*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2315787121, 2024 Feb 13.*

##### RESUMO

Charge transport in solids at low temperature reveals a material's mesoscopic properties and structure. Under a magnetic field, Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations inform complex quantum transport phenomena that are not limited by the ground state characteristics and have facilitated extensive explorations of quantum and topological interest in two- and three-dimensional materials. Here, in elemental metal Cr with two incommensurately superposed lattices of ions and a spin-density-wave ground state, we reveal that the phases of several low-frequency SdH oscillations in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are no longer identical but opposite. These relationships contrast with the SdH oscillations from normal cyclotron orbits that maintain identical phases between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]â. We trace the origin of the low-frequency SdH oscillations to quantum interference effects arising from the incommensurate orbits of Cr's superposed reciprocal lattices and explain the observed [Formula: see text]-phase shift by the reconnection of anisotropic joint open and closed orbits.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 131(4): 046801, 2023 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

We consider a standard Ginzburg-Landau model of a ferroelectric whose electrical polarization is coupled to gradients of elastic strain. At the harmonic level, such flexoelectric interaction is known to hybridize acoustic and optic phonon modes and lead to phases with modulated lattice structures that precede the state with spontaneously broken inversion symmetry. Here, we use the self-consistent phonon approximation to calculate the effects of thermal and quantum polarization fluctuations on the bare hybridized modes to show that such long-range modulated order is unstable at all temperatures. We discuss the implications for the nearly ferroelectric SrTiO_{3} and KTaO_{3}, and we propose that these systems are melted versions of an underlying modulated state that is dominated by nonzero momentum thermal fluctuations except at the very lowest temperatures.

*Nature ; 576(7787): 429-432, 2019 12.*

##### RESUMO

Metal-to-insulator transitions1 driven by strong electronic correlations occur frequently in condensed matter systems, and are associated with remarkable collective phenomena in solids, including superconductivity and magnetism. Tuning and control of the transition holds the promise of low-power, ultrafast electronics2, but the relative roles of doping, chemistry, elastic strain and other applied fields have made systematic understanding of such transitions difficult. Here we show that existing data3-5 on the tuning of metal-to-insulator transitions in perovskite transition-metal oxides through ionic size effects provides evidence of large systematic effects on the phase transition owing to dynamical fluctuations of the elastic strain, which have usually been neglected6. We illustrate this using a simple yet quantitative statistical mechanical calculation in a model that incorporates cooperative lattice distortions coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom. We reproduce the observed dependence of the transition temperature on the cation radius in the well studied manganite7 and nickelate8 materials. Because elastic couplings are generally strong, we anticipate that these conclusions will generalize to all metal-to-insulator transitions that couple to a change in lattice symmetry.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11201-11206, 2019 Jun 04.*

##### RESUMO

The magnetoresistance (MR) of a material is typically insensitive to reversing the applied field direction and varies quadratically with magnetic field in the low-field limit. Quantum effects, unusual topological band structures, and inhomogeneities that lead to wandering current paths can induce a cross-over from quadratic to linear MR with increasing magnetic field. Here we explore a series of metallic charge- and spin-density-wave systems that exhibit extremely large positive linear MR. By contrast to other linear MR mechanisms, this effect remains robust down to miniscule magnetic fields of tens of Oersted at low temperature. We frame an explanation of this phenomenon in a semiclassical narrative for a broad category of materials with partially gapped Fermi surfaces due to density waves.

*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14936, 2018 Oct 08.*

##### RESUMO

In this work we report for the first time measurements of the dielectric loss of single-crystal SrTiO3 under the application of hydrostatic pressure up to 20 kbar and temperatures down to 200 mK which allow us to comment on the evolution of new fundamental material properties and their relationship with the recently discovered quantum critical phenomena in this material. The well known 18 K peak or shoulder was no longer observed after pressure was applied, even after subsequently removing it, suggesting it is associated with the twin walls formed at the 110 K cubic-tetragonal transition. The family of familiar peaks were all seen to increase in temperature linearly with pressure and the height of the 9.4 K peak was drastically suppressed by even the smallest pressures. This peak is discussed in the context of a postulated ferroelectric quantum critical point in SrTiO3 and the behaviour of its size linked to the position of this point on the recently established phase diagram.

