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Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1013-1029, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021519


SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alterations in the SATB2 gene. Here we present a review of published pathogenic variants in the SATB2 gene to date and report 38 novel alterations found in 57 additional previously unreported individuals. Overall, we present a compilation of 120 unique variants identified in 155 unrelated families ranging from single nucleotide coding variants to genomic rearrangements distributed throughout the entire coding region of SATB2. Single nucleotide variants predicted to result in the occurrence of a premature stop codon were the most commonly seen (51/120 = 42.5%) followed by missense variants (31/120 = 25.8%). We review the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different molecular alterations. We present an expansive phenotypic review along with novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Lastly, we discuss current knowledge of animal models and present future prospects. This review should help provide better guidance for the care of individuals diagnosed with SAS.

Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258


BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.

Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1916-1925, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084155


Transposable elements modify human genome by inserting into new loci or by mediating homology-, microhomology-, or homeology-driven DNA recombination or repair, resulting in genomic structural variation. Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal neonatal developmental lung disorder caused by point mutations or copy-number variant (CNV) deletions of FOXF1 or its distant tissue-specific enhancer. Eighty-five percent of 45 ACDMPV-causative CNV deletions, of which junctions have been sequenced, had at least one of their two breakpoints located in a retrotransposon, with more than half of them being Alu elements. We describe a novel ∼35 kb-large genomic instability hotspot at 16q24.1, involving two evolutionarily young LINE-1 (L1) elements, L1PA2 and L1PA3, flanking AluY, two AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr elements. The occurrence of L1s at this location coincided with the branching out of the Homo-Pan-Gorilla clade, and was preceded by the insertion of AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr. Our data show that, in addition to mediating recurrent CNVs, L1 and Alu retrotransposons can predispose the human genome to formation of variably sized CNVs, both of clinical and evolutionary relevance. Nonetheless, epigenetic or other genomic features of this locus might also contribute to its increased instability.

Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 676-688, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343629


Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that regulates many cellular processes including protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, cell signaling, and protein-protein interactions. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which reverse the process of ubiquitination, are important regulators of the ubiquitin system. OTUD6B encodes a member of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Herein, we report biallelic pathogenic variants in OTUD6B in 12 individuals from 6 independent families with an intellectual disability syndrome associated with seizures and dysmorphic features. In subjects with predicted loss-of-function alleles, additional features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, absent speech, hypotonia, growth retardation with prenatal onset, feeding difficulties, structural brain abnormalities, congenital malformations including congenital heart disease, and musculoskeletal features. Homozygous Otud6b knockout mice were subviable, smaller in size, and had congenital heart defects, consistent with the severity of loss-of-function variants in humans. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an affected subject showed reduced incorporation of 19S subunits into 26S proteasomes, decreased chymotrypsin-like activity, and accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Our findings suggest a role for OTUD6B in proteasome function, establish that defective OTUD6B function underlies a multisystemic human disorder, and provide additional evidence for the emerging relationship between the ubiquitin system and human disease.

Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Linhagem , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(3): 720-727, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545676


SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.

Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/química , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem