universitario Morales Meseguer (reference: EST:20/16). This is an observational study focusing on 'real life' practice and therefore all treatments and follow-up will be performed in accordance to the routine clinical practice with no specific interventions or visits. The results of our study will be disseminated by presentations at national and international meetings, and publications in peer-reviewed journals.

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