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1.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(3): 819-837, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549501

RESUMO

As the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) expands, there is a growing need for comprehensive guidelines on training practitioners in the safe and effective administration of NIBS techniques in their various research and clinical applications. This article provides recommendations on the structure and content of this training. Three different types of practitioners are considered (Technicians, Clinicians, and Scientists), to attempt to cover the range of education and responsibilities of practitioners in NIBS from the laboratory to the clinic. Basic or core competencies and more advanced knowledge and skills are discussed, and recommendations offered regarding didactic and practical curricular components. We encourage individual licensing and governing bodies to implement these guidelines.

2.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243615

RESUMO

This article is based on a consensus conference, promoted and supported by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), which took place in Siena (Italy) in October 2018. The meeting intended to update the ten-year-old safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical settings (Rossi et al., 2009). Therefore, only emerging and new issues are covered in detail, leaving still valid the 2009 recommendations regarding the description of conventional or patterned TMS protocols, the screening of subjects/patients, the need of neurophysiological monitoring for new protocols, the utilization of reference thresholds of stimulation, the managing of seizures and the list of minor side effects. New issues discussed in detail from the meeting up to April 2020 are safety issues of recently developed stimulation devices and pulse configurations; duties and responsibility of device makers; novel scenarios of TMS applications such as in the neuroimaging context or imaging-guided and robot-guided TMS; TMS interleaved with transcranial electrical stimulation; safety during paired associative stimulation interventions; and risks of using TMS to induce therapeutic seizures (magnetic seizure therapy). An update on the possible induction of seizures, theoretically the most serious risk of TMS, is provided. It has become apparent that such a risk is low, even in patients taking drugs acting on the central nervous system, at least with the use of traditional stimulation parameters and focal coils for which large data sets are available. Finally, new operational guidelines are provided for safety in planning future trials based on traditional and patterned TMS protocols, as well as a summary of the minimal training requirements for operators, and a note on ethics of neuroenhancement.

3.
Nat Protoc ; 15(11): 3595-3614, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005039

RESUMO

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to stimulate the cerebral cortex that has applications in psychiatry, such as in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Although many TMS targeting methods that use figure-8 coils exist, many do not account for individual differences in anatomy or are not generalizable across target sites. This protocol combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and iterative electric-field (E-field) modeling in a generalized approach to subject-specific TMS targeting that is capable of optimizing the stimulation site and TMS coil orientation. To apply this protocol, the user should (i) operationally define a region of interest (ROI), (ii) generate the head model from the structural MRI data, (iii) preprocess the functional MRI data, (iv) identify the single-subject stimulation site within the ROI, and (iv) conduct E-field modeling to identify the optimal coil orientation. In comparison with standard targeting methods, this approach demonstrates (i) reduced variability in the stimulation site across subjects, (ii) reduced scalp-to-cortical-target distance, and (iii) reduced variability in optimal coil orientation. Execution of this protocol requires intermediate-level skills in structural and functional MRI processing. This protocol takes ~24 h to complete and demonstrates how constrained fMRI targeting combined with iterative E-field modeling can be used as a general method to optimize both the TMS coil site and its orientation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 1134-1141, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is usually reserved for treatment of severe major depressive disorder (MDD), but may be equally effective in the treatment of moderate-severity MDD. This possibility, however, has only been studied to a very limited extent. We therefore investigated the efficacy of ECT after stratifying patients into severe MDD and moderate-severity MDD. METHODS: We used data from the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study, in which 240 patients (≥60 years) with MDD were treated with right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine. We used the six-item core depression subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale to define depression severity. Participants with baseline total scores ≥12 on the HAM-D6 were considered to have severe MDD, while those with HAM-D6 total scores <12 were considered to have moderate-severity MDD. RESULTS: Among the participants with severe MDD and moderate-severity MDD, the mean change in the HAM-D6 total score from baseline to endpoint was -8.2 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -7.5; -9.0, paired t-test: p < 0.001) and -5.9 (95%CI = -5.1; -6.6, paired t-test: p < 0.001), respectively. A total of 63% of those with severe MDD and 75% of those with moderate-severity MDD achieved remission (HAM-D6 total score ≤4) (Pearson's 2-sample chi-squared test of difference between groups: p = 0.27). LIMITATIONS: The PRIDE study was not designed to address this research question. CONCLUSIONS: ECT combined with venlafaxine appears to be an effective treatment for moderate-severity MDD. It may be appropriate to expand the indications for ECT to include patients with moderate-severity MDD.

