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1.
Epigenomics ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509016

RESUMO

Aim: We investigated associations of prenatal socioeconomic status (SES) with DNA methylation at birth, and to explore persistence of associations into early (∼3 years) and mid-childhood (∼7 years) among 609 mother-child pairs in a Boston-area prebirth cohort. Materials & methods: First, we created a prenatal SES index comprising individual- and neighborhood-level metrics and examined associations of low (lowest 10%) versus high (upper 90%) SES with genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood via the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Next, we evaluated persistence of associations detected in cord blood with DNA methylation of the same CpG sites measured in peripheral leukocytes in early- and mid-childhood. Results & conclusion: Low prenatal SES was associated with methylation at CpG sites near ACSF3, TNRC6C-AS1, MTMR4 and LRRN4. The relationship with LRRN4 persisted into early childhood.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease. METHODS: We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; ß-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores. RESULTS: We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests vitamin D has preventive potential for asthma, however, not all children benefit from this intervention. This study aims to investigate whether variation in the functional 17q21 SNP; rs12936231 affects the preventive potential of vitamin D against asthma. METHODS: A combined secondary analysis of two randomised-controlled trials of prenatal vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of asthma in offspring (Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART); and Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010)) was performed stratifying by genotype and integrating metabolite data to explore underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The protective effect of vitamin D on asthma/wheeze was evident among children with the low-risk rs12936231 GG-genotype (HR (95%CI) 0.49 (0.26, 0.94), p=0.032), but not the high-risk CC-genotype (HR(95%CI) 1.08 (0.69,1.69), p=0.751). In VDAART, in the GG-genotype vitamin D supplementation was associated with increased plasma levels of sphingolipids, including sphingosine-1-phosphate: (sphingosine-1-phosphate (ß (95% CI) 0.022 (0.001, 0.044), p=0.038)); but this was not evident with the CC-genotype, known to be associated with increased expression of ORMDL3 in bronchial epithelial cells. Sphingolipid levels were associated with decreased risk of asthma/wheeze, and there was evidence of interactions between sphingolipid levels, vitamin D and genotype (p-interactionvitaminD*genotype*age1:sphingosine-1-phosphate=0.035). In a cellular model, there was a significant difference in the induction of sphingosine-1-phosphate by vitamin D between a control Human bronchial epithelial cell-line and a cell-line overexpressing ORMDL3 (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Results suggest prenatal vitamin D supplementation may reduce risk of early childhood asthma/wheeze via alterations of sphingolipid metabolism dependent on 17q21 genotype. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: VDAART NCT00920621, COPSAC2010 NCT00856947.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3095, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300640

RESUMO

The nasal cellular epigenome may serve as biomarker of airway disease and environmental response. Here we collect nasal swabs from the anterior nares of 547 children (mean-age 12.9 y), and measure DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We perform nasal Epigenome-Wide Association analyses (EWAS) of current asthma, allergen sensitization, allergic rhinitis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lung function. We find multiple differentially methylated CpGs (FDR < 0.05) and Regions (DMRs; ≥ 5-CpGs and FDR < 0.05) for asthma (285-CpGs), FeNO (8,372-CpGs; 191-DMRs), total IgE (3-CpGs; 3-DMRs), environment IgE (17-CpGs; 4-DMRs), allergic asthma (1,235-CpGs; 7-DMRs) and bronchodilator response (130-CpGs). Discovered DMRs annotated to genes implicated in allergic asthma, Th2 activation and eosinophilia (EPX, IL4, IL13) and genes previously associated with asthma and IgE in EWAS of blood (ACOT7, SLC25A25). Asthma, IgE and FeNO were associated with nasal epigenetic age acceleration. The nasal epigenome is a sensitive biomarker of asthma, allergy and airway inflammation.

