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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486188

RESUMO

To assess the effects of intensive glucose control on the risk of major clinical outcomes according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Of 11 140 ADVANCE trial participants, 11 096 with baseline eGFR measurements were included, and classified into three eGFR groups: ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Relative risk reduction of randomized intensive glucose control with regard to the composite outcome of major macro- and microvascular events, all-cause death and cardiovascular death did not significantly vary by eGFR level (P for heterogeneity ≥0.49). The risk of severe hypoglycaemia increased with intensive glucose control; however, this risk did not vary across eGFR groups (P for heterogeneity = 0.83). The risk-benefit profile of intensive glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired kidney function appears similar to that observed in those with preserved kidney function.

2.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Lancet ; 391(10117): 205-218, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive rivaroxaban (2·5 mg orally twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban alone (5 mg orally twice a day), or aspirin alone (100 mg orally once a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patients, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the COMPASS trial was the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, 27 395 patients were enrolled to the COMPASS trial, of whom 24 824 patients had stable coronary artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the primary outcome more than aspirin alone (347 [4%] of 8313 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·65-0·86, p<0·0001). By comparison, treatment with rivaroxaban alone did not significantly improve the primary outcome when compared with treatment with aspirin alone (411 [5%] of 8250 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·78-1·02, p=0·094). Combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin treatment resulted in more major bleeds than treatment with aspirin alone (263 [3%] of 8313 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·66, 95% CI 1·37-2·03, p<0·0001), and similarly, more bleeds were seen in the rivaroxaban alone group than in the aspirin alone group (236 [3%] of 8250 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·51, 95% CI 1·23-1·84, p<0·0001). The most common site of major bleeding was gastrointestinal, occurring in 130 [2%] patients who received combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin, in 84 [1%] patients who received rivaroxaban alone, and in 61 [1%] patients who received aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced mortality when compared with aspirin alone (262 [3%] of 8313 vs 339 [4%] of 8261; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·65-0·90, p=0·0012). INTERPRETATION: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin lowered major vascular events, but increased major bleeding. There was no significant increase in intracranial bleeding or other critical organ bleeding. There was also a significant net benefit in favour of rivaroxaban plus aspirin and deaths were reduced by 23%. Thus, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease worldwide. FUNDING: Bayer AG.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
4.
Lancet ; 391(10117): 205-218, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive rivaroxaban (2·5 mg orally twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban alone (5 mg orally twice a day), or aspirin alone (100 mg orally once a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patients, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the COMPASS trial was the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants...(AU)


Assuntos
Rivaroxabana , Aspirina , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estudos de Casos e Controles
5.
Diabetes Care ; 39(10): 1796-803, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes, but the relationship between other vascular diseases and PAD has been poorly investigated. We examined the impact of previous microvascular and macrovascular disease on the risk of major PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 10,624 patients with type 2 diabetes free from baseline major PAD in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) clinical trial. The primary composite outcome was major PAD defined as PAD-induced death, peripheral revascularization, lower-limb amputation, or chronic ulceration. The secondary end points were the PAD components considered separately. RESULTS: Major PAD occurred in 620 (5.8%) participants during 5 years of follow-up. Baseline microvascular and macrovascular disease were both associated with subsequent risk of major PAD after adjustment for age, sex, region of origin, and randomized treatments. However, only microvascular disease remained significantly associated with PAD after further adjustment for established risk factors. The highest risk was observed in participants with a history of macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio 1.91 [95% CI 1.38-2.64], P < 0.0001) and retinal photocoagulation therapy (1.60 [1.11-2.32], P = 0.01). Baseline microvascular disease was also associated with a higher risk of chronic lower-limb ulceration (2.07 [1.56-2.75], P < 0.0001) and amputation (1.59 [1.15-2.22], P = 0.006), whereas baseline macrovascular disease was associated with a higher rate of angioplasty procedures (1.75 [1.13-2.73], P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular disease, particularly macroalbuminuria and retinal photocoagulation therapy, strongly predicts major PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes, but macrovascular disease does not.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gliclazida/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Indapamida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perindopril/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Hypertens ; 34(4): 781-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The associations of discontinuation of the study medication on major outcomes were assessed in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation Trial. METHODS: ADVANCE was a factorial randomized controlled trial of blood pressure lowering (a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide vs. placebo) and intensive glucose control (vs. standard glucose control) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients who permanently discontinued the randomized blood pressure-lowering medication during the study period (n = 1557) were compared with others (n = 9583). Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effects of the discontinuation on the risks of macrovascular events, microvascular events together and separately and all-cause mortality, using discontinuation as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, discontinuation was associated with increased risks of combined macro and microvascular events (hazard ratio 2.24, 95% CI 1.96-2.57), macrovascular events (3.23, 2.75-3.79), microvascular events (1.38, 1.11-1.71), and all-cause mortality (7.99, 6.92-9.21) compared to continuing administration of randomized medications during the trial period, which were highest in the first year after discontinuation. These associations were similar in active and placebo groups, except in the first year after discontinuation during which event rates were lower in the active group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of study medication is a potent risk marker for identifying high-risk patients. Thus it is important that clinicians seek to identify such patients early after discontinuation of treatment. Although some short-term residual effects of previous active treatment can be expected, patients who discontinue require further urgent investigation and management.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
8.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 18(Suppl F): F2-F11, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533724

