Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1780, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 21st century was marked by a dramatic increase in adolescent e-cigarette use in the United States (US). The popularity of non-traditional flavor types, including fruit and pastry, is thought to contribute toward growing product use nationally, leading to a variety of federal and state regulations limiting the use of non-traditional flavors in the US. The relationship between flavor type and increased adolescent use suggests a possible link between flavor use and addiction and harm perception. This study assessed if the flavor type used when initiating e-cigarette use predicted addiction and harm perceptions. METHODS: The study utilized data from the multi-wave youth Population Assessment of Tobacco Health Study. It explored the impact initiating e-cigarette use with traditional versus non-traditional flavor types among cigarette users on the outcome variables: e-cigarette addiction and harm perception. Both e-cigarette addiction and harm perception were measured using self-report, Likert scale questionnaires. Descriptive statistics characterized the study variables and linear regression analyses performed to test whether flavor initiation type is associated with addiction and harm perception. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1,043 youth (weighted N = 1,873,617) aged 12 to 17 years who reported at least one instance of e-cigarette use. After adjusting for age, age of onset, sex, race and annual household income there was no statistically significant difference in addiction levels between those initiating with traditional versus non-traditional flavors (p = 0.294). Similarly, traditional versus non-traditional flavor initiation did not show a statistically significant difference in adolescent e-cigarette harm perceptions (p = 0.601). CONCLUSIONS: Traditionally flavored e-cigarette initiation produces similar risk for addiction and harm perceptions as non-traditionally flavored initiation. These findings suggest that banning non-traditional flavors alone may be ineffective in curbing e-cigarette addiction and harm perception. Additional research is needed to better understand which e-cigarette product characteristics and behaviors may be associated with greater addiction and reduced harm perceptions.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Percepção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
2.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e39955, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 spreads via aerosol droplets. The dental profession is at high risk of contracting the virus since their work includes treatment procedures that produce aerosols. Teledentistry offers an opportunity to mitigate the risk to dental personnel by allowing dentists to provide care without direct patient contact. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the implementation, challenges, strategies, and innovations related to teledentistry during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. METHODS: This scoping review evaluated teledentistry use during the pandemic by searching for articles in PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms teledentistry, tele-dentistry, covid-19, coronavirus, telehealth, telemedicine, and dentistry. Inclusion criteria consisted of articles published in English from March 1, 2020, to April 1, 2022, that were relevant to dentistry and its specialties, and that included some discussion of teledentistry and COVID-19. Specifically, the review sought to explore teledentistry implementation, challenges, strategies to overcome challenges, and innovative ideas that emerged during the pandemic. It followed the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). This approach is organized into 5 distinct steps: formulating a defined question, using the question to develop inclusion criteria to identify relevant studies, an approach to appraise the studies, summarizing the evidence using an explicit methodology, and interpreting the findings of the review. RESULTS: A total of 32 articles was included in this scoping review and summarized by article type, methodology and population, and key points about the aims; 9 articles were narrative review articles, 10 were opinion pieces, 4 were descriptive studies, 3 were surveys, 2 were integrative literature reviews, and there was 1 each of the following: observational study, systematic review, case report, and practice brief. Teledentistry was used both synchronously and asynchronously for virtual consultations, often employing commercial applications such as WhatsApp, Skype, and Zoom. Dental professionals most commonly used teledentistry for triage, to reduce in-person visits, and for scheduling and providing consultations remotely. Identified challenges included patient and clinician acceptance of teledentistry, having adequate infrastructure, reimbursement, and security concerns. Strategies to address these concerns included clinician and patient training and utilizing Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant applications. Benefits from teledentistry included providing care for patients during the pandemic and extending care to areas lacking access to dental care. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic lockdowns led to new teledentistry implementations, most commonly for triage but also for follow-up and nonprocedural care. Teledentistry reduced in-person visits and improved access to remote areas. Challenges such as technology infrastructure, provider skill level, billing issues, and privacy concerns remain.