5.
J Neurosci ; 40(35): 6770-6778, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690618

RESUMO

The brain is an inherently dynamic system, and much work has focused on the ability to modify neural activity through both local perturbations and changes in the function of global network ensembles. Network controllability is a recent concept in network neuroscience that purports to predict the influence of individual cortical sites on global network states and state changes, thereby creating a unifying account of local influences on global brain dynamics. While this notion is accepted in engineering science, it is subject to ongoing debates in neuroscience as empirical evidence linking network controllability to brain activity and human behavior remains scarce. Here, we present an integrated set of multimodal brain-behavior relationships derived from fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied during an individually calibrated working memory task performed by individuals of both sexes. The modes describing the structural network system dynamics showed direct relationships to brain activity associated with task difficulty, with difficult-to-reach modes contributing to functional brain states in the hard task condition. Modal controllability (a measure quantifying the contribution of difficult-to-reach modes) at the stimulated site predicted both fMRI activations associated with increasing task difficulty and rTMS benefits on task performance. Furthermore, fMRI explained 64% of the variance between modal controllability and the working memory benefit associated with 5 Hz online rTMS. These results therefore provide evidence toward the functional validity of network control theory, and outline a clear technique for integrating structural network topology and functional activity to predict the influence of stimulation on subsequent behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The network controllability concept proposes that specific cortical nodes are able to steer the brain into certain physiological states. By applying external perturbation to these control nodes, it is theorized that brain stimulation is able to selectively target difficult-to-reach states, potentially aiding processing and improving performance on cognitive tasks. The current study used rTMS and fMRI during a working memory task to test this hypothesis. We demonstrate that network controllability correlates with fMRI modulation because of working memory load and with the behavioral improvements that result from a multivisit intervention using 5 Hz rTMS. This study demonstrates the validity of network controllability and offers a new targeting approach to improve efficacy.

6.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(10): 1656-1663, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544925

RESUMO

Anhedonia remains a major clinical issue for which there is few effective interventions. Untreated or poorly controlled anhedonia has been linked to worse disease course and increased suicidal behavior across disorders. Taking a proof-of-mechanism approach under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health FAST-FAIL initiative, we were the first to show that, in a transdiagnostic sample screened for elevated self-reported anhedonia, 8 weeks of treatment with a kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist resulted in significantly higher reward-related activation in one of the core hubs of the brain reward system (the ventral striatum), better reward learning in the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT), and lower anhedonic symptoms, relative to 8 weeks of placebo. Here, we performed secondary analyses of the PRT data to investigate the putative effects of KOR antagonism on anhedonic behavior with more precision by using trial-level model-based Bayesian computational modeling and probability analyses. We found that, relative to placebo, KOR antagonism resulted in significantly higher learning rate (i.e., ability to learn from reward feedback) and a more sustained preference toward the more frequently rewarded stimulus, but unaltered reward sensitivity (i.e., the hedonic response to reward feedback). Collectively, these findings provide novel evidence that in a transdiagnostic sample characterized by elevated anhedonia, KOR antagonism improved the ability to modulate behavior as a function of prior rewards. Together with confirmation of target engagement in the primary report (Krystal et al., Nat Med, 2020), the current findings suggest that further transdiagnostic investigation of KOR antagonism for anhedonia is warranted.

7.
Brain Sci ; 10(5)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349366

RESUMO

The process of manipulating information within working memory is central to many cognitive functions, but also declines rapidly in old age. Improving this process could markedly enhance the health-span in older adults. The current pre-registered, randomized and placebo-controlled study tested the potential of online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied at 5 Hz over the left lateral parietal cortex to enhance working memory manipulation in healthy elderly adults. rTMS was applied, while participants performed a delayed-response alphabetization task with two individually titrated levels of difficulty. Coil placement and stimulation amplitude were calculated from fMRI activation maps combined with electric field modeling on an individual-subject basis in order to standardize dosing at the targeted cortical location. Contrary to the a priori hypothesis, active rTMS significantly decreased accuracy relative to sham, and only in the hardest difficulty level. When compared to the results from our previous study, in which rTMS was applied over the left prefrontal cortex, we found equivalent effect sizes but opposite directionality suggesting a site-specific effect of rTMS. These results demonstrate engagement of cortical working memory processing using a novel TMS targeting approach, while also providing prescriptions for future studies seeking to enhance memory through rTMS.

9.
Brain Stimul ; 13(3): 863-872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that delivers constant, low electrical current resulting in changes to cortical excitability. Prior work suggests it may enhance motor learning giving it the potential to augment surgical technical skill acquisition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of tDCS, coupled with motor skill training, to accelerate laparoscopic skill acquisition in a pre-registered (NCT03083483), double-blind and placebo-controlled study. We hypothesized that relative to sham tDCS, active tDCS would accelerate the development of laparoscopic technical skills, as measured by the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) Peg Transfer task quantitative metrics. METHODS: In this study, sixty subjects (mean age 22.7 years with 42 females) were randomized into sham or active tDCS in either bilateral primary motor cortex (bM1) or supplementary motor area (SMA) electrode configurations. All subjects practiced the FLS Peg Transfer Task during six 20-min training blocks, which were preceded and followed by a single trial pre-test and post-test. The primary outcome was changes in laparoscopic skill performance over time, quantified by group differences in completion time from pre-test to post-test and learning curves developed from a calculated score accounting for errors. RESULTS: Learning curves calculated over the six 20-min training blocks showed significantly greater improvement in performance for the bM1 group than the sham group (t = 2.07, p = 0.039), with the bM1 group achieving approximately the same amount of improvement in 4 blocks compared to the 6 blocks required of the sham group. The SMA group also showed greater mean improvement than sham, but exhibited more variable learning performance and differences relative to sham were not significant (t = 0.85, p = 0.400). A significant main effect was present for pre-test versus post-test times (F = 133.2, p < 0.001), with lower completion times at post-test, however these did not significantly differ for the training groups. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic skill training with active bilateral tDCS exhibited significantly greater learning relative to sham. The potential for tDCS to enhance the training of surgical skills, therefore, merits further investigation to determine if these preliminary results may be replicated and extended.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Laparoscopia/métodos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Competência Clínica/normas , Excitabilidade Cortical/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/normas , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/normas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuropsychology ; 34(6): 726-734, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is commonly associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. However, there remains substantial heterogeneity between patients and inconsistent findings regarding the magnitude and prevalence of specific neurocognitive deficits. This study aimed to investigate the potential for different neurocognitive subgroups in patients diagnosed with MDD. METHOD: Data were pooled from 4 different clinical trials that involved adults diagnosed with MDD. Neurocognitive outcomes included measures of verbal learning and memory, executive function, attention, and processing speed. Latent class analysis was conducted to examine for different subgroups based on neurocognitive profiles of performance across outcome measures. Subgroups were compared to a separate sample of age-matched adult healthy controls, across illness factors, and individual mood items on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). RESULTS: Within the MDD cohort (N = 149), 45% of participants were considered relatively "cognitively preserved," with the remainder "cognitively reduced" (39%) or "cognitively impaired" (16%). Verbal memory performance was significantly poorer compared to attention and processing speed only in the "cognitively impaired" subgroup. There was no association between subgroup membership and relevant illness factors, including ratings on individual MADRS items. LIMITATIONS: Data were pooled from several studies that included different neurocognitive measures and cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of MDD participants had no or minimal objective cognitive difficulties, and neurocognitive functioning was found generally unrelated to illness factors. Future longitudinal research is warranted to determine whether the people who are relatively cognitively impaired are at increased risk for further cognitive decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 760-768, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231295

RESUMO

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) 'fast-fail' approach seeks to improve too-often-misleading early-phase drug development methods by incorporating biomarker-based proof-of-mechanism (POM) testing in phase 2a. This first comprehensive application of the fast-fail approach evaluated the potential of κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonism for treating anhedonia with a POM study determining whether robust target engagement favorably impacts the brain circuitry hypothesized to mediate clinical effects. Here we report the results from a multicenter, 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in patients with anhedonia and a mood or anxiety disorder (selective KOR antagonist (JNJ-67953964, 10 mg; n = 45) and placebo (n = 44)). JNJ-67953964 significantly increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ventral striatum activation during reward anticipation (primary outcome) as compared to placebo (baseline-adjusted mean: JNJ-67953964, 0.72 (s.d. = 0.67); placebo, 0.33 (s.d. = 0.68); F(1,86) = 5.58, P < 0.01; effect size = 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.99)). JNJ-67953964, generally well tolerated, was not associated with any serious adverse events. This study supports proceeding with assessment of the clinical impact of target engagement and serves as a model for implementing the 'fast-fail' approach.