8.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 56, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mood disorders and their treatment during pregnancy may have effects on the offspring epigenome. We aim to evaluate associations of maternal prenatal antidepressant use, anxiety, and depression with cord blood DNA methylation across the genome at birth and test for persistence of associations in early and mid-childhood blood DNA. METHODS: A discovery phase was conducted in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study with external replication in an independent cohort, the Generation R Study. In Project Viva, pregnant women were recruited between 1999 and 2002 in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. In the Generation R Study, pregnant women were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In Project Viva, 479 infants had data on maternal antidepressant use, anxiety, depression, and cord blood DNA methylation, 120 children had DNA methylation measured in early childhood (~ 3 years), and 460 in mid-childhood (~ 7 years). In the Generation R Study, 999 infants had data on maternal antidepressants and cord blood DNA methylation. The prenatal antidepressant prescription was obtained from medical records. At-mid pregnancy, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in Project Viva and with the Brief Symptom Inventory in the Generation R Study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in both cohorts. RESULTS: In Project Viva, 2.9% (14/479) pregnant women were prescribed antidepressants, 9.0% (40/445) experienced high pregnancy-related anxiety, and 8.2% (33/402) reported symptoms consistent with depression. Newborns exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy had 7.2% lower DNA methylation (95% CI, - 10.4, - 4.1; P = 1.03 × 10-8) at cg22159528 located in the gene body of ZNF575, and this association replicated in the Generation R Study (ß = - 2.5%; 95% CI - 4.2, - 0.7; P = 0.006). In Project Viva, the association persisted in early (ß = - 6.2%; 95% CI - 10.7, - 1.6) but not mid-childhood. We observed cohort-specific associations for maternal anxiety and depression in Project Viva that did not replicate. CONCLUSIONS: The ZNF575 gene is involved in transcriptional regulation but specific functions are largely unknown. Given the widespread use of antidepressants in pregnancy, as well as the effects of exposure to anxiety and depression, implications of potential fetal epigenetic programming by these risk factors and their impacts on development merit further investigation.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190905, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901046

RESUMO

Importance: In animal models, the early life gut microbiome influences later neurodevelopment. Corresponding data in human populations are lacking. Objective: To study associations between the gut microbiome in infants and development at preschool age measured by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, third edition (ASQ-3). Design, Setting, and Participants: This ancillary cohort study of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) used data from 715 participants who had development assessed at 3 years of age by the ASQ-3, which included scores in 5 domains (gross motor skills, fine motor skills, problem solving, communication, and personal and social skills). A total of 309 stool samples were collected from infants aged 3 to 6 months for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Exposures: Infant gut microbiome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Continuous ASQ-3 scores and typical vs potential delay in the 5 developmental domains. Factor scores for bacterial coabundance groups were used as predictors in regression models of continuous ASQ-3 scores. Logistic regression was used to examine bacterial coabundance scores and odds of scoring below the threshold for typical development. Multivariate analysis examined the abundance of individual taxa and ASQ-3 scores. Results: The 309 participants (170 [55.0%] male) with ASQ-3 scores and stool samples were ethnically diverse (136 [44.0%] black, 41 [13.3%] Hispanic, 86 [27.8%] white, and 46 [14.9%] other race/ethnicity); the mean (SD) age at ASQ-3 assessment was 3.0 (0.07) years. Coabundance scores dominated by Clostridiales (Lachnospiraceae genera and other, unclassified Clostridiales taxa) were associated with poorer ASQ-3 communication (ß, -1.12; 95% CI, -2.23 to -0.01; P = .05) and personal and social (ß, -1.44; 95% CI, -2.47 to -0.40; P = .01) scores and with increased odds of potential delay for communication (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.68) and personal and social skills (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.15) per unit increase in coabundance score. The Bacteroides-dominated coabundance grouping was associated with poorer fine motor scores (ß, -2.42; 95% CI, -4.29 to -0.55; P = .01) and with increased odds of potential delay for fine motor skills (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.16) per unit increase in coabundance score. Multivariate analysis detected similar family-level and order-level associations. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest an association between infant gut microbiome composition and communication, personal and social, and fine motor skills at age 3 years. The majority of associations were driven by taxa within the order Clostridiales.