3.
J Dent ; 122: 104157, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study used a national database to update and examine current differences in men's and women's oral health and oral health behaviours in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the 2017-2018 cycle were used to explore the relationship between males and females and their oral health. Multivariate analyses assessed for gender differences in oral health behaviors between genders after controlling for sample demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 4,741 participants. Males tended to have fewer dental visits, worse perception of their gum and tooth health, poorer flossing habits, and more root caries. Females were more proactive in visiting dentists and displayed a greater awareness of oral health. Females were less likely to report discussing oral cancer screening with their dentist even though they were screened more often. On examination, males were more often advised to seek urgent dental care than females. All these differences were statistically significant at p<0.05, although the effect size for examination variables was small (Phi <0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Oral health and oral health behaviours demonstrate gender differences with men reporting poorer oral health, poorer oral hygiene habits, and fewer dental visits. These findings suggest gender-targeted strategies have the potential to improve oral health and reduce gender-related disparities. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study found that women exhibit better oral health practices and behaviours. These differences may cause a disproportionate burden of oral disease in men and highlight the need for dentists, hygienists, and those interested in dental public health to develop gender-specific strategies to address these inequalities.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Dent J (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448047

RESUMO

This study assessed the longitudinal impact of early preventive dental visits on the number of dental operative procedures in a prevention-oriented pediatric dental practice. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients zero to four years of age with at least two years of preventive services provided by the practice. Early preventive visits were the intervention and dental operative procedures were the assessed outcome. The goal was to determine if preventive visits at an early age decreased the number of operative procedures needed by the patient. The patients were divided into two groups: those with older siblings in the practice and those without older siblings in the practice. A secondary outcome was to compare these two patient groups to determine if a child who had older siblings previously treated in this preventive practice had better outcomes than those without siblings in the practice. ANCOVA tests were used to compare the average number of operative procedures in two age groups (<2 years and ≥2 years), and for those with and without dental insurance, in addition to children being younger sibling versus children without sibling, adjusting for the effect of covariates. The study sample consisted of 363 pediatric patients. Patients' age at first visit ranged from 0 to 4 years old (mean = 2.13; SD = 1.15). The average number of operative procedures per year increased as the age at first visit increased (p < 0.05). The average number of operative procedures in two age groups (<2 years and ≥2 years) differed (p < 0.05) with those whose age at first visit ≥2 years experiencing more dental operative procedures than the younger group. The average number of operative procedures was similar between younger siblings (mean = 1.91; SD = 7.44) and children without siblings (mean = 1.54; SD = 2.1) (p > 0.05). The difference in the average number of operative procedures in children with insurance (mean = 1.59; SD = 5.25) and children without insurance (mean = 1.58; SD = 2.38) was non-significant (p > 0.05). More dental cleaning examinations were associated with fewer dental operative procedures (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that dental examinations before two years of age and more dental cleaning examinations lead to a decrease in the number of dental operative procedures needed by children.

5.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35455920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer, and both clinical and epidemiological data link cumulative solar dosages and the number of sunburns to skin cancer. Each year, more than 5.4 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed, incurring a significant health and financial burden. Recommended preventive measures for skin cancer include the use of sunscreen, sun avoidance, and protective clothing. This study used a national database to examine the association of preventive measures with the prevalence of skin cancer, specifically analyzing the preventive measures of sunscreen use, staying in the shade, and wearing long-sleeved shirts. The second aim was to determine which characteristics, if any, correlated with using prevention measures. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2015-2016 cycle to examine the association of three preventive measures (using sunscreen, staying in the shade, and wearing long-sleeved shirts) with skin cancer. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were utilized to examine the relationship between skin cancer and these prevention methods. RESULTS: Sunscreen use (OR = 3.752; p < 0.05) was statistically associated with a lower prevalence of skin cancer, while wearing long-sleeved shirts (OR = 6.911; p = 0.064) and staying in the shade (OR = 0.646; p = 0.481) did not emerge as factors significantly associated with a lower prevalence after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, income, health insurance, and general health. Additionally, men and individuals of color were less likely to use sunscreen. CONCLUSION: Sunscreen use was associated with a lower prevalence of skin cancer, while wearing long-sleeved shirts and staying in the shade was not significantly linked to lower rates of skin cancer, suggesting that these measures may not be as effective as sunscreen for preventing skin cancer. Men and individuals of color were significantly less likely to use sunscreen. These findings can help guide future education efforts and research regarding skin cancer prevention and suggest the need to develop male-oriented programs to mitigate the gender disparity in employing sun-protection measures.