Assuntos
Anedonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Opioides kappa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038206

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) is involved with visual decision making, and specifically with the accumulation of information leading to a decision. In humans, this research has been primarily based on imaging and electroencephalography (EEG), and as such only correlational. One line of such research has led to a model of three spatially distributed brain networks that activate in temporal sequence to enable visual decision-making. The model predicted that disturbing neural processing in the LOC at a specific latency would slow object decision-making, increasing reaction time (RT) in a difficult discrimination task. We utilized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to test this prediction, perturbing LOC beginning at 400 ms post-stimulus onset, a time in the model corresponding to LOC activation at a particular difficulty level, with the expectation of increased RT. Thirteen healthy adults participated in two TMS sessions in which left and right LOC were stimulated separately utilizing neuronavigation and robotic coil guidance. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task selecting whether a car or face was present on each trial amidst visual noise pre-tested to approximate a 75% accuracy level. In an effort to disrupt processing, pairs of TMS pulses separated by 50 ms were presented at one of five stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs): -200, 200, 400, 450, or 500 ms. Behavioral performance differed systematically across SOAs for RT and accuracy measures. As predicted, TMS at 400 ms resulted in a significant slowing of RT. TMS delivered at -200 ms resulted in faster RT, indicating early stimulation may result in priming and performance enhancement. Use of TMS thus causally demonstrated the involvement of LOC in this task, and more broadly with perceptual decision-making; additionally, it demonstrated the role of TMS in testing well-developed neural models of perceptual processing.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 68, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066739

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders, with few effective neuropharmacological treatments, making treatments development critical. While noninvasive neuromodulation can successfully treat depression, few treatment targets have been identified specifically for anxiety disorders. Previously, we showed that shock threat increases excitability and connectivity of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting this region would reduce induced anxiety. Subjects were exposed to neutral, predictable, and unpredictable shock threat, while receiving double-blinded, 1 Hz active or sham IPS rTMS. We used global brain connectivity and electric-field modelling to define the single-subject targets. We assessed subjective anxiety with online ratings and physiological arousal with the startle reflex. Startle stimuli (103 dB white noise) probed fear and anxiety during the predictable (fear-potentiated startle, FPS) and unpredictable (anxiety-potentiated startle, APS) conditions. Active rTMS reduced both FPS and APS relative to both the sham and no stimulation conditions. However, the online anxiety ratings showed no difference between the stimulation conditions. These results were not dependent on the laterality of the stimulation, or the subjects' perception of the stimulation (i.e. active vs. sham). Results suggest that reducing IPS excitability during shock threat is sufficient to reduce physiological arousal related to both fear and anxiety, and are consistent with our previous research showing hyperexcitability in this region during threat. By extension, these results suggest that 1 Hz parietal stimulation may be an effective treatment for clinical anxiety, warranting future work in anxiety patients.

15.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 60: 591-614, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914895