*Nat Commun ; 5: 4218, 2014 Jun 18.*

##### RESUMO

Pressure can transform a transparent material into an opaque one, quench the moments in a magnet and force solids to flow like liquids. At 15 GPa, the pressure found 500 km below the earth's surface, the semiconductors silicon and germanium superconduct. Yet, at this same pressure, we show here that the magnetism in metallic GdSi remains completely robust even as it shrinks by one-seventh of its volume. Non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction in a specially designed diamond anvil cell, combined with band structure calculations, reveal the stability of the incommensurate spin density wave, which can be traced to a persistently nested portion of the Fermi surface that becomes increasingly one-dimensional under pressure. A cooperative interaction between nested, itinerant spins and local magnetic moments provides the organizing principle for the modulated magnetic order, salient both for its insights into the role of topology in ordered states and its potential functionality.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 26(14): 143201, 2014 Apr 09.*

##### RESUMO

The response of oxide thin films to polar discontinuities at interfaces and surfaces has generated enormous activity due to the variety of interesting effects that it gives rise to. A case in point is the discovery of the electron gas at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, which has since been shown to be quasi-two-dimensional, switchable, magnetic and/or superconducting. Despite these findings, the origin of the two-dimensional electron gas is highly debated and several possible mechanisms remain. Here we review the main proposed mechanisms and attempt to model expected effects in a quantitative way with the ambition of better constraining what effects can/cannot explain the observed phenomenology. We do it in the framework of a phenomenological model constructed to provide an understanding of the electronic and/or redox screening of the chemical charge in oxide heterostructures. We also discuss the effect of intermixing, both conserving and not conserving the total stoichiometry.

##### Assuntos

Condutividade Elétrica , Elétrons , Gases/química , Óxidos/química , Teoria Quântica , Modelos Químicos*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(9): 3287-92, 2013 Feb 26.*

##### RESUMO

Materials with strong correlations are prone to spin and charge instabilities, driven by Coulomb, magnetic, and lattice interactions. In materials that have significant localized and itinerant spins, it is not obvious which will induce order. We combine electrical transport, X-ray magnetic diffraction, and photoemission studies with band structure calculations to characterize successive antiferromagnetic transitions in GdSi. GdSi has both sizable local moments and a partially nested Fermi surface, without confounding contributions from orbital effects. We identify a route to incommensurate order where neither type of moment dominates, but is rooted in cooperative feedback between them. The nested Fermi surface of the itinerant electrons induces strong interactions between local moments at the nesting vector, whereas the ordered local moments in turn provide the necessary coupling for a spin-density wave to form among the itinerant electrons. This mechanism echoes the cooperative interactions between electrons and ions in charge-density-wave materials, and should be germane across a spectrum of transition-metal and rare-earth intermetallic compounds.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(4): 043002, 2012 Jul 27.*

##### RESUMO

We consider performing adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) using frequency-swept driving pulses to excite a collection of interacting two-level systems. Such a model arises in a wide range of many-body quantum systems, such as cavity QED or quantum dots, where a nonlinear component couples to light. We analyze the one-dimensional case using the Jordan-Wigner transformation, as well as the mean-field limit where the system is described by a Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Hamiltonian. These limits provide complementary insights into the behavior of many-body systems under ARP, suggesting our results are generally applicable. We demonstrate that ARP can be used for state preparation in the presence of interactions, and identify the dependence of the required pulse shapes on the interaction strength. In general, interactions increase the pulse bandwidth required for successful state transfer, introducing new restrictions on the pulse forms required.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(16): 166802, 2012 Apr 20.*

##### RESUMO

The two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between LaAlO(3) and SrTiO(3) has become one of the most fascinating and highly debated oxide systems of recent times. Here we propose that a one-dimensional electron gas can be engineered at the step edges of the LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interface. These predictions are supported by first-principles calculations and electrostatic modeling which elucidate the origin of the one-dimensional electron gas as an electronic reconstruction to compensate a net surface charge in the step edge. The results suggest a novel route to increasing the functional density in these electronic interfaces.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(19): 7224-9, 2012 May 08.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum criticality is a central concept in condensed matter physics, but the direct observation of quantum critical fluctuations has remained elusive. Here we present an X-ray diffraction study of the charge density wave (CDW) in 2H-NbSe(2) at high pressure and low temperature, where we observe a broad regime of order parameter fluctuations that are controlled by proximity to a quantum critical point. X-rays can track the CDW despite the fact that the quantum critical regime is shrouded inside a superconducting phase; and in contrast to transport probes, allow direct measurement of the critical fluctuations of the charge order. Concurrent measurements of the crystal lattice point to a critical transition that is continuous in nature. Our results confirm the long-standing expectations of enhanced quantum fluctuations in low-dimensional systems, and may help to constrain theories of the quantum critical Fermi surface.

##### Assuntos

Nióbio/química , Teoria Quântica , Selênio/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Cristalização , Modelos Químicos , Transição de Fase , Pressão , Compostos de Selênio/química , Temperatura de Transição*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(4): 040401, 2011 Jul 22.*

##### RESUMO

We study the stability of collective amplitude excitations in nonequilibrium polariton condensates. These excitations correspond to renormalized upper polaritons and to the collective amplitude modes of atomic gases and superconductors. They would be present following a quantum quench or could be created directly by resonant excitation. We show that uniform amplitude excitations are unstable to the production of excitations at finite wave vectors, leading to the formation of density-modulated phases. The physical processes causing the instabilities can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators and the atomic Bose supernova.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(8): 081001, 2011 Mar 02.*

##### RESUMO

The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO(3) over SrTiO(3) in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(8): 086404, 2010 Aug 20.*

##### RESUMO

We present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the electronic structure of SnTe and compare the experimental results to ab initio band structure calculations as well as a simplified tight-binding model of the p bands. Our study reveals the conjectured complex Fermi surface structure near the L points showing topological changes in the bands from disconnected pockets, to open tubes, and then to cuboids as the binding energy increases, resolving lingering issues about the electronic structure. The chemical potential at the crystal surface is found to be 0.5 eV below the gap, corresponding to a carrier density of p=1.14 × 10(21) cm(-3) or 7.2 × 10(-2) holes per unit cell. At a temperature below the cubic-rhombohedral structural transition a small shift in spectral energy of the valance band is found, in agreement with model predictions.