6.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 114, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite controversy over their possible health consequences, manufacturers of e-cigarettes employ a variety of marketing media to increase their popularity among adolescents. This study analyzed the relationship between adolescent e-cigarette harm perception and five types of e-cigarette advertising exposures: social media, radio, billboard, newspaper, and television. METHODS: This study used data from Wave 4.5 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (PATH). PATH collects demographic data and interview individuals about issues pertaining to tobacco use, health outcomes, attitudes, and behaviors. This study applied factor analysis to three individual PATH harm perception items to develop a composite harm perception score. Using linear regression, the study explored the relationship of harm perception and participant responses to their recalled viewing of five different types (i.e., newspaper, radio, billboard, television and social media) of advertisements within the past 30 days. A second analysis explored if adjusting for exposure to anti-tobacco messaging and environmental factors such as family approval mitigated the association of harm perception and advertisement types. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 12,570 (weighted N = 23,993,149) individuals aged 12 to 17 years old. Unadjusted past 30-day exposure to newspaper, radio, billboard, and social media advertising all correlated with a reduced harm perception, but only the associations for newspaper and social media were statistically significant (p<0.05). After adjusting for environmental support factors, exposure to warning labels, and anti-tobacco advertisements, the analysis yielded statistically significant associations between increased e-cigarette harm perception and exposure to radio, billboard, and television advertisements (p<0.05). Adjusting for covariates also reduced the association of marketing and harm perception for all forms of media. CONCLUSION: E-cigarette advertising influences adolescent perceptions of harm in e-cigarette use, particularly for social media and newspaper advertisements. This association weakens when adjusted for covariates such as environmental support and exposure to anti-tobacco marketing. These findings provide evidence for policy makers to continue anti-tobacco marketing and incorporate environmentally supportive strategies such as holistic, family-centered educational approaches to reduce e-cigarette use among adolescents.

7.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(1): 7050, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Past studies examined factors associated with rural practice, but none employed newer machine learning (ML) methods to explore potential predictors. The primary aim of this study was to identify factors related to practice in a rural area. Secondary aims were to capture a more precise understanding of the demographic characteristics of the healthcare professions workforce in Utah (USA) and to assess the viability of ML as a predictive tool. METHODS: This study incorporated four datasets - the 2017 dental workforce, the 2016 physician workforce, the 2014 nursing workforce and the 2017 pharmacy workforce - collected by the Utah Medical Education Council. Supervised ML techniques were used to identify factors associated with practice location, the outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 11 259 healthcare professionals with an average age of 46.6 years, of which 36.6% were males and 94.5% Caucasian. Four ML methods were applied to assess model performance by comparing accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Of the methods used, support vector machine performed the best (accuracy 99.7%, precision 100%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 99.4% and ROC 0.997). The models identified income and rural upbringing as the top factors associated with rural practice. CONCLUSION: By far, income emerged as the most important factor associated with rural practice, suggesting that attractive income offers might help rural communities address health professional shortages. Rural upbringing was the next most important predictive factor, validating and updating earlier research. The performance of the ML algorithms suggests their usefulness as a tool to model other databases for individualized prediction.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Área de Atuação Profissional , Recursos Humanos
8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207015

RESUMO

The influence of familial and social environments plays a significant role in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) use and may contribute to poor oral health among adolescents. This study utilized the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) database and included youths aged 12 to 17 years who reported no history of dental health issues at baseline. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were used to examine the association between END-related familial factors and oral health among adolescents in the United States, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. The sample consisted of 3892 adolescents (weighted N = 22,689,793). Parents' extremely negative reaction towards ENDS when they found their children using ENDS (AOR = 0.309) was connected to a lower risk of oral health issues. The findings suggest that clinicians and policymakers need to consider the roles of these factors when developing strategies to improve oral health outcomes.

