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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208643

RESUMO

Myosin Light Chain (MLC) regulates platelet contraction through its phosphorylation by Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) or dephosphorylation by Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase (MLCP). The correlation between platelet contraction force and levels of MLC phosphorylation is unknown. We investigate the relationship between platelet contraction force and MLC phosphorylation using a novel microelectromechanical (MEMS) based clot contraction sensor (CCS). The MLCK and MLCP pair were interrogated by inhibitors and activators of platelet function. The CCS was fabricated from silicon using photolithography techniques and force was validated over a range of deflection for different chip spring constants. The force of platelet contraction measured by the clot contraction sensor (CCS) was compared to the degree of MLC phosphorylation by Western Blotting (WB) and ELISA. Stimulators of MLC phosphorylation produced higher contraction force, higher phosphorylated MLC signal in ELISA and higher intensity bands in WB. Inhibitors of MLC phosphorylation produced the opposite. Contraction force is linearly related to levels of phosphorylated MLC. Direct measurements of clot contractile force are possible using a MEMS sensor platform and correlate linearly with the degree of MLC phosphorylation during coagulation. Measured force represents the mechanical output of the actin/myosin motor in platelets regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos/métodos , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Algoritmos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Testes de Função Plaquetária/instrumentação
2.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(1): 68-83, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153047

RESUMO

NF-κB/RelA triggers innate inflammation by binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), an atypical histone acetyltransferase (HAT). Although RelA·BRD4 HAT mediates acute neutrophilic inflammation, its role in chronic and functional airway remodeling is not known. We observed that BRD4 is required for Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated mesenchymal transition, a cell-state change that is characteristic of remodeling. We therefore tested two novel highly selective BRD4 inhibitors, ZL0420 and ZL0454, for their effects on chronic airway remodeling produced by repetitive TLR3 agonist challenges, and compared their efficacy with that of two nonselective bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein inhibitors, JQ1 and RVX208. We observed that ZL0420 and ZL0454 more potently reduced polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced weight loss and fibrosis as assessed by microcomputed tomography and second harmonic generation microscopy. These measures correlated with the collagen deposition observed in histopathology. Importantly, the ZL inhibitors were more effective than the nonselective BET inhibitors at equivalent doses. The ZL inhibitors had significant effects on lung physiology, reversing TLR3-associated airway hyperresponsiveness and increasing lung compliance in vivo. At the molecular level, ZL inhibitors reduced elaboration of the transforming growth factor-ß-induced growth program, thereby preventing mucosal mesenchymal transition and disrupting BRD4 HAT activity and complex formation with RelA. We also observed that ZL0454 treatment blocked polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-associated expansion of the α-SMA1+/COL1A+ myofibroblast population and prevented myofibroblast transition in a coculture system. We conclude that 1) BRD4 is a central effector of the mesenchymal transition that results in paracrine activation of myofibroblasts, mechanistically linking innate inflammation to airway hyperresponsiveness and fibrosis, and 2) highly selective BRD4 inhibitors may be effective in reversing the effects of repetitive airway viral infections on innate inflammation-mediated remodeling.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(5): 1563-1575, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161008

RESUMO

Sinus congestion resultant of allergic rhinosinusitis is associated with development and worsening of asthma and can result in difficulty breathing, headaches, and missed days of school and work. Quantification of sinus congestion is important in the understanding of allergic rhinosinusitis and the development of new drugs for its treatment. Noninvasive microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was investigated in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinosinusitis to determine its utility to determine accurately the degree of sinus congestion and resolution with anti-inflammatory drug administration. Three-dimensional sinus air-space volume, two-dimensional sinus width, sinus image air-space area, and sinus image sinus perimeter were measured in guinea pigs administered ragweed pollen (RWP), intranasally (i.n.), followed by administration of fluticasone, i.n. To determine their relative accuracy in assessing sinus congestion, the micro-CT image results were compared with the "gold-standard" method of sinus fluid fill-volume (SFFV) measurements. As measured by SFFV method, RWP increased sinus congestion in a RWP concentration-dependent fashion, approaching near-total sinus blockage with concentrations ≥22 µg of RWP. At this level of congestion, fluticasone (25-100 µg) progressively decreased sinus congestion in a concentration-dependent fashion. The noninvasive micro-CT methods were found to accurately determine the amount of sinus congestion and resolution, with patterns of increases and decreases of congestion that were nearly identical to the SFFV method. We conclude that noninvasive micro-CT measurements of allergic sinus congestion can be useful as an investigative tool in the assessment of congestion intensity and the development of new drug therapies for its treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Allergic rhinosinusitis afflicts significant portions of the world population, resulting in loss of work productivity and decreased quality of life. Thus the development of methodological approaches, which incorporate accurate and reproducible noninvasive assessments of sinus congestion, are desirable. Microcomputed tomography of the guinea pig sinuses offers a noninvasive evaluation tool in an animal model of IgE-dependent allergy similar to that in humans, with potential relevance toward development of therapeutics for human sinus diseases.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cobaias , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 56(4): 506-520, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27911568

