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1.
J Gen Virol ; 100(10): 1350-1362, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513008

RESUMO

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have led to a rapid expansion in the number of viral sequences associated with samples from vertebrates, invertebrates and environmental samples. Accurate host identification can be difficult in assays of complex samples that contain more than one potential host. Using unbiased metagenomic sequencing, we investigated wild house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from New York City to determine the aetiology of liver disease. Light microscopy was used to characterize liver disease, and fluorescent microscopy with in situ hybridization was employed to identify viral cell tropism. Sequences representing two novel negative-sense RNA viruses were identified in homogenates of wild house mouse liver tissue: Amsterdam virus and Fulton virus. In situ hybridization localized viral RNA to Capillaria hepatica, a parasitic nematode that had infected the mouse liver. RNA from either virus was found within nematode adults and unembryonated eggs. Expanded PCR screening identified brown rats as a second rodent host for C. hepatica as well as both nematode-associated viruses. Our findings indicate that the current diversity of nematode-associated viruses may be underappreciated and that anatomical imaging offers an alternative to computational host assignment approaches.

2.
J Clin Virol ; 120: 44-50, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), and the global spread of dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and West Nile viruses (WNV) raised urgent need of accurate and affordable molecular diagnosis of these clinically indistinguishable arboviral infections. OBJECTIVES: We established a pentaplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assay (CII-ArboViroPlex rRT-PCR) for specific and sensitive detection of the African and American genotypes of ZIKV, all four serotypes of DENV, CHIKV, WNV and a housekeeping gene as internal control in single reaction. STUDY DESIGN: Specific primers and probe sets were designed for ZIKV, DENV, CHIKV, WNV and RNase P (housekeeping gene) and tested for in-vitro transcribed RNA standards, virus cultures, clinical samples positive for ZIKV, DENV, CHIKV and WNV and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each. Results Using ten-fold serially diluted in-vitro transcribed RNA, CII- ArboViroPlex rRT-PCR assay has LOD of 100 RNA copies/reaction (Rn) for ZIKV in serum or urine, 100 RNA copies/Rn for DENV in serum, and 10 RNA copies/Rn for CHIKV and WNV in serum. LODs from sera spiked with quantitated viral stocks were 2.6 × 102 GEQ/Rn for ZIKV, 2.2 × 101 GEQ/Rn for DENV-1, 9.4 × 100 GEQ/Rn for DENV-2, 2.3 × 102 GEQ/Rn for DENV-3, 1.4 × 103 GEQ/Rn for DENV-4, 2.7 × 102 GEQ/Rn for CHIKV, and 1.05 × 101 GEQ/Rn for WNV. CONCLUSIONS: The CII-ArboViroPlex rRT-PCR assay is a quantitative one-step pentaplex rRT-PCR assay for the molecular detection and differential diagnosis of ZIKV, DENV, CHIKV, WNV and a human housekeeping gene control in a single- PCR reaction.

4.
MBio ; 10(4)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409689

RESUMO

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) has caused motor paralysis in >560 children in the United States since 2014. The temporal association of enterovirus (EV) outbreaks with increases in AFM cases and reports of fever, respiratory, or gastrointestinal illness prior to AFM in >90% of cases suggest a role for infectious agents. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 AFM and 5 non-AFM patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases in 2018 were investigated by viral-capture high-throughput sequencing (VirCapSeq-VERT system). These CSF and serum samples, as well as multiple controls, were tested for antibodies to human EVs using peptide microarrays. EV RNA was confirmed in CSF from only 1 adult AFM case and 1 non-AFM case. In contrast, antibodies to EV peptides were present in CSF of 11 of 14 AFM patients (79%), significantly higher than controls, including non-AFM patients (1/5 [20%]), children with Kawasaki disease (0/10), and adults with non-AFM CNS diseases (2/11 [18%]) (P = 0.023, 0.0001, and 0.0028, respectively). Six of 14 CSF samples (43%) and 8 of 11 sera (73%) from AFM patients were immunoreactive to an EV-D68-specific peptide, whereas the three control groups were not immunoreactive in either CSF (0/5, 0/10, and 0/11; P = 0.008, 0.0003, and 0.035, respectively) or sera (0/2, 0/8, and 0/5; P = 0.139, 0.002, and 0.009, respectively).IMPORTANCE The presence in cerebrospinal fluid of antibodies to EV peptides at higher levels than non-AFM controls supports the plausibility of a link between EV infection and AFM that warrants further investigation and has the potential to lead to strategies for diagnosis and prevention of disease.