9.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 86(3): 8565, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385167

RESUMO

Objective. To evaluate fidelity to the comprehensive medication management (CMM) framework in a patient care skills course by using CMM essential functions to analyze the domains of content and competency.Methods. A mixed methods approach was used to compare the curriculum of the Pharmacist's Patient Care Process II skills course to the nationally developed CMM framework. The content of the course curriculum was mapped to the CMM framework and the percentage of omissions and deficiencies were calculated. Student competency was analyzed using pharmacy students' assessment scores.Results. Of the 102 class hours in the PPCP II course, 41.5 hours (40.7%) were spent teaching CMM content. Deficiencies in and omissions of content from the CMM framework were calculated at 14.3%, indicating an overall alignment with the CMM framework of 71.4%. For the competency domain, the percentage of students initially achieving competence ranged from 76.6% to 98.7% on formative assessments in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, combined academic years. For the summative assessment, 87.5% in 2018-2019 and 69.2% in 2019-2020 achieved competency on their first attempt, with levels rising significantly to 98.8% and 98.7%, respectively, after remediation. Overall, 98.7% of students achieved competency in CMM-related course curriculum.Conclusion. About 70% of the CMM framework for the core domain of content can be covered in approximately 40 hours of direct curricular time, and the majority of students can achieve competency. The omissions of and deficiencies in CMM content identified in this study highlight opportunities for course improvement. Remediation of students with deficient skills resulted in a significant improvement in the percentage of students achieving competence in CMM.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Assistência ao Paciente
10.
Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) ; 2(1): 245-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318294

RESUMO

Few studies provide detailed findings about the health disparities of women being told by a physician whether they have ever had a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study sought to characterize the prevalence and characteristics associated with women age 18 to 59 years in the United States who report being told they were infected with HPV. This study used data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Descriptive statistics were computed on study variables and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of the study variables with the outcome variable. Sampling weights were applied to produce national estimates of prevalence. The sample consisted of 1,669 females, representative of 75,107,170 females in the United States population. Around 11.5% reported being told that they had an HPV infection, of which 60.9% were White, and 82.9% were born in the United States. White women are 2.0 times more likely to be told they have HPV than Asian women and 2.8 times more likely than Black women. United States-born women were 2.1 times more likely told they had an HPV infection than those foreign born. This study found that among U.S. women, less than 12% reported ever having been told they have had an HPV infection. Epidemiologic findings suggest gaps between ever being told of a previous infection and being diagnosed with a clinically relevant HPV infection. Despite epidemiologic data indicating higher HPV prevalence among those less educated and women of color, these groups were less likely to report ever being told they have an HPV infection than White women, and those with a college degree suggesting communication gaps among these subgroups about HPV infection that might exist. Strategies to address potential gaps in communication among these subgroups can potentially reduce the economic burden and health disparities related to HPV infection.

11.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(3): 15579883211016361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993787