12.
Epigenetics ; 14(5): 445-466, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876376

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate both genetic variability and environmental exposures. However, comprehensive epigenome-wide analysis has not been performed across major childhood allergic phenotypes. We examined the association of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in mid-childhood peripheral blood (Illumina HumanMethyl450K) with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, environmental/inhalant and food allergen sensitization in 739 children in two birth cohorts (Project Viva-Boston, and the Generation R Study-Rotterdam). We performed covariate-adjusted epigenome-wide association meta-analysis and employed pathway and regional analyses of results. Seven-hundred and five methylation sites (505 genes) were significantly cross-sectionally associated with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, 1411 (905 genes) for environmental and 45 (36 genes) for food allergen sensitization (FDR<0.05). We observed differential methylation across multiple genes for all three phenotypes, including genes implicated previously in innate immunity (DICER1), eosinophilic esophagitis and sinusitis (SIGLEC8), the atopic march (AP5B1) and asthma (EPX, IL4, IL5RA, PRG2, SIGLEC8, CLU). In addition, most of the associated methylation marks for all three phenotypes occur in putative transcription factor binding motifs. Pathway analysis identified multiple methylation sites associated with atopic sensitization and environmental allergen sensitization located in/near genes involved in asthma, mTOR signaling, and inositol phosphate metabolism. We identified multiple differentially methylated regions associated with atopic sensitization (8 regions) and environmental allergen sensitization (26 regions). A number of nominally significant methylation sites in the cord blood analysis were epigenome-wide significant in the mid-childhood analysis, and we observed significant methylation - time interactions among a subset of sites examined. Our findings provide insights into epigenetic regulatory pathways as markers of childhood allergic sensitization.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 442-454, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal metabolome reflects the biological consequences of diverse exposures and might provide insight into asthma pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: We sought to perform an untargeted integrative analysis of the intestinal metabolome of childhood asthma in this ancillary study of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. METHODS: Metabolomic profiling was performed by using mass spectrometry on fecal samples collected from 361 three-year-old subjects. Adjusted logistic regression analyses identified metabolites and modules of highly correlated metabolites associated with asthma diagnosis by age 3 years. Sparse canonical correlation analysis identified associations relevant to asthma between the intestinal metabolome and other "omics": the intestinal microbiome as measured by using 16S rRNA sequencing, the plasma metabolome as measured by using mass spectrometry, and diet as measured by using food frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Several intestinal metabolites were associated with asthma at age 3 years, including inverse associations between asthma and polyunsaturated fatty acids (adjusted logistic regression ß = -6.3; 95% CI, -11.3 to -1.4; P = .01) and other lipids. Asthma-associated intestinal metabolites were significant mediators of the inverse relationship between exclusive breast-feeding for the first 4 months of life and asthma (P for indirect association = .04) and the positive association between a diet rich in meats and asthma (P = .03). Specific intestinal bacterial taxa, including the family Christensenellaceae, and plasma metabolites, including γ-tocopherol/ß-tocopherol, were positively associated with asthma and asthma-associated intestinal metabolites. CONCLUSION: Integrative analyses revealed significant interrelationships between the intestinal metabolome and the intestinal microbiome, plasma metabolome, and diet in association with childhood asthma. These findings require replication in future studies.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2263-2270.e14, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic clocks have been suggested to capture one feature of the complexity between aging and the epigenome. However, little is known about the epigenetic clock in childhood allergy and asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations of DNA methylation age (DNAmAge) and epigenetic age acceleration with childhood allergy and asthma. METHODS: We calculated DNAmAge and age acceleration at birth, early childhood, and midchildhood based on the IlluminaHumanMethylation450BeadChip in Project Viva. We evaluated epigenetic clock associations with allergy and asthma using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regressions. We attempted to replicate our findings in the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study. RESULTS: At midchildhood (mean age, 7.8 years) in Project Viva, DNAmAge and age acceleration were cross-sectionally associated with greater total serum IgE levels and greater odds of atopic sensitization. Every 1-year increase in intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration was associated with a 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07-1.39), 1.17 (95% CI, 1.03-1.34), and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.12-1.49) greater odds of atopic sensitization and environmental and food allergen sensitization. DNAmAge and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration were also cross-sectionally associated with current asthma at midchildhood. DNAmAge and age acceleration at birth and early childhood were not associated with midchildhood allergy or asthma. The midchildhood association between age acceleration and atopic sensitization were replicated in an independent data set. CONCLUSIONS: Because the epigenetic clock might reflect immune and developmental components of biological aging, our study suggests pathways through which molecular epigenetic mechanisms of immunity, development, and maturation can interact along the age axis and associate with childhood allergy and asthma by midchildhood.