5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1782): 20190019, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401956

RESUMO

Early detection of zoonotic diseases allows for the implementation of early response measures, reducing loss of human life and economic disruption. We implemented a surveillance system in hospitals in Bangladesh to screen acutely ill hospitalized patients with severe respiratory infection and meningoencephalitis for zoonotic exposures. Patients were screened for the risk of zoonotic exposures with five questions covering vocational exposures, sick domestic animal and wild animal contact, and date palm sap consumption in the three weeks preceding illness onset. Patients giving at least one positive response were considered a potential zoonotic exposure. From September 2013 to March 2017, a total of 11 429 hospitalized patients across 14 participating hospitals were screened for exposures. Overall, 2% of patients reported a potential zoonotic exposure in the three-week period prior to becoming ill. Sixteen per cent of hospitalized patients with reported exposures died. After routine surveillance diagnostic testing, 88% of patients admitted to the hospital after a potential zoonotic exposure did not have a laboratory diagnosed aetiology for their illness. Hospital-based surveillance systems such as the Bangladeshi example presented here could play an important future role in the early detection of zoonotic spillover diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover'.

6.
Transplantation ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a serious complication in immunosuppressed patients, specifically transplant recipients. Here, we describe the development and use of an assay to monitor the incidence and treatment of CMV viremia in a Cynomolgus macaque model of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for tolerance induction. We address the correlation between the course of viremia and immune reconstitution. METHODS: Twenty-one animals received a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Seven received cyclosporine A (CyA) for 28 days and fourteen received rapamycin. A CMV PCR assay was developed and run twice per week to monitor viremia. Nineteen recipients were CMV seropositive before BMT. Immune reconstitution was monitored through flow cytometry and CMV viremia was tracked via qPCR. RESULTS: Recipients developed CMV viremia during the first month post-BMT. Two animals developed uncontrollable CMV disease. CMV reactivation occurred earlier in CyA-treated animals compared to those receiving rapamycin. Post-BMT, T-cell counts remained significantly lower compared to pretransplant levels until CMV reactivation, at which point they increased during the viremic phase and approached pretransplant levels three months post-BMT.Management of CMV required treatment before viremia reached 10,000 copies/mL, otherwise clinical symptoms were observed. High doses of ganciclovir resolved the viremia, which could subsequently be controlled with valganciclovir. CONCLUSION: We developed an assay to monitor CMV in Cynomolgus macaques. CMV reactivation occurred in 100% of seropositive animals in this model. Rapamycin delayed CMV reactivation and ganciclovir treatment was effective at high doses. As in humans, CD8+ T cells proliferated during CMV viremia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10421, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320705

RESUMO

Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens that are implicated in mild to severe disease in humans and other animals. Nonetheless, the full range of tick-borne pathogens is unknown. Viruses, in particular, have been neglected in discovery efforts targeting tick-borne agents. High throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 638 ticks, including Rhipicephalus microplus (n = 320), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 300), and Amblyomma ovale (n = 18) collected throughout Trinidad and Tobago in 2017 and 2018. Sequences representing nine viruses were identified, including five novel species within Tymovirales, Bunyavirales, Chuviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Flaviviridae. Thereafter the frequency of detection of viral sequences in individual tick species was investigated.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9519, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266998

RESUMO

Maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with several adverse child outcomes. We investigated associations between maternal fever and ADHD among offspring, as well as the sub-dimensions of ADHD - inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Data came from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including more than 114,000 children. Information about children's ADHD diagnoses was obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register. Mothers reported on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in questionnaires at 8 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that children exposed to maternal fever in the first trimester received an ADHD diagnosis more often than unexposed children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.61). For children exposed twice or more in the first trimester, the OR was 2.64 (CI = 1.36-5.14). Linear regression analysis showed elevated inattention symptoms among children exposed to fever in the first (Cohen's d = 0.09, CI = 0.03-0.15) and second (Cohen's d = 0.05, CI = 0.01-0.09) trimester. Results were similar whether the mother had taken acetaminophen for their fever or not. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were not related to maternal fever. The results indicate that maternal fever in early pregnancy may be a risk factor for ADHD, and particularly for inattention problems. This risk is neither mitigated nor inflated by use of acetaminophen.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218660, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242229