RESUMO

Sex and gender related health disparities in oral health remain an underappreciated and often over looked aspect of well-being. The goal of this narrative review is to identify sex and gender related oral health disparities by summarizing the current literature related to differences in oral health between men and women. The review identified that men are more likely to: ignore their oral health, have poorer oral hygiene habits, and experience higher rates of periodontal disease, oral cancer, and dental trauma. Men also visit dentists less frequently and compared to women seek oral treatment more often for an acute problem and less often for disease prevention. Women exhibit more positive attitudes about dental visits, greater oral health literacy, and demonstrate better oral health behaviors than men. Men disproportionately develop periodontal diseases due to a combination of biological and gender related reasons including immune system factors, hormone differences, poorer oral hygiene behaviors, and greater tobacco use. There is a male to female ratio of 2:1 for oral cancer, largely attributable to more tobacco use, heavier use of alcohol, and longer sun exposure. Minority men experience a disproportionate burden of oral health disparities because of both their gender and race/ethnic identities. In conclusion, this review identifies several differences between men and women related to oral health and highlights the need for further research to better understand these disparities and how to incorporate them into developing prevention, education and treatment strategies to improve oral health in men.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Caracteres Sexuais , Escolaridade , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 268, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthodontics prevent and treat facial, dental, and occlusal anomalies. Untreated orthodontic problems can lead to significant dental public health issues, making it important to understand expenditures for orthodontic treatment. This study examined orthodontic expenditures and trends in the United States over 2 decades. METHODS: This study used data collected by the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to examine orthodontic expenditures in the United States from 1996 to 2016. Descriptive statistics for orthodontic expenditures were computed and graphed across various groups. Trends in orthodontic expenditures were adjusted to the 2016 United States dollar to account for inflation and deflation over time. Sampling weights were applied in estimating per capita and total expenditures to account for non-responses in population groups. RESULTS: Total orthodontic expenditures in the United States almost doubled from $11.5 billion in 1996 to $19.9 billion in 2016 with the average orthodontic expenditure per person increasing from $42.69 in 1996 to $61.52 in 2016. Black individuals had the lowest per capita orthodontic visit expenditure at $30.35. Out-of-pocket expenses represented the highest total expenditure and although the amount of out-of-pocket expenses increased over the years, they decreased as a percentage of total expenditures. Public insurance increased the most over the study period but still accounted for the smallest percentage of expenditures. Over the course of the study, several annual decreases were interspersed with years of increased spending CONCLUSION: While government insurance expenditure increased over the study period, out of pocket expenditures remained the largest contributor. Annual decreases in expenditure associated with economic downturns and result from the reliance on out-of-pocket payments for orthodontic care. Differences in spending among groups suggest disparities in orthodontic care among the US population.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Seguro , Demografia , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
BDJ Open ; 7(1): 1, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmission rates are an indicator of the health care quality provided by hospitals. Applying machine learning (ML) to a hospital readmission database offers the potential to identify patients at the highest risk for readmission. However, few studies applied ML methods to predict hospital readmission. This study sought to assess ML as a tool to develop prediction models for all-cause 90-day hospital readmission for dental patients. METHODS: Using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), the study identified 9260 cases for all-cause 90-day index admission for dental patients. Five ML classification algorithms including decision tree, logistic regression, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, and artificial neural network (ANN) were implemented to build predictive models. The model performance was estimated and compared by using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision. RESULTS: Hospital readmission within 90 days occurred in 1746 cases (18.9%). Total charges, number of diagnosis, age, number of chronic conditions, length of hospital stays, number of procedures, primary expected payer, and severity of illness emerged as the top eight important features in all-cause 90-day hospital readmission. All models had similar performance with ANN (AUC = 0.743) slightly outperforming the rest. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a potential annual saving of over $500 million if all of the 90-day readmission cases could be prevented for 21 states represented in the NRD. Among the methods used, the prediction model built by ANN exhibited the best performance. Further testing using ANN and other methods can help to assess important readmission risk factors and to target interventions to those at the greatest risk.

14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 14, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this descriptive study is to outline the Roseman University of Health Sciences (RUHS) College of Dental Medicines' Patient Assistance Fund development, organization and outcomes. The description and reported results provide insight to others considering similar health professions programs. METHODS: The Patient Assistance Fund (PAF) affords dental students an opportunity to petition for and obtain financial assistance for their most disadvantaged patients. In this study, two sources of data were collected and used with a quantitative analysis for data collected as part of the PAFs operation and a qualitative analysis to evaluate the patient experiences. RESULTS: A total of 16 student advocates, consisting of 6 males and 10 females from the D3 and D4 classes made 26 presentations to the PAF board committee. The combined amount requested from the PAF was $47,428.00 ("Cost of Treatment Plan") representing an average request per patient of $1824.15 (range $324.00 to $4070.00). The approved procedures and treatment plans totaled $21,278.36 ("Cost of Approved Procedures") with an average of $818.40 (range $204.00 to $2434.00) per patient. Patients and students expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the program. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an overview of the structure, funding sources, expenditures and patient services supported by a dental student managed patient assistance fund. The experiences at RUHS College of Dental Medicine (CODM) suggest that other healthcare professions schools can develop similar type programs that yield benefit both to students and to patients in need.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Gastos em Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
J Dent Educ ; 85(2): 148-156, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920890

