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1.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 326, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyploidy, especially allopolyploidy, which entails merging divergent genomes via hybridization and whole-genome duplication (WGD), is a major route to speciation in plants. The duplication among the parental genomes (subgenomes) often leads to one subgenome becoming dominant over the other(s), resulting in subgenome asymmetry in gene content and expression. Polyploid wheats are allopolyploids with most genes present in two (tetraploid) or three (hexaploid) functional copies, which commonly show subgenome expression asymmetry. It is unknown whether a similar subgenome asymmetry exists during translation. We aim to address this key biological question and explore the major contributing factors to subgenome translation asymmetry. RESULTS: Here, we obtain the first tetraploid wheat translatome and reveal that subgenome expression asymmetry exists at the translational level. We further perform in vivo RNA structure profiling to obtain the wheat RNA structure landscape and find that mRNA structure has a strong impact on translation, independent of GC content. We discover a previously uncharacterized contribution of RNA structure in subgenome translation asymmetry. We identify 3564 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) across the transcriptomes between the two tetraploid wheat subgenomes, which induce large RNA structure disparities. These SNVs are highly conserved within durum wheat cultivars but are divergent in both domesticated and wild emmer wheat. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully determine both the translatome and in vivo RNA structurome in tetraploid wheat. We reveal that RNA structure serves as an important modulator of translational subgenome expression asymmetry in polyploids. Our work provides a new perspective for molecular breeding of major polyploid crops.

2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846608

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Developing embryo and endosperm of sorghum show substantial and multifaceted differences in gene expression and alternative splicing, which are potentially relevant to heterosis. Differential regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) are major molecular mechanisms dictating plant growth and development, as well as underpinning heterosis in F1 hybrids. Here, using deep RNA-sequencing we analyzed differences in genome-wide gene expression and AS between developing embryo and endosperm, and between F1 hybrids and their pure-line parents in sorghum. We uncover dramatic differences in both gene expression and AS between embryo and endosperm with respect to gene features and functions, which are consistent with the fundamentally different biological roles of the two tissues. Accordingly, F1 hybrids showed substantial and multifaceted differences in gene expression and AS compared with their pure-line parents, again with clear tissue specificities including extents of difference, genes involved and functional enrichments. Our results provide useful transcriptome resources as well as novel insights for further elucidation of seed yield heterosis in sorghum and related crops.

3.
Genes Genomics ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albeit a relatively stable epigenetic modification, DNA methylation in plants can be repatterned and play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, whether DNA methylation dynamics may contribute to cope with mercury (Hg) stress in plants remains to be fully investigated. OBJECTIVE: To probe the potential roles of DNA methylation dynamics in coping with Hg stress in rice. METHODS: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was used to profile the DNA methylation patterns of a rice Hg-resistant line (RHg) selected from a heterozygous mutant of the DNA methyltransferase 1 gene (OsMET1+/-), together with its Hg-sensitive wild-type plants of cv. Nipponbare (Nip) under both normal and Hg stress conditions. RESULTS: Genome-wide locus-specific differential methylation regions (DMRs) were detected between RHg and Nip under normal condition, the predominant DMR patterns were CG hypo-DMRs, CHG hypo-DMRs and CHH hyper-DMRs. In both lines, more hyper- than hypo-DMRs were detected at all three sequence contexts (CG, CHG and CHH) under Hg stress relative to normal condition. Comparison of DNA methylation changes in the two lines under Hg stress indicates that RHg had a more dynamic methylome than the control (Nip). Original DMRs in RHg trended to transform to opposite status (from hyper- to hypo- or vice versa) under Hg stress condition. Gene ontology analysis revealed that Hg-resistance-related DMGs were enriched in diverse biological processes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest genome-wide locus-specific DNA methylation repatterning can facilitate rapid acquisition of Hg resistance in rice.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822728

RESUMO

Ruthenium (Ru)-based catalysts, with considerable performance and desirable cost, become highly concerned candidates to replace platinum (Pt) in alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The hydrogen binding at Ru sites (Ru-H) is an important factor limiting the HER activity. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) simulations show that the essence of Ru-H binding energy is the strong interaction between the 4dz 2 orbital of Ru and 1s orbital of H. The charge transfer between Ru sites and substrates (Co and Ni) causes the appropriate downward shift of the 4dz 2 -band center of Ru, which results in a Gibbs free energy of 0.022 eV for H* in RuCo system, much decrease compared to 0.133 eV in pure Ru system. This theoretical prediction has been experimentally confirmed using RuCo alloy nanosheets (RuCo ANSs). They were prepared via fast co-precipitation method followed with a mild electrochemical reduction. Structure characterizations reveal that the Ru atoms are embed into Co substrate as isolated active sites with the planar symmetric and Z-direction asymmetric coordination structure, obtaining an optimal 4dz 2 modulated electronic structure. Hydrogen sensor and temperature program desorption (TPD) tests demonstrate the enhanced Ru-H interactions in RuCo ANSs than pure Ru nanoparticles. As a result, the RuCo ANSs reach an ultra-low overpotential of 10 mV at 10 mA/cm 2 and a Tafel slope of 20.6 mV/dec in 1 M KOH, outperforming that of the commercial Pt/C. This holistic work provides a new insight to promote alkaline HER by optimizing metal-H binding energy of active sites.

5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4): 1351-1358, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799307

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common atopic disorders, which seriously affects patients' quality of life. Yupingfeng (YPF) Power is a traditional Chinese herb formula, and its oral dosage form has been widely used for the treatment of AR in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of YPF nasal drops on ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized/stimulated allergic rhinitis in rats. A Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of OVA-induced AR was established and then treated with three doses of YPF nasal drops. Besides, histopathological features, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the nasal mucosa, and expression of type 1 helper T (Th1)/type 2 helper T (Th2)-related cytokines in serum were analyzed. The results showed that YPF nasal drops alleviated the injury of nasal mucosal epithelial structure, promoted the recovery of ciliary morphology and function and reduced interstitial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration to some extent. Moreover, YPF nasal drops regulated imbalance in Th1/Th2 cells caused by AR via regulating downward the expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and adjusting upward the expression of interferon-γ (INF-γ), and interleukin 12 (IL-12). Furthermore, it inhibited the expression of ECP in nasal epithelial eosinophil-specific granules. The findings of this study provided a new perspective for the treatment of AR with YPF nasal drops based on Traditional Chinese Medicine.

6.
Immunotherapy ; 13(17): 1395-1405, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607482

RESUMO

Aim: We investigated the efficacy and safety of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) combined with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: This retrospective study included HCC patients treated with HAIC, TKIs and anti-PD-1 antibodies between May 2019 and November 2020 in our hospital. Primary end points were progression-free survival and safety. Results: Twenty-seven advanced HCC patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 12.9 months (range: 4.0-24.0 months) and the median progression-free survival was 10.6 months. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 63.0 and 92.6%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Conclusion: In patients with advanced HCC, treatment with HAIC, anti-PD-1 antibodies and oral TKIs was effective and safe.