RESUMO

Castleman disease (CD) describes a spectrum of heterogeneous disorders defined by characteristic lymph node histopathology. Enlarged lymph nodes demonstrating CD histopathology can occur in isolation (unicentric CD; UCD) sometimes accompanied by mild symptoms, or at multiple sites (multicentric CD, MCD) with systemic inflammation and cytokine-driven multi-organ dysfunction. The discovery that Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 drives MCD in a subset of patients has led to the hypotheses that UCD and MCD patients with negative HHV-8 testing by conventional methods may represent false negatives, or that these cases are driven by another virus, known or unknown. To investigate these hypotheses, the virome capture sequencing for vertebrate viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT) platform was employed to detect RNA transcripts from known and novel viruses in fresh frozen lymph node tissue from CD patients (12 UCD, 11 HHV-8-negative MCD [idiopathic MCD; iMCD], and two HHV-8-positive MCD) and related diseases (three T cell lymphoma and three Hodgkin lymphoma). This assay detected HHV-8 in both HHV-8-positive cases; however, HHV-8 was not found in clinically HHV-8-negative iMCD or UCD cases. Additionally, no novel viruses were discovered, and no single known virus was detected with apparent association to HHV-8-negative CD cases. Herpesviridae family members, notably including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), were detected in 7 out of 12 UCD and 5 of 11 iMCD cases with apparent correlations with markers of disease severity in iMCD. Analysis of a separate cohort of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue by In situ hybridization revealed significantly fewer EBV-positive cells in UCD and iMCD compared to tissue from HHV-8-positive MCD and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. In an additional cohort, quantitative testing for EBV by PCR in peripheral blood during disease flare did not detect systemic EBV viremia, suggesting detection lymph node tissue is due to occult, local reactivation in UCD and iMCD. This study confirms that HHV-8 is not present in UCD and iMCD patients. Further, it fails to establish a clear association between any single virus, novel or known, and CD in HHV-8-negative cases. Given that distinct forms of CD exist with viral and non-viral etiological drivers, CD should be considered a group of distinct and separate diseases with heterogeneous causes worthy of further study.

10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections have been suggested as possible triggers for the onset of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We employed VirCapSeq-Vert, a high-throughput sequencing virus capture platform, to examine the stool virome of children with newly diagnosed moderate to severe UC. We surveyed fecal samples collected at presentation, after symptom remission, and from a control group diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. RESULTS: Seventy subjects with UC (mean age 13 years, 45 had moderate symptoms, 25 had severe, 69 of 70 had a Mayo endoscopy subscore 2/3) were studied. We detected a wide range of animal viruses that were taxonomically classified into 12 viral families. A virus was present in 50% of fecal samples collected at presentation, 41% of samples collected after remission, and 40% of samples in our control group. The most frequently identified viruses were diet-based gyroviruses. The UC cohort had a significantly higher prevalence of anelloviruses compared with the control cohort. However, we did not identify a single virus that can be implicated in the onset of UC and did not find an association between UC disease severity and viral presence. CONCLUSION: Presence of virus in stool was not associated with the onset of pediatric UC.

11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(4): 894-900, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023629

RESUMO

We employed high throughput sequencing to survey the microbiomes of Ixodes scapularis collected in New York and Connecticut. We examined 197 individual I. scapularis adults and pools from 132 adults and 197 nymphs. We detected Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in 56.3% of individual ticks, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 10.6%, Borrelia miyamotoi in 5%, Babesia microti in 7.6%, and Powassan virus in 3.6%. We did not detect Borrelia mayonii, Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis, Bartonella spp. or pathogenic Babesia species other than B. microti. The most abundant bacterium (65%), and only rickettsial species identified, was the endosymbiont Rickettsia buchneri. A filarial nematode was found in 13.7% of adult ticks. Fourteen viruses were detected including South Bay virus (22%) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus 1 and 2 (73%). This study provides insight into the microbial diversity of I. scapularis in New York State and Connecticut.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Ixodes/microbiologia , Microbiota , Vírus/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Connecticut , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ixodes/parasitologia , Ixodes/virologia , Masculino , Metagenômica , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , New York , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/parasitologia , Ninfa/virologia , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969980

