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2.
J Infect ; 79(2): 159-166, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. This study examined the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in Beijing, China. METHODS: Epidemiological data and fecal specimens were collected through the AGE outbreak surveillance system in Beijing. GI and GII genogroup noroviruses were detected and genotyped. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Between September 2014 and August 2017, 762 AGE outbreaks were reported in Beijing, of which 661 (86.7%) were laboratory-confirmed as norovirus. Most norovirus outbreaks were reported during the spring (66.9%, 442/661), occurred in kindergartens and elementary schools (92.3%, 610/661), and were caused by GII genogroup noroviruses (95.6%; 632/661). The genotypes of the norovirus strains were determined in 468 outbreaks, and GII.P16-GII.2 and GII.P17-GII.17 strains were the most commonly identified. GII.P17-GII.17 and GII.P16-GII.2 strains predominated in 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 outbreaks, respectively. GII.P16-GII.2 noroviruses were responsible for a steep increase in AGE outbreaks in Beijing: 549 norovirus outbreaks were reported from 2016 to 2017, 9.2 times the number that occurred during the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus causes a large disease burden in Beijing, and the prevalence of non-GII.4 noroviruses presents a new challenge for the development of vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Norovirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/história , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/história , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Estações do Ano , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Vaccine ; 37(27): 3611-3616, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lanzhou Lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine was licensed in China in 2000. It was the only vaccine available in private market before 2018. However, the data about the post-marketing effectiveness is very limited. To assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE), we conducted a case-control study based on the hospital surveillance system in Beijing from 2015 to 2017. METHODS: Seven hospitals located in seven districts in Beijing, from October 1, 2015, to March 31, 2017, were included. The VE of LLR vaccine was assessed in laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infection among children younger than five years old through a case-control design, using rotavirus-negative cases as controls. LLR vaccination was documented from a vaccination registry. VE was estimated adjusting for age group, gender, study site, the month of illness onset and interval days between illness onset to sampling through a logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 598 cases and 1766 controls were included in this study. The vaccine average coverage rate during 2015-2017 among children younger than five years old was 10.8% in Beijing. The adjusted VE for LLR vaccine of 1 dose versus 0 dose was 34.9% (95%CI, 5.3-55.3). We also obtained the adjusted VE of 87.7% (95%CI, 32.7-97.8) for patients with the severity score ≥11, 36.2% (95%CI, 4.7-57.3) for children of 2-35 months age group and 40.8% (95%CI, 7.8-61.9) against G9 rotavirus infection. Vaccinated cases were less likely to have watery stool (OR = 0.42) and have diarrhea longer than 5 days (OR = 0.47) than unvaccinated cases. DISCUSSION: LLR vaccine conferred protection against rotavirus disease. Children who were vaccinated presented with less severe clinical manifestations. An immunization schedule of receiving all three doses in the first year should be preferred.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 497, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease, and one of the common causes of death in children aged under five years old. The dominant epidemic strains may change in different years in the same area. In order to provide evidence for rotavirus epidemic control and inform vaccine development, we analyzed epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of rotavirus in Beijing during 2011-2016. METHODS: Stool specimens of outpatient children under five years old were collected from three children's hospitals on a weekly basis. Group A rotavirus antigens were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The partial VP4 genes and VP7 genes of rotavirus were both amplified and sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Logistic regression and Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences across age groups, districts and years in rotavirus prevalence and genotype distribution. RESULTS: A total of 3668 stool specimens from children with acute diarrhea identified through hospital-based surveillance were collected from 2011 to 2016 in Beijing. A total of 762 (20.8%) specimens tested positive for rotavirus. The rotavirus-positive rate was highest among the 1-2 years old age group (29.0%, 310/1070). November, December and January were the highest rotavirus-positive rate months each year. G9 was the most common G genotype (64.4%, 461/716), and P [8] was the most common P genotype (87.0%, 623/716) among the 716 rotavirus-positive specimens. G9P [8], G3P [8] and G2P [4] were the most common strains. The rotavirus-positive rates of samples in 2012 and 2013 were higher than that in 2011, and the dominant genotype changed from G3P [8] to G9P [8] in 2012 and 2013. VP7 gene sequences of G9 strains in this study clustered into two main lineages. Most of the G9 strains exhibited the highest nucleotide similarity (99.1%~ 100.0%) to the strain found in Japan (MI1128). VP4 gene sequences of P [8] strains were almost P[8]b. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus accounted for more than one fifth of childhood diarrhea in Beijing during the study period. Targeted measures such as immunization with effective rotavirus vaccines should be carried out to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Prevalência , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 439, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In December 2017, an acute gastroenteritis outbreak involving 61 students occurred in a boarding high school in Beijing, China. We conducted an outbreak investigation immediately in order to determine the cause of this outbreak and provide effective control measures. RESULTS: The laboratory inspection showed that this outbreak was caused by GII.P16-GII.2 norovirus. Risk factor analysis indicated that the lunch provided by Cafeteria 1 on Dec 12 might be the risk factor of the outbreak with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.800 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.089-13.258). Additionally, a tray line server of Cafeteria 1 was found to have gastro-enteral symptoms recently. Based on the clinical symptoms and epidemiology investigation, the symptomatic server was considered to be the possible source of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pequim/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 135, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus (HAdV)-associated acute conjunctivitis is a common infectious disease and causes significant morbidity among residents in Beijing, China. However, little is known about the epidemiology and type distribution of acute adenoviral conjunctivitis in Beijing. METHODS: Acute conjunctivitis surveillance was conducted in 18 hospitals in Beijing from July through October during 2011-2013. HAdVs were detected by PCR from eye swab and types were determined by partial hexon and fiber gene sequencing. Risk factors associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 876 conjunctivitis cases, 349 (39.8%) were HAdV positive. HAdV detection was most common in conjunctivitis patients aged 18-40 years; patients with contact history with a conjunctivitis case; patients with specimen collected on days 4-6 post symptom onset and patients who worked in food service as catering attendants. Fifteen types were identified among adenoviral conjunctivitis cases. Five HAdV types (HAdV-4, - 37, - 53, - 64 and - 8) accounted for 81.1% of all adenoviral conjunctivitis cases. HAdV-37, - 4 and - 53 were the most common types associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. CONCLUSION: Multiple HAdV types were associated with acute conjunctivitis in Beijing. Predominant types associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis circulating in Beijing varied from year to year.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntivite/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/complicações , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16: 206, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is extremely high, and has constituted a huge disease burden throughout Beijing in recent years. This study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal distribution and epidemic characteristics of HFMD. METHODS: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and estimate the epidemic peaks in 2009-2014. Space-time scanning detected spatiotemporal clusters and identified high-risk locations. Global and local Moran's I statistics were used to measure the spatial autocorrelation. Geocoding was performed in ArcGIS, based on the present address codes of the patients and the centroids of the towns. Maps were created in ArcGIS to show the geographic spread of HFMD. RESULTS: In total, 220,451probable cases of HFMD were reported in Beijing between January 2009 and December 2014: 12,749 (5.78 %) were laboratory confirmed, and 35 (0.02 %) were fatal. The median age of reported cases was 3.12 years (interquartile range 1.96-4.39). Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), and other enteroviruses accounted for 39.31, 35.36, and 25.33 % of the 12,749 confirmed cases, respectively. Many more severe cases were caused by EV-A71 (χ (2) = 186.41, df = 1, P < 0.001) and other enteroviruses (χ (2) = 156.44, df = 1, P < 0.001) than by CV-A16. A large single distinct peak occurred between May and July each year. Spatiotemporal clusters of HFMD were identified in Beijing during 2009-2014. The most likely clusters were detected and tended to move from the southwest (Fengtai and Daxing) southeastwards to Daxing and Tongzhou in 2009-2014. The incidence of HFMD was not randomly distributed, but showed global and local spatial autocorrelations. CONCLUSIONS: There were obvious spatiotemporal clusters of HFMD in Beijing in 2009-2014. High-incidence areas mainly occurred at the junctions of urban and rural zones. More attention should be paid to the epidemiological and spatiotemporal characteristics of HFMD to establish new strategies for its control. Health issues should be especially promoted in kindergartens and at urban-rural junctions.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/diagnóstico , Animais , Pequim/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Epidemias , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Análise Espacial
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 574, 2015 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26678989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Increased NoV activity was observed in Beijing, China during winter 2014-2015; therefore, we examined the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of NoV in the sporadic cases and outbreaks. METHODS: The weekly number of infectious diarrhea cases reported by all hospitals in Beijing was analyzed through the China information system for disease control and prevention. Fecal specimens were collected from the outbreaks and outpatients with AGE, and GI and GII NoVs were detected using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The partial capsid genes and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes of NoV were both amplified and sequenced, and genotyping and phylogenetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: Between December 2014 and March 2015, the number of infectious diarrhea cases in Beijing (10,626 cases) increased by 35.6% over that of the previous year (7835 cases), and the detection rate of NoV (29.8%, 191/640) among outpatients with AGE was significantly higher than in the previous year (12.9%, 79/613) (χ(2) = 53.252, P < 0.001). Between November 2014 and March 2015, 35 outbreaks of AGE were reported in Beijing, and NoVs were detected in 33 outbreaks, all of which belonged to the GII genogroup. NoVs were sequenced and genotyped in 22 outbreaks, among which 20 were caused by a novel GII.17 strain. Among outpatients with AGE, this novel GII.17 strain was first detected in an outpatient in August 2014, and it replaced GII.4 Sydney_2012 as the predominant variant between December 2014 and March 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of the capsid genes and RdRp genes revealed that this novel GII.17 strain was distinct from previously identified GII variants, and it was recently designated as GII.P17_GII.17. This variant was further clustered into two sub-groups, named GII.17_2012 and GII.17_2014. During winter 2014-2015, GII.17_2014 caused the majority of AGE outbreaks in China and Japan. CONCLUSIONS: During winter 2014-2015, a novel NoV GII.17 variant replaced the GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 as the predominant strain in Beijing, China and caused increased NoV activity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano
9.
J Med Virol ; 87(12): 2040-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25982899

RESUMO

Human caliciviruses (HuCVs), including noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), are the most common cause of diarrhea in adults and the second most common cause of diarrhea in children. Between April 2011 and March 2013, 3,832 fecal specimens were collected from outpatients with diarrhea from 17 hospitals in Beijing, China, and 669 specimens (17.5%) were positive for HuCV. Of the 287 HuCV-positive specimens, 263 (91.6%) were identified to be NoV, 23 (8.0%) were identified to be SaV, and one (0.3%) was identified to be a mixed infection of NoV and SaV. Of the 263 NoV-positive specimens, 237 (90.1%) were NoV GII, 21 (8.0%) were NoV GI, and 5 (1.9%) were a combination of NoV GI and GII. Among the 216 sequenced GII-positive samples, GII.4 was the most common genotype (70.4%, 152/216), followed by GII.13 (9.3%, 20/216). GII.4 Sydney_2012 was first detected in August 2012 and replaced GII.4 Den Haag_2006b as the predominant variant between September 2012 and March 2013. With the emergence of the GII.4 Sydney_2012 variant, 44.6% more patients with diarrhea visited the 17 hospitals (9,931 cases) than in the previous year (6,866 cases) between October and December 2012.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 383-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25975555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of norovirus infection on diarrhea patients from the enteric clinics in Beijing. METHODS: From April 2013 to March 2014, 1 892 fecal specimens and related epidemiological information were collected among diarrhea patients visiting the enteric clinics in Beijing. Norovirus was detected by real time RT-PCR, and data was analyzed under the descriptive epidemiological method. RESULTS: A total of 269 positive cases were found among 1 892 diarrhea patients, with a positive rate as 14.2%. Norovirus caused diarrhea mainly occurred in seasons with lower temperature. Higher positive rates of norovirus were found in northwest mountainous area. Norovirus diarrhea was more commonly seen in children between 6 month and 5 years old, with differences between the two groups statistically significant (P = 0.006). Compared with other occupation, a higher infection rate was identified in children, with differences between the two groups statistically significant (P = 0.025). Nausea and vomiting appeared more common in diarrhea patients with norovirus infection, with differences between the two groups statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Norovirus was an important pathogen which causing diarrhea in patients visiting the enteric clinics in Beijing. The virus was seen more in patients aged between 6 months and 5 years old. Nausea and vomiting were the common symptoms seen in patients with norovirus diarrhea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Náusea/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Vômito/virologia
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 183457, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25126593

RESUMO