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic arguably represents the worst public health crisis of the 21st century. However, no empirical study currently exists in the literature that examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education. This study evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on dental education and dental students' experience. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was administrated to professional dental students that focused on their experiences related to COVID-19. The survey included questions about student demographics, protocols for school reopening and student perceptions of institutional responses, student concerns, and psychological impacts. RESULTS: Among the 145 respondents, 92.4% were pre-doctoral dental students and 7.6% were orthodontic residents; 48.2% were female and 12.6% students lived alone during the school closure due to the pandemic. Students' age ranged from 23 to 39 years. Younger students expressed more concerns about their emotional health (P = 0.01). In terms of the school's overall response to COVID-19, 73.1% students thought it was effective. The majority (83%) of students believed that social distancing in school can minimize the development of COVID-19. In general, students felt that clinical education suffered after transitioning to online but responded more positively about adjustments to other online curricular components. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted dental education. Our findings indicate that students are experiencing increased levels of stress and feel their clinical education has suffered. Most students appear comfortable with technology adaptations for didactic curriculum and favor masks, social distancing, and liberal use of sanitizers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Educação em Odontologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
16.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2047-2056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether patients admitted for all-cause dental conditions (ACDC) are at high risk for hospital readmission, or what are the risk factors for dental hospital readmission. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, 30-day hospital readmission for patients with an all-cause dental admission. We applied artificial intelligence to develop machine learning (ML) algorithms to predict patients at risk of 30-day hospital readmission. METHODS: This study used data extracted from the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). There were a total of 11,341 cases for all-cause index admission for dental patients admitted to the hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze patient characteristics. This study applied five techniques to build risk prediction models and to identify risk factors. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. RESULTS: There were 11% of patients admitted for ACDC readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. On average, the total charge per patient was $131,004 for those with 30-day readmission (n=1254) and $69,750 for those without readmission (n=10,087). Factors significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission included total charges, number of diagnoses, age, number of chronic conditions, length of hospital stays, number of procedures, Medicare insurance and Medicaid insurance, and severity of illness. Model performance from all methods was similar with the artificial neural network showing the highest AUC of 0.739. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that readmission after hospitalization with ACDC is fairly common. If one-third of the 30-day readmission cases can be avoided, there is a potential annual saving of over $25 million among the twenty-one states represented in the NRD. The ML algorithms can predict hospital readmission in dental patients and should be further tested to aid the reduction of hospital readmission and enhancement of patient-centered care.