RESUMO

Bats are implicated as natural reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic viruses including SARS and MERS coronaviruses, Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, Rabies and other lyssaviruses. Accordingly, many One Health surveillance and viral discovery programs have focused on bats. In this report we present viral metagenomic data from bats collected in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [KSA]. Unbiased high throughput sequencing of fecal samples from 72 bat individuals comprising four species; lesser mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickii), Egyptian tomb bat (Taphozous perforatus), straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), and Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) revealed molecular evidence of a diverse set of viral families: Picornaviridae (hepatovirus, teschovirus, parechovirus), Reoviridae (rotavirus), Polyomaviridae (polyomavirus), Papillomaviridae (papillomavirus), Astroviridae (astrovirus), Caliciviridae (sapovirus), Coronaviridae (coronavirus), Adenoviridae (adenovirus), Paramyxoviridae (paramyxovirus), and unassigned mononegavirales (chuvirus). Additionally, we discovered a bastro-like virus (Middle East Hepe-Astrovirus), with a genomic organization similar to Hepeviridae. However, since it shared homology with Hepeviridae and Astroviridae at ORF1 and in ORF2, respectively, the newly discovered Hepe-Astrovirus may represent a phylogenetic bridge between Hepeviridae and Astroviridae.

13.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893858

RESUMO

New technologies enable viral discovery in a diversity of hosts, providing insights into viral evolution. We used one such approach, the virome capture sequencing for vertebrate viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT) platform, on 21 samples originating from six dead Maxwell's duikers (Philantomba maxwellii) from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We detected the presence of an orthohepadnavirus in one animal and characterized its 3128 bp genome. The highest viral copy numbers were detected in the spleen, followed by the lung, blood, and liver, with the lowest copy numbers in the kidney and heart; the virus was not detected in the jejunum. Viral copy numbers in the blood were in the range known from humans with active chronic infections leading to liver histolytic damage, suggesting this virus could be pathogenic in duikers, though many orthohepadnaviruses appear to be apathogenic in other hosts, precluding a formal test of this hypothesis. The virus was not detected in 29 other dead duiker samples from the Côte d'Ivoire and Central African Republic, suggesting either a spillover event or a low prevalence in these populations. Phylogenetic analysis placed the virus as a divergent member of the mammalian clade of orthohepadnaviruses, though its relationship to other orthohepadnaviruses remains uncertain. This represents the first orthohepadnavirus described in an artiodactyl. We have tentatively named this new member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus (family Hepadnaviridae), Taï Forest hepadnavirus. Further studies are needed to determine whether it, or some close relatives, are present in a broader range of artiodactyls, including livestock.

14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 110, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing tools for the aggregation and visualization of differential expression data have discrete functionality and require that end-users rely on multiple software packages with complex dependencies or manually manipulate data for analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, at present, data aggregation and visualization are laborious, time consuming, and subject to human error. This is a serious limitation on the current state of differential transcriptomic analysis, which makes it necessary to expend extensive time and resources to reach the point where biological meaning can be interpreted. Such an approach for analysis also leads to scattered and non-standardized code, unsystematic project management and non-reproducible result sets. RESULTS: Here, we present a differential expression analysis toolkit, DEvis, that provides a powerful, integrated solution for the analysis of differential expression data with a rapid turnaround time. DEvis has simple installation requirements and provides a convenient, user-friendly R package that addresses the issues inherent to complex multi-factor experiments, such as multiple contrast aggregation and integration, result sorting and selection, visualization, project management, and reproducibility. This tool increases the capabilities of differential expression analysis while reducing workload and the potential for manual error. Furthermore, it provides a much-needed encapsulation of scattered functionality, making large and complex analysis more efficient and reproducible. CONCLUSION: DEvis provides a wide range of powerful visualization, data aggregation, and project management tools that provide flexibility and speed in analysis. The functionality provided by DEVis increases efficiency of analysis and supplies researchers with new and relevant means for the analysis of large and complicated transcriptomic experiments. DEvis furthermore incorporates automatic project management capabilities, which standardizes analysis and ensures the reproducibility of results. After the establishment of statistical frameworks that identify differentially expressed genes, this package is the next logical step for differential transcriptomic analysis, establishing the critical framework necessary to manipulate, explore, and extract biologically relevant meaning from differential expression data.