In the rubber dam's impact area, the groundwater total hardness (TH) has declined since 2000, ultimately dropping to 100-300 mg/L in 2012. pH levels have shown no obvious changes. NH4-N concentration in the groundwater remained stable from 2000 to 2006, but it increased from 2007 to 2012, with the largest increase up to 0.2 mg/L. NO3-N concentration in the groundwater generally declined in 2000-2006 and then increased from 2007; the largest increase was to 10 mg/L in 2012. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of the groundwater showed a general trend of decline from 2000 to 2009, but levels increased after 2010, especially along the south bank of the Luohe River where the largest increase recorded was approximately 100 mg/L. This study has shown that the increases in the concentrations of NH4-N and NO3-N were probably caused by changes in groundwater levels. Nitrates adsorbed by the silt clay of aeration zone appear to have entered the groundwater through physical and chemical reactions. TDS increased because of groundwater evaporation and some soluble ions entered the groundwater in the unsaturated zone. The distance of the contaminant to the surface of the aquifer became shorter due to the shallow depth of groundwater, resulting in the observed rise in pollutant concentrations more pronounced.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Água Subterrânea/química , Borracha/química , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Cálcio/análise , China , Fenômenos Geológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitratos/análise
12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 35(3): 548-55, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24119547

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that impairment in executive function (EF) is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the neuroanatomic basis of executive impairment in patients with aMCI remains unclear. In this study, multiple regression voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to examine the relationship between regional gray matter volumes and EF performance in 50 patients with aMCI and 48 healthy age-matched controls. The core EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching, based on the EF model of Miyake et al) were accessed with computerized tasks. Atrophic brain areas related to decreases in the three EF components in patients with aMCI were located in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within the frontal cortex, the brain region related to response inhibition was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Brain regions related to working memory were located in the left anterior cingulate gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, and brain regions related to task shifting were distributed in the bilateral frontal cortex. Atrophy in the right inferior frontal gyrus was most closely associated with a decrease in all three EF components in patients with aMCI. Our data, from the perspective of brain morphology, contribute to a better understanding of the role of these brain areas in the neural network of EF.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/patologia , Idoso , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/patologia
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 33(9): 926-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the etiological detection on samples from severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases and the genetic characteristics of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) isolates from severe patients in Beijing, 2010. METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) and RD cells were used to separate virus strains from samples. Homogeneity of EV71 isolated strains were also analyzed. RESULTS: Four hundred and fourty-two severe cases were detected and 253 were positive, taking up 57.24% of the total (253/442). The overall positive detection rate on EV71 was 54.55% (138/253), with CoxA16 as 5.93% (15/253), and with other enterovirus group was 39.53% (100/253). The nucleotide homogeneity of VP1 within these 12 strains was 97.2% - 100.0%, and with Beijing strains in 2007 - 2010, Shandong strains in 2007 and Anhui Fuyang strains in 2008 and the Guangdong strains in 2008 as 94.0% - 99.9%. CONCLUSION: Severe HFMD cases were most oftenly caused by EV71 but less caused by CoxA16 or other enterovirus. The HFMD in 2010 in Beijing was mainly caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a with 4 transmission chains. Twelve isolated EV71 strains had high homogeneity with strains isolated from severe cases in Anhui Fuyang in 2007.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano A/classificação , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 24(6): 932-9, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21551134

RESUMO

The aim of this article was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of imported cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and to assess the effectiveness of public health intervention measures in Beijing, China. Data on imported cases were collected via border entry screening, influenza-like illness screening in hospitals, medical follow-up of travelers from overseas, and quarantined close contacts. The characteristics of these cases were investigated. Pharyngeal swabs were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction. A total of 609 imported cases were confirmed in Beijing from May 16 to September 30, 2009. Subjects aged <20 years accounted for 47.3%, and females represented 49.1%. Most cases were from North America and South America (27.3%). There were 21.8%, 18.7%, 3.1%, and 56.3% of cases detected separately via border entry screening, quarantined close contacts, medical follow-up of travelers from overseas, and influenza-like illness screening in hospitals, respectively. The 4 strategies were able to detect the cases efficiently but the use of resources was high.