16.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 19(2): 126-131, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608234

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature of the past 18 months (April 2017 through September, 2018) relating to vitamin D and childhood asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: A combined analysis of two clinical trials of maternal vitamin D supplementation trials showed a significant protective effect of vitamin D supplementation trials in the primary prevention of asthma and recurrent wheeze up to age 3 years. Secondary analyses from these trials have also suggested that initial maternal vitamin D status could affect the response to supplementation during pregnancy, with the biggest protective effect in children born to mothers with initial 25hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of at least 30 ng/ml. A postnatal, 6-month vitamin D supplementation trial in black, premature babies showed a 34% decreased risk of recurrent wheezing at 1 year among the infants who received supplementation. An individual patient data meta-analysis of published clinical trials concluded that vitamin D supplementation decreased the risk of asthma exacerbations in those with 25OHD levels less than 10 ng/ml. Results of observational analyses on primary prevention of asthma and in prevention of exacerbations remain mixed, with the bulk of the evidence suggesting that there is a protective effect of higher vitamin D levels. SUMMARY: Evidence continues to accumulate that vitamin D supplementation helps to prevent the development of asthma and recurrent wheeze in early life, and may also help in the management of asthma. The level(s) of circulating vitamin D that maximizes these effects remains to be identified.

17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(4): 713-723, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has been associated with overweight and obesity in adults, but the evidence in children is limited. Our aim was to study whether composition of the gut microbiota at the age of 3 years is associated with overweight/obesity in children cross-sectionally. METHODS: Children, who participated in a clinical trial of prenatal vitamin-D supplementation (VDAART), underwent standardized height and weight measurements, and collection of stool samples at 3 years of age. 16 S rRNA sequencing (V4 region) of the stool samples were performed with Illumina MiSeq. Associations between microbiota and overweight/obesity (body mass index z-scores >85th percentile) was analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 502 children, 146 (29%) were categorized as overweight/obese. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight and length, formula feeding during the first year, high frequency of fast food consumption, and time watching TV or computer screen at 3 years were the risk factors for overweight/obesity. Of the top 20 most abundant genera, high relative abundance of Parabacteroidetes (Bacteroidetes; Bacteroidales) (aOR(95% CI): 0.69 (0.53, 0.90, p = 0.007) per interquartile increase) and unassigned genus within Peptostreptococcae family were inversely associated with overweight/obesity, whereas high relative abundance of Dorea (Firmicutes;Clostridiales) (1.23 (1.05, 1.43, p = 0.009)) was positively associated. Associations were independent of each other. No associations were found between diversity indices and overweight/obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that some of the differences in gut composition of bacteria between obese and non-obese adults can already be observed in 3-year old children. Longitudinal studies will be needed to determine long-term effects.