RESUMO

Device-based neuromodulation of brain circuits is emerging as a promising new approach in the study and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This work presents recent advances in the development of tools for identifying neurocircuits as therapeutic targets and in tools for modulating neurocircuits. We review clinical evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of circuit modulation with a range of brain stimulation approaches, including subthreshold, subconvulsive, convulsive, and neurosurgical techniques. We further discuss strategies for enhancing the precision and efficacy of neuromodulatory techniques. Finally, we survey cutting-edge research in therapeutic circuit modulation using novel paradigms and next-generation devices.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Animais , Convulsoterapia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos
16.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(3): 261-272, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been found to have antidepressant effects and may have beneficial neurocognitive effects. However, prior research has produced an unclear understanding of the neurocognitive effects of repeated exposure to tDCS. The study's aim was to determine the neurocognitive effects following tDCS treatment in participants with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHOD: The study was a triple-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial across six international academic medical centers. Participants were randomized to high dose (2.5 mA for 30 min) or low dose (0.034 mA, for 30 min) tDCS for 20 sessions over 4 weeks, followed by an optional 4 weeks of open-label high dose treatment. The tDCS anode was centered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at F3 (10/20 EEG system) and the cathode over F8. Participants completed clinical and neurocognitive assessments before and after tDCS. Genotype (BDNF Val66Met and catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT] Val158Met polymorphisms) were explored as potential moderators of neurocognitive effects. RESULTS: The study randomized 130 participants. Across the participants, tDCS treatment (high and low dose) resulted in improvements in verbal learning and recall, selective attention, information processing speed, and working memory, which were independent of mood effects. Similar improvements were observed in the subsample of participants with bipolar disorder. There was no observed significant effect of tDCS dose. However, BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms interacted with tDCS dose and affected verbal memory and verbal fluency outcomes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that tDCS could have positive neurocognitive effects in unipolar and bipolar depression. Thus, tDCS stimulation parameters may interact with interindividual differences in BDNF and COMT polymorphisms to affect neurocognitive outcomes, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(4): 694-702, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791039

RESUMO

Much of the mechanistic research on anxiety focuses on subcortical structures such as the amygdala; however, less is known about the distributed cortical circuit that also contributes to anxiety expression. One way to learn about this circuit is to probe candidate regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this study, we tested the involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), in anxiety expression using 10 Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS). In a within-subject, crossover experiment, the study measured anxiety in healthy subjects before and after a session of 10 Hz rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). It used threat of predictable and unpredictable shock to induce anxiety and anxiety potentiated startle to assess anxiety. Counter to our hypotheses, results showed an increase in anxiety-potentiated startle following active but not sham rTMS. These results suggest a mechanistic link between right dlPFC activity and physiological anxiety expression. This result supports current models of prefrontal asymmetry in affect, and lays the groundwork for further exploration into the cortical mechanisms mediating anxiety, which may lead to novel anxiety treatments.

18.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(3): 304-316, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited information regarding the tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with pharmacotherapy in elderly adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Addressing this gap, we report acute neurocognitive outcomes from Phase 1 of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study. METHODS: Elderly adults (age ≥60) with MDD received an acute course of 6 times seizure threshold right unilateral ultrabrief pulse (RUL-UB) ECT. Venlafaxine was initiated during the first treatment week and continued throughout the study. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 72 hours following the last ECT session. Statistical significance was defined as a two-sided p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 240 elderly adults were enrolled. Neurocognitive performance acutely declined post ECT on measures of psychomotor and verbal processing speed, autobiographical memory consistency, short-term verbal recall and recognition of learned words, phonemic fluency, and complex visual scanning/cognitive flexibility. The magnitude of change from baseline to end for most neurocognitive measures was modest. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize the neurocognitive effects of combined RUL-UB ECT and venlafaxine in elderly adults with MDD and provides new evidence for the tolerability of RUL-UB ECT in an elderly sample. Of the cognitive domains assessed, only phonemic fluency, complex visual scanning, and cognitive flexibility qualitatively declined from low average to mildly impaired. While some acute changes in neurocognitive performance were statistically significant, the majority of the indices as based on the effect sizes remained relatively stable.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837388

RESUMO

We evaluated the efficacy and acceptability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for treating acute depressive episodes using individual patient data that provide more precise estimates than aggregate data meta-analysis. A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials on tDCS as only intervention was conducted until December-2018. Data from each study was collated to estimate odds ratio (OR) and number needed to treat (NNT) of response and remission, and depression improvement. Endpoints were pre-determined. Nine eligible studies (572 participants), presenting moderate/high certainty of evidence, were included. Active tDCS was significantly superior to sham for response (30.9% vs. 18.9% respectively; OR = 1.96, 95%CI [1.30-2.95], NNT = 9), remission (19.9% vs. 11.7%, OR = 1.94 [1.19-3.16], NNT = 13) and depression improvement (effect size of ß = 0.31, [0.15-0.47]). Moreover, continuous clinical improvement was observed even after the end of acute tDCS treatment. There were no differences in all-cause discontinuation rates and no predictors of response were identified. To conclude, active tDCS was statistically superior to sham in all outcomes, although its clinical effects were moderate.

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