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/virologia , Quarentena , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 45(9): 820-4, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22177306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathogenic form, epidemic features and serotype distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 2118 samples of rectal swabs and stool specimens of diarrheal patients were collected from 6 surveillant intestinal tract clinics during the period between April and October, 2010. Enteric multiple pathogens including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Shigella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were detected by the isolation culture, biochemical identification and serotyping methods. The population distribution, temporal distribution and serotype distribution of the above pathogenic bacteria were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. RESULTS: 478 strains isolated from the total 2118 specimens were positive for pathogen detection, accounting to 22.6%. Among the 478 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Shigella accounting for 40.8% (195/478) was the most frequent pathogen, followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus accouting for 23.8% (114/478), Salmonella accounting for 19.0% (91/478) and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli accounting for 4.8% (23/478). Enteric pathogenic bacteria spread mainly among adults aging between 20 and 39; and the distribution was different among different age groups, while the highest detected rate was in 30 - 39 age group, accounting for 27.2% (92/338). The detected rate of pathogenic bacteria showed evident seasonal variations, with a peak from July to October, whose detected rates were 23.5% (114/486), 32.8% (176/536), 36.1% (90/249) and 25.9% (29/112) respectively. The detected rates in other months were all under 16.0%. Shigella Sonnei was the dominant serotype, accounting for 83.1% (162/195). O3:K6 was the dominant serotype among Vibrio parahaemolyticus, accounting for 63.2% (72/114). Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were dominant serotypes among Salmonella, accounting for 13.2% (12/91) and 12.1% (11/91) separately. Enterpathogenic Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were the dominant serotypes among Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, accounting for 69.6% (16/23) and 30.4% (7/23) respectively. CONCLUSION: The three main pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in Beijing are Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella; and there are obvious changes in the serotype distribution of Shigella and Samonella compared to previous years.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorotipagem , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 17(10): 1824-30, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22000351

RESUMO

We estimated the attack rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and assessed risk factors for infection among close contacts quarantined in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The first 613 confirmed cases detected between May 16 and September 15, 2009, were investigated; 7,099 close contacts were located and quarantined. The attack rate of confirmed infection in close contacts was 2.4% overall, ranging from 0.9% among aircraft passengers to >5% among household members. Risk factors for infection among close contacts were younger age, being a household member of an index case-patient, exposure during the index case-patient's symptomatic phase, and longer exposure. Among close contacts with positive test results at the start of quarantine, 17.2% had subclinical infection. Having contact with a household member and younger age were the major risk factors for acquiring pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection. One person in 6 with confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pandemias , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 13(8): 635-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21849112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: The samples of vesicle fluid and throat swabs of 108 children with HFMD were collected and detected for enterovirus by RT-PCR. The clinical data of children with EV71 and CA16 infection were retrospectively reviewed and compared. RESULTS: The total positive rate of enterovirus was 97.2% (105/108). Of the 105 cases, 56 cases were positive for EV71 (51.9%), 39 cases were positive for CA16 (36.1%), 2 cases were positive for other enterovirus (1.9%), and 8 cases were co-infected by EV71 and CA16 (7.4%). There were no significant differences in age and sex between EV71 and CV16 infected cases. The univariate analysis showed that the incidences of herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running in children infected by CA16 were higher than in those infected by EV71. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HFMD children who had erythra of knees had higher probability of CA16 infection. CONCLUSIONS: EV71 should be considered as the pathogen in children with HFMD who have no herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano A , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino
18.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 348-52, 2011 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21729622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiological characteristics of infection for close contacts of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and to provide scientific evidence for preparedness and response for the next pandemic. METHODS: A total of 613 index cases with clear information of close contacts and their 7099 close contacts, determined between May 16 and September 15, 2009, were included in this study. Based on data of epidemiological investigation, sampling and test of index cases and close contacts, the characteristics of infection for close contacts were described. RESULTS: 56.8% (348/613) of the index cases were male, and 43.2% (265/613) were female, and the median age was 20 years (range: 1 - 75 years). 49.6% (3518/7099) of the close contacts were male, and 49.5% (3514/7099) were female, but the sex information of 0.9% (67/7099) could not be recorded. The median age of the close contacts was 27 years (range: 0 - 99 years). 2.4% (167/7099) of close contacts were infected. The attack rates decreased with increasing age of close contacts (χ()2 = 27.87, P < 0.001), and were significantly different between various contact patterns of close contacts (χ()2 = 109.76, P < 0.001). 14.4% of the infected close contacts were asymptomatic. For close contacts with symptomatic infection, virus could be shed 4.5 days before illness onset, and the median generation time was 2.4 days. CONCLUSION: The attack rate of close contacts was very low; and the attack rates were different between various ages and contact patterns of close contacts. In this series 14% of cases with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were asymptomatic. The symptomatic cases might have infectivity 1 day earlier before illness onset.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 32(12): 1255-8, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22336612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the etiological and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Beijing. METHODS: Stool specimens from sporadic diarrheal patients were collected during April to December, 2010. Culture and serotyping were used to detect the Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the 2118 specimens. All the positive strains were tested for drug sensitivity by Kirby-Bauer method. Real-time PCR was used to detect the existence of three virulence genes tlh, tdh and trh. Molecular typing on Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates was completed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: 114 out of the 2118 specimens were Vibrio parahaemolyticus positive, with the positive rate as 5.38%. 114 isolates belonged to 23 serotypes, with the dominant (63.16%) serotype as O3:K6. Strains isolated from clinical manifestation patients were resistant to antibiotics-ampicillin and gentamicin, while with high sensitivity to amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, chloromycetin, imipenem, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Virulence gene detection was positive to tlh for all the strains, but most to tdh, while only one strain to trh. The positive rate of tdh among O3:K6 strains (98.61%) was higher than that in those non-O3:K6 strains (85.71%) (P = 0.0098). 114 isolates were discriminated into 54 different PFGE patterns, while 72 O3:K6 strains into 34 patterns without the clustering characteristic. CONCLUSION: Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Beijing were dominated by O3:K6 strains, with stronger virulence. The positive rates of genes tlh and tdh were high. Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains showed high sensitivity to most antibiotics. The prevalent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in Beijing had various sources of clones.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Sorotipagem , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 31(5): 485-8, 2010 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21163020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunological level against influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Beijing and provide evidence to evaluate the developing trend of the disease. METHODS: Between Nov. 27, 2009 and Dec. 23, 2009, subjects were randomly selected from patients in hospitals (infectious and respiratory diseases related departments were excluded), volunteers in blood donation center and healthy subjects attending the physical examination center. Questionnaire survey was conducted and serum samples were collected to detect the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody against influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus. RESULTS: 856 subjects participated in this survey, and 127 showed positive HI antibody to this pandemic virus. The proportions of sero-positivity among 0 - 5, 6 - 17, 18 - 55, ≥ 56 year olds were 14.5%, 19.4%, 17.4% and 8.0% respectively (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the sero-positivity between males and females (P = 0.693). The age-adjusted positive rate was 15.8% in the population of Beijing. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors as age, acute respiratory symptoms and the rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination were significantly associated with sero-positivity of HI antibody to the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus. CONCLUSION: Above 15% of the population in Beijing showed protective antibody against influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, indicating the development of immunological barrier to this disease had been formed, to some extent.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
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