18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in regulating the secretion of cortisol which controls a wide range of biological processes. Fetuses overexposed to cortisol have increased risks of disease in later life. DNA methylation may be the underlying association between prenatal cortisol exposure and health effects. We investigated associations between maternal CRH levels and epigenome-wide DNA methylation of cord blood in offsprings and evaluated whether these associations persisted into mid-childhood. METHODS: We investigated mother-child pairs enrolled in the prospective Project Viva pre-birth cohort. We measured DNA methylation in 257 umbilical cord blood samples using the HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip. We tested associations of maternal CRH concentration with cord blood cells DNA methylation, adjusting the model for maternal age at enrollment, education, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal smoking status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, gestational age at delivery, child sex, and cell-type composition in cord blood. We further examined the persistence of associations between maternal CRH levels and DNA methylation in children's blood cells collected at mid-childhood (n = 239, age: 6.7-10.3 years) additionally adjusting for the children's age at blood drawn. RESULTS: Maternal CRH levels are associated with DNA methylation variability in cord blood cells at 96 individual CpG sites (False Discovery Rate <0.05). Among the 96 CpG sites, we identified 3 CpGs located near the LEP gene. Regional analyses confirmed the association between maternal CRH and DNA methylation near LEP. Moreover, higher maternal CRH levels were associated with higher blood-cell DNA methylation of the promoter region of LEP in mid-childhood (P < 0.05, ß = 0.64, SE = 0.30). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, maternal CRH was associated with DNA methylation levels in newborns at multiple loci, notably in the LEP gene promoter. The association between maternal CRH and LEP DNA methylation levels persisted into mid-childhood.

19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While familial clustering of asthma is known, few studies have reported on the relative roles of paternal and maternal asthma, and the role of maternal asthma control in pregnancy on the risk for asthma in the child. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relative roles of paternal asthma, maternal asthma, and maternal asthma control during pregnancy on the risk of asthma or recurrent wheeze in 3-year old children how prenatal and cord blood vitamin D status might affect this risk. METHODS: Data from 806 women, their partners (biologic fathers of the infant), and their children participated in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trail (VDAART, clinicaltrialsgov identification number NCT00920621) were used for this cohort analysis. The parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheeze in offspring was the main outcome. Weibull regression models for interval-censored event times were used to estimate the main variables of interests and additional covariates on the outcome. RESULTS: The highest risk was observed among children with both parents being asthmatic relative to non-asthmatic parents (aHR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.35-3.84), and less so if only the mother was asthmatic (aHR=1.70, 95%CI: 1.17-2.40). In the subset of children born to asthmatic mothers, the risk for asthma was higher in those who were born to mothers whose asthma was uncontrolled (aHR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.02-2.54). Children whose mothers had sufficient vitamin D status (25Hydroxyvitamin D≥30 ng/mL) at early and late pregnancy and had cord blood vitamin D sufficiency demonstrated a lower risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze than children who had insufficient vitamin D status at birth (aHR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.27-0.83). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Careful attention to maternal asthma control, monitoring vitamin D status and correcting insufficiency at early pregnancy and maintaining the sufficiency status throughout pregnancy have potential preventive roles in offspring asthma or recurrent wheeze. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412002

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with higher cardio-metabolic risk even in childhood and adolescence; whether this association is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms remains unclear. We examined the extent to which mid-childhood body mass index (BMI) z-score (median age 7.7 years) was associated with cardio-metabolic risk score in early adolescence (median age 12.9 years) via mid-childhood DNA methylation among 265 children in the Project Viva. We measured DNA methylation in leukocytes using the Infinium Human Methylation450K BeadChip. We assessed mediation CpG-by-CpG using epigenome-wide association analyses, high-dimensional mediation analysis, and natural effect models. We observed mediation by mid-childhood DNA methylation at 6 CpGs for the association between mid-childhood BMI z-score and cardio-metabolic risk score in early adolescence in the high-dimensional mediation analysis (accounting for 10% of the total effect) and in the natural effect model (ß = 0.04, P = 3.2e-2, accounting for 13% of the total effect). The natural direct effect of BMI z-score on cardio-metabolic risk score was still evident (ß = 0.27, P = 1.1e-25). We also observed mediation by mid-childhood DNA methylation at 5 CpGs that was in the opposite direction from the total effect (natural effect model: ß = -0.04, P = 2.0e-2). Mediation in different directions implies a complex role of DNA methylation in the association between BMI and cardio-metabolic risk and needs further investigation. Future studies with larger sample size and greater variability in cardio-metabolic risk will further help elucidate the role of DNA methylation for cardio-metabolic risk.

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