*Nature ; 459(7245): 405-9, 2009 May 21.*

##### RESUMO

Advances in solid-state and atomic physics are exposing the hidden relationships between conventional and exotic states of quantum matter. Prominent examples include the discovery of exotic superconductivity proximate to conventional spin and charge order, and the crossover from long-range phase order to preformed pairs achieved in gases of cold fermions and inferred for copper oxide superconductors. The unifying theme is that incompatible ground states can be connected by quantum phase transitions. Quantum fluctuations about the transition are manifestations of the competition between qualitatively distinct organizing principles, such as a long-wavelength density wave and a short-coherence-length condensate. They may even give rise to 'protected' phases, like fluctuation-mediated superconductivity that survives only in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. However, few model systems that demonstrate continuous quantum phase transitions have been identified, and the complex nature of many systems of interest hinders efforts to more fully understand correlations and fluctuations near a zero-temperature instability. Here we report the suppression of magnetism by hydrostatic pressure in elemental chromium, a simple cubic metal that demonstrates a subtle form of itinerant antiferromagnetism formally equivalent to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state in conventional superconductors. By directly measuring the associated charge order in a diamond anvil cell at low temperatures, we find a phase transition at pressures of approximately 10 GPa driven by fluctuations that destroy the BCS-like state but preserve the strong magnetic interaction between itinerant electrons and holes. Chromium is unique among stoichiometric magnetic metals studied so far in that the quantum phase transition is continuous, allowing experimental access to the quantum singularity and a direct probe of the competition between conventional and exotic order in a theoretically tractable material.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 100(16): 165703, 2008 Apr 25.*

##### RESUMO

Ultraviolet-photoemission (UPS) measurements and supporting specific-heat, thermal-expansion, resistivity, and magnetic-moment measurements are reported for the magnetic shape-memory alloy Ni2MnGa over the temperature range 100

*Nat Mater ; 7(1): 25-30, 2008 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

Stripe and chequerboard phases appear in many metal oxide compounds, and are thought to be linked to exotic behaviour such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. It is therefore extremely important to understand the fundamental nature of such phases. The so-called stripe phase of the manganites has long been interpreted as the localization of charge at atomic sites. Here, we present resistance measurements on La(0.50)Ca(0.50)MnO(3) that strongly suggest that this state is in fact a prototypical charge-density wave (CDW) that undergoes collective transport. Dramatic resistance hysteresis effects and broadband noise properties are observed, both of which are typical of sliding CDW systems. Moreover, the high levels of disorder typical of manganites result in behaviour similar to that of well-known disordered CDW materials. The CDW-type behaviour of the manganite superstructure suggests that unusual transport and structural properties do not require exotic physics, but could emerge when a well-understood phase (the CDW) coexists with disorder.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 99(22): 226101, 2007 Nov 30.*

##### RESUMO

We present the structure of the fully relaxed (001) surface of the half-metallic manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, calculated using density functional theory. Two relevant ferroelastic order parameters are identified and characterized. The known tilting of the oxygen octahedra, which is present in the bulk phase, decreases towards the surface. A ferrodistortive Mn off-centering, triggered by the surface and not reported before, decays monotonically into the bulk. This distortion affects neither the half-metallicity nor the zero-temperature magnetization, but does change the effective spin-spin interactions, and thus the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties.

*Nature ; 443(7110): 409-14, 2006 Sep 28.*

##### RESUMO

Phase transitions to quantum condensed phases--such as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), superfluidity, and superconductivity--have long fascinated scientists, as they bring pure quantum effects to a macroscopic scale. BEC has, for example, famously been demonstrated in dilute atom gas of rubidium atoms at temperatures below 200 nanokelvin. Much effort has been devoted to finding a solid-state system in which BEC can take place. Promising candidate systems are semiconductor microcavities, in which photons are confined and strongly coupled to electronic excitations, leading to the creation of exciton polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles are 10(9) times lighter than rubidium atoms, thus theoretically permitting BEC to occur at standard cryogenic temperatures. Here we detail a comprehensive set of experiments giving compelling evidence for BEC of polaritons. Above a critical density, we observe massive occupation of the ground state developing from a polariton gas at thermal equilibrium at 19 K, an increase of temporal coherence, and the build-up of long-range spatial coherence and linear polarization, all of which indicate the spontaneous onset of a macroscopic quantum phase.