Assuntos
Agregação de Dados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Software , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1749, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741981

RESUMO

Enteroviruses (EVs) are prime candidate environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity (IA), with potential as vaccine targets for type 1 diabetes prevention. However, the use of targeted virus detection methods and the selective focus on EVs by most studies increases the risk for substantial investigation bias and an overestimated association between EV and type 1 diabetes. Here we performed comprehensive virome-capture sequencing to examine all known vertebrate-infecting viruses without bias in 182 specimens (faeces and plasma) collected before or at seroconversion from 45 case children with IA and 48 matched controls. From >2.6 billion reads, 28 genera of viruses were detected and 62% of children (58/93) were positive for ≥1 vertebrate-infecting virus. We identified 129 viruses as differentially abundant between the gut of cases and controls, including 5 EV-A types significantly more abundant in the cases. Our findings further support EV's hypothesised contribution to IA and corroborate the proposal that viral load may be an important parameter in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, our data indicate a previously unrecognised association of IA with higher EV-A abundance in the gut of children and provide a catalog of viruses to be interrogated further to determine a causal link between virus infection and type 1 diabetes.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2760, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809003

RESUMO

Brazil, which is hyperendemic for dengue virus (DENV), has had recent Zika (ZIKV) and (CHIKV) Chikungunya virus outbreaks. Since March 2016, CHIKV is the arbovirus infection most frequently diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro. In the analysis of 1835 syndromic patients, screened by real time RT-PCR, 56.4% of the cases were attributed to CHIKV, 29.6% to ZIKV, and 14.1% to DENV-4. Sequence analyses of CHIKV from sixteen samples revealed that the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype of CHIKV has been circulating in Brazil since 2013 [95% bayesian credible interval (BCI): 03/2012-10/2013], almost a year before it was detected by arbovirus surveillance program. Brazilian cases are related to Central African Republic sequences from 1980's. To the best of our knowledge, given the available sequence published here and elsewhere, the ECSA genotype was likely introduced to Rio de Janeiro early on 2014 (02/2014; BCI: 07/2013-08/2014) through a single event, after primary circulation in the Bahia state at the Northestern Brazil in the previous year. The observation that the ECSA genotype of CHIKV was circulating undetected underscores the need for improvements in molecular methods for viral surveillance.

19.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(12): 1486, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410089

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the bat species for 12 individuals were incorrectly identified in Supplementary Table 1 and 2. After resequencing the MT-CytB and MT-CO1 segments and reviewing the data, the authors have corrected the errors for these 12 animals. In the amended version of the Supplementary Information, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 have been replaced to include the corrected host species information. None of the 12 bats affected were positive for the Bombali virus, and the conclusions of the study are therefore unchanged.

20.
In Vivo ; 32(6): 1323-1331, 2018 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Vascular anomalies encompass different vascular malformations [arteriovenous (AVM), lymphatic (LM), venous lymphatic (VLM), venous (VM)] and vascular tumors such as hemangiomas (HA). The pathogenesis of vascular anomalies is still poorly understood. Viral infection was speculated as a possible underlying cause. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 human vascular anomalies and three human skin control tissues were used for viral analysis. RNA derived from AVM (n=4) and normal skin control (n=3) tissues was evaluated by RNA sequencing. The Virome Capture Sequencing Platform for Vertebrate Viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT) was deployed on 10 tissues with vascular anomalies (2×AVM, 1×HA, 1×LM, 2×VLM, 4×VM). RESULTS: RNA sequencing did not show any correlation of AVM with viral infection. By deploying VirCapSeq-VERT, no consistent viral association was seen in the tested tissues. CONCLUSION: The analysis does not point to the presence of an active viral infection in vascular anomalies. However, transient earlier viral infections, e.g. during pregnancy, cannot be excluded with this approach.

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