RESUMO

Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multicellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 pathway by extracellular polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) induces innate signaling through the NF-κB transcription factor in normal human small airway epithelial cells, prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition, and activation of a fibrotic program. Chronic poly(I:C) stimulation enhanced the expression of core mesenchymal regulators Snail family zinc finger 1, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox, mesenchymal intermediate filaments (vimentin), and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin-1), and collagen 1A. This mesenchymal transition was prevented by silencing expression of NF-κB/RelA or administration of a small-molecule inhibitor of the IκB kinase, BMS345541. Acute poly(I:C) exposure in vivo induced profound neutrophilic airway inflammation. When administered repetitively, poly(I:C) resulted in enhanced fibrosis observed by lung micro-computed tomography, second harmonic generation microscopy of optically cleared lung tissue, and by immunohistochemistry. Epithelial flattening, expansion of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit, and enhanced Snail family zinc finger 1 and fibronectin 1 expression in airway epithelium were also observed. Repetitive poly(I:C)-induced airway remodeling, fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was inhibited by BMS345541 administration. Based on this novel model of viral inflammation-induced remodeling, we conclude that NF-κB is a major controller of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis, a finding that has potentially important relevance to airway remodeling produced by repetitive viral infections.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Mesoderma/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , RNA Viral/farmacologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Doença Crônica , Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/patologia , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
Biomicrofluidics ; 10(1): 014103, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858815

RESUMO

Waterborne pathogens pose significant threat to the global population and early detection plays an important role both in making drinking water safe, as well as in diagnostics and treatment of water-borne diseases. We present an innovative centrifugal sedimentation immunoassay platform for detection of bacterial pathogens in water. Our approach is based on binding of pathogens to antibody-functionalized capture particles followed by sedimentation of the particles through a density-media in a microfluidic disk. Beads at the distal end of the disk are imaged to quantify the fluorescence and determine the bacterial concentration. Our platform is fast (20 min), can detect as few as ∼10 bacteria with minimal sample preparation, and can detect multiple pathogens simultaneously. The platform was used to detect a panel of enteric bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Listeria, and Campylobacter) spiked in tap and ground water samples.

6.
Biotechnol Lett ; 36(9): 1863-8, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930095

RESUMO

We report a novel, modular approach to immuno-detection based on antibody recognition and PCR read-out that employs antibody-conjugated bacteriophage and easily-manipulated non-pathogenic viruses as affinity agents. Our platform employs phage genetically tagged for in vivo biotinylation during phage maturation that can easily be linked, through avidin, to any biotinylated affinity agent, including full-length antibodies, peptides, lectins or aptamers. The presence of analyte is reported with high sensitivity through real-time PCR. This approach avoids the need to clone antibody-encoding DNA fragments, allows the use of full-length, high affinity antibodies and, by having DNA reporters naturally encapsulated inside the bacteriophage, greatly reduces nonspecific binding of DNA. We validate the efficacy of this new approach through the detection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, a known angiogenic cancer biomarker protein, at attomolar concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Biotinilação , Nanopartículas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
7.
Surf Coat Technol ; 224: 101-108, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23682201

RESUMO

This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures.

8.
PLoS One ; 7(5): e37440, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22693574

RESUMO

Ion Beam Aperture Array Lithography was applied to top-down fabrication of large dense (10(8)-10(9) particles/cm(2)) arrays of uniform micron-scale particles at rates hundreds of times faster than electron beam lithography. In this process, a large array of helium ion beamlets is formed when a stencil mask containing an array of circular openings is illuminated by a broad beam of energetic (5-8 keV) ions, and is used to write arrays of specific repetitive patterns. A commercial 5-micrometer metal mesh was used as a stencil mask; the mesh size was adjusted by shrinking the stencil openings using conformal sputter-deposition of copper. Thermal evaporation from multiple sources was utilized to form magnetic particles of varied size and thickness, including alternating layers of gold and permalloy. Evaporation of permalloy layers in the presence of a magnetic field allowed creation of particles with uniform magnetic properties and pre-determined magnetization direction. The magnetic properties of the resulting particles were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. Since the orientation of the particles on the substrate before release into suspension is known, the orientation-dependent magnetic properties of the particles could be determined.


Assuntos
Imãs/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Anisotropia , Engenharia , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Tamanho da Partícula , Impressão , Silício/química
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530695

RESUMO

Corner cube retroreflectors are objects with three mutually perpendicular reflective surfaces that return light directly to its source and are therefore extremely bright and easy to detect. In this work, we have fabricated suspended corner cube retroreflectors, 5 microns in size, consisting of a transparent epoxy core and three surfaces coated with gold as ultra-bright labels for use in a rapid, low-labor diagnostic platform. The authors have demonstrated that individual cubes are easily imaged using low-cost, low numerical aperture objectives in suspension and that they remain suspended over long periods of time. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the gold outer surfaces can be decorated with proteins, and that individual cubes can be bound to magnetic sample preparation particles bearing antibodies which recognize these proteins. The bound cubes can be imaged and tracked as they move through solution in response to an external magnetic field, and we have, as such, demonstrated the principle of the new biosensing approach.

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