17.
Am J Mens Health ; 14(5): 1557988320954021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936693

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid viruses that can cause illnesses in humans ranging from the common cold to severe respiratory disease and even death.In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as the first pandemic. Compared to women, most countries with available data report that men with COVID-19 have greater disease severity and higher mortality. Lab and animal data indicate that men respond differently to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, offering possible explanations for the epidemiologic observations. The plausible theories underlying these observations include sex-related differences in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, immune function, hormones, habits, and coinfection rates.In this review we examine these factors and explore the rationale as to how each may impact COVID-19. Understanding why men are more likely to experience severe disease can help in developing effective treatments, public health policies, and targeted strategies such as early recognition and aggressive testing in subgroups.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/fisiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e22590, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic led to substantial public discussion. Understanding these discussions can help institutions, governments, and individuals navigate the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze discussions on Twitter related to COVID-19 and to investigate the sentiments toward COVID-19. METHODS: This study applied machine learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence to analyze data collected from Twitter. Using tweets originating exclusively in the United States and written in English during the 1-month period from March 20 to April 19, 2020, the study examined COVID-19-related discussions. Social network and sentiment analyses were also conducted to determine the social network of dominant topics and whether the tweets expressed positive, neutral, or negative sentiments. Geographic analysis of the tweets was also conducted. RESULTS: There were a total of 14,180,603 likes, 863,411 replies, 3,087,812 retweets, and 641,381 mentions in tweets during the study timeframe. Out of 902,138 tweets analyzed, sentiment analysis classified 434,254 (48.2%) tweets as having a positive sentiment, 187,042 (20.7%) as neutral, and 280,842 (31.1%) as negative. The study identified 5 dominant themes among COVID-19-related tweets: health care environment, emotional support, business economy, social change, and psychological stress. Alaska, Wyoming, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Florida were the states expressing the most negative sentiment while Vermont, North Dakota, Utah, Colorado, Tennessee, and North Carolina conveyed the most positive sentiment. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified 5 prevalent themes of COVID-19 discussion with sentiments ranging from positive to negative. These themes and sentiments can clarify the public's response to COVID-19 and help officials navigate the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coleta de Dados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As total health and dental care expenditures in the United States continue to rise, healthcare disparities for low to middle-income Americans creates an imperative to analyze existing expenditures. This study examined health and dental care expenditures in the United States from 1996 to 2016 and explored trends in spending across various population subgroups. METHODS: Using data collected by the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this study examined health and dental care expenditures in the United States from 1996 to 2016. Trends in spending were displayed graphically and spending across subgroups examined. All expenditures were adjusted for inflation or deflation to the 2016 dollar. RESULTS: Both total health and dental expenditures increased between 1996 and 2016 with total healthcare expenditures increasing from $838.33 billion in 1996 to $1.62 trillion in 2016, a 1.9-fold increase. Despite an overall increase, total expenditures slowed between 2004 and 2012 with the exception of the older adult population. Over the study period, expenditures increased across all groups with the greatest increases seen in older adult health and dental care. The per capita geriatric dental care expenditure increased 59% while the per capita geriatric healthcare expenditure increased 50% across the two decades. For the overall US population, the per capita dental care expenditure increased 27% while the per capita healthcare expenditure increased 60% over the two decades. All groups except the uninsured experienced increased dental care expenditure over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare spending is not inherently bad since it brings benefits while exacting costs. Our findings indicate that while there were increases in both health and dental care expenditures from 1996 to 2016, these increases were non-uniform both across population subgroups and time. Further research to understand these trends in detail will be helpful to develop strategies to address health and dental care disparities and to maximize resource utilization.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/economia , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Nurs ; 18: 52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roseman University of Health Sciences (RUHS) developed and delivers a mastery learning curriculum designed for students to acquire the knowledge and skills to become competent nurses. Despite a trend in nursing education to adopt competency-based education (CBE) models, there is little in the nursing literature about programs based on a mastery model. The aim of this study is to describe an undergraduate nursing program built on a mastery learning model and to report on program outcome measures. METHODS: The 18-month BSN nursing program is divided into blocks, varying in length and focusing on a single subject. Students must demonstrate mastery, defined as ≥90% on an assessment, to pass a block. Recognizing the critical nature of health care, educators seek methods to assure that practitioners become competent to perform the services they provide.Program outcomes reported include comparisons to national standards and RUHS student exit survey data. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017 the RUHS College of Nursing students' pass rates ranged from 82 to 97% for the National Council Licensure Examination exam compared to national pass rates between 81.8-84.5% during the same time frame. The program completion rate ranged from 86 to 100% and employment rates exceeded accreditation standards. Students reported overall satisfaction with their education as 4.38 and with the block system as 4.74 (5 point Likert scale). CONCLUSIONS: Roseman University's mastery learning model appears successful as measured by high levels of student satisfaction, outcomes on exams, and degree completion when compared to national averages. The results suggest that other nursing and health profession's programs can develop a successful mastery based learning model.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...