RESUMO

The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are more prevalent in the Chinese population, and therefore, increase the incidence of CVD. In general, CVD morbidity and mortality will remain an upward trend in the next 10 years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in China, which accounts for >40% of deaths from any cause. The burden of CVD is substantial and has become an important public health issue. Measures for the prevention and treatment of CVD in China should be further enforced without delay. Since 2005, the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases has organized experts of cardiology, neurology, nephrology, diabetes, epidemiology, community health, health economics, biostatistics, and other related fields to compile the annual Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China. The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic of CVD and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD. We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2014), including trends in CVD, morbidity and mortality of major CVD, up-to-date assessment of risk factors, as well as health resources for CVD, and a profile of medical expenditure, with the aim of providing evidence for decision making in CVD prevention and control programmes in China, and of delivering the most authoritative information on CVD prevention and control for all citizens.

11.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 5(3): 238-42, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26090335

RESUMO

High dietary salt is a leading risk for death and disability largely by causing increased blood pressure. Other associated health risks include gastric and renal cell cancers, osteoporosis, renal stones, and increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis, headache, increased body fat and Meniere's disease. The World Hypertension League (WHL) has prioritized advocacy for salt reduction. WHL resources and actions include a non-governmental organization policy statement, dietary salt fact sheet, development of standardized nomenclature, call for quality research, collaboration in a weekly salt science update, development of a process to set recommended dietary salt research standards and regular literature reviews, development of adoptable power point slide sets to support WHL positions and resources, and critic of weak research studies on dietary salt. The WHL plans to continue to work with multiple governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote dietary salt reduction towards the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations.

13.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 17(3): 165-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644474

RESUMO

Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , Algoritmos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Agências Internacionais , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Drugs ; 74(17): 2033-51, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25315030

RESUMO

Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments to aid the control of blood pressure, the global rate of uncontrolled blood pressure remains high. As such, further measures are required to improve blood pressure control. Recently, several national and international guidelines for the management of hypertension have been published. These aim to provide easily accessible information for healthcare professionals and patients to aid the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In this review, we have compared new and current guidelines from the American and International Societies of Hypertension; the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention; the panel appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee; the European Societies of Hypertension and Cardiology; the French Society of Hypertension; the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); the Taiwan Society of Cardiology and the Chinese Hypertension League. We have identified consensus opinion regarding best practises for the management of hypertension and have highlighted any discrepancies between the recommendations. In general there is good agreement between the guidelines, however, in some areas, such as target blood pressure ranges for the elderly, further trials are required to provide sufficient high-quality evidence to form the basis of recommendations.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Internacionalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas
17.
N Engl J Med ; 371(15): 1392-406, 2014 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25234206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) factorial trial, the combination of perindopril and indapamide reduced mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes, but intensive glucose control, targeting a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 6.5%, did not. We now report results of the 6-year post-trial follow-up. METHODS: We invited surviving participants, who had previously been assigned to perindopril-indapamide or placebo and to intensive or standard glucose control (with the glucose-control comparison extending for an additional 6 months), to participate in a post-trial follow-up evaluation. The primary end points were death from any cause and major macrovascular events. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics were similar among the 11,140 patients who originally underwent randomization and the 8494 patients who participated in the post-trial follow-up for a median of 5.9 years (blood-pressure-lowering comparison) or 5.4 years (glucose-control comparison). Between-group differences in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin levels during the trial were no longer evident by the first post-trial visit. The reductions in the risk of death from any cause and of death from cardiovascular causes that had been observed in the group receiving active blood-pressure-lowering treatment during the trial were attenuated but significant at the end of the post-trial follow-up; the hazard ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99; P=0.03) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.99; P=0.04), respectively. No differences were observed during follow-up in the risk of death from any cause or major macrovascular events between the intensive-glucose-control group and the standard-glucose-control group; the hazard ratios were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits with respect to mortality that had been observed among patients originally assigned to blood-pressure-lowering therapy were attenuated but still evident at the end of follow-up. There was no evidence that intensive glucose control during the trial led to long-term benefits with respect to mortality or macrovascular events. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; ADVANCE-ON ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00949286.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Indapamida/uso terapêutico , Perindopril/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Hypertens ; 32(2): 446-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24430121

RESUMO

The International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League have developed a policy statement calling for reducing dietary salt. The policy supports the WHO and the United Nations recommendations, which are based on a comprehensive and up-to-date review of relevant research. The policy statement calls for broad societal action to reduce dietary salt, thus reducing blood pressure and preventing hypertension and its related burden of cardiovascular disease. The hypertension organizations and experts need to become more engaged in the efforts to prevent hypertension and to advocate strongly to have dietary salt reduction policies implemented. The statement is being circulated to national hypertension organizations and to international nongovernmental health organizations for consideration of endorsement. Member organizations of the International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League are urged to support this effort.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hipossódica , Indústria Alimentícia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Organizações , Política Pública , Sociedades Médicas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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