7.
Ann Plast Surg ; 87(6): e129-e136, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) often affects young, active patients, and the femoral head's preservation is the primary goal of treatment for this disease. Vascularized iliac crest bone grafting is one of the many vascularized procedures used in treating ONHF. In some cases, we selectively performed this procedure using the musculoperiosteal iliac flap with the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery for ONFH treatment. METHODS: Twelve patients (12 hips) with nontraumatic femoral head necrosis underwent musculoperiosteal iliac flap transfer with the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery. The Harris Hip Score (HHS), visual analog scale score, and double-hip X-ray findings were used to analyze hip function changes within 10 days preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The mean HHS increased from 52.33 ± 3.34 preoperatively to 65.92 ± 5.04 6 months postoperatively and 79.75 ± 3.84 12 months postoperatively, and the data showed a statistical significance difference between preoperative and postoperative (F = 131.90, P < 0.01). The HHS at 6 and 12 months after surgery were significantly different (P < 0.01). The visual analog scale score showed the same trend. The x-ray of hip joints at 6 and 12 months after surgery showed that the femoral heads' shape and contour were good, femoral heads did not collapse, and the transferred bone flaps healed well. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoperiosteal iliac flap transfer with the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery may be an effective method with a high clinical success rate for treating young patients with early to midstage ONFH.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 217-224, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on predictors and risk of recurrence after suicide attempt from China is lacking. This study aims to identify risk factors and develop prediction models for recurrent suicidal behavior among suicide attempters using Cox proportional hazard (CPH) and machine learning methods. METHODS: The prospective cohort study included 1103 suicide attempters with a maximum follow-up of 10 years from rural China. Baseline characteristics, collected by face-to-face interviews at least 1 month later after index suicide attempt, were used to predict recurrent suicidal behavior. CPH and 3 machine learning algorithms, namely, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, random survival forest, and gradient boosting decision tree, were used to construct prediction models. Model performance was accessed by concordance index (C-index) and the time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value for discrimination, and time-dependent calibration curve along with Brier score for calibration. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 7.79 years, and 49 suicide attempters had recurrent suicidal behavior during the study period. Four models achieved comparably good discrimination and calibration performance, with all C-indexes larger than 0.70, AUC values larger than 0.65, and Brier scores smaller than 0.06. Mental disorder emerged as the most important predictor across all four models. Suicide attempters with mental disorders had a 3 times higher risk of recurrence than those without. History of suicide attempt (HR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.34-6.02), unstable marital status (HR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.38-5.71), and older age (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14-2.01) were also identified as independent predictors of recurrent suicidal behavior by CPH model. CONCLUSIONS: We developed four models to predict recurrent suicidal behavior with comparable good prediction performance. Our findings potentially provided benefits in screening vulnerable individuals on a more precise scale.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(40): 23380-23388, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636820

RESUMO

The pressure- and temperature-dependent luminescence properties of M'-phase Nd3+:YTaO4 synthesized by a molten salt method are presented. Ten near-infrared emission lines originating from the transitions between the two Stark levels R1,2 of the 3F3/2 state and the five Stark levels Z1,2,3,4,5 of the 4I9/2 state for the doped Nd3+ ions can be clearly identified. All these emission lines are found to shift linearly with pressure in a range up to ∼11 GPa. The R2,1 → Z5 emission lines have larger pressure sensitivities, which are 16.44 and 14.27 cm-1 GPa-1. The intensities of all the emission lines evolve with pressure non-monotonically, and peak at ∼1 GPa. The R1 → Z4,5 and R2 → Z1 emission lines can be obviously narrowed under the hydrostatic pressure, and broadened under the non-hydrostatic pressure, indicating their potential capability for reflecting the characteristic of a pressure environment. The intensity ratio of the R2,1 → Z5 emission lines exhibits a large temperature dependence, with a relative sensitivity between 0.129% and 0.108% K-1 in the physiological temperature range of 290-320 K. Thermal variations of the spectral positions and widths of the R2,1 → Z5 emission lines are also investigated. A high thermal stability for the position of the R2 → Z5 emission line is revealed. Based on the experimental results, the advantages and potential of Nd3+:YTaO4 as a multi-functional sensor for pressure and temperature are discussed.

10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 240: 105969, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600396

RESUMO

Continuous exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause oxidative damage to fish tissues and organs. To date, the mechanism by which juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) are poisoned by ammonia exposure has not been thoroughly elucidated. although the mechanisms of ammonia toxicity are not well described for the pompano, many other studies presented these effects to other fish species. So an overview would be given. First, an acute ammonia nitrogen toxicity experiment on juvenile golden pompano obtained a 96-h half-lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of 26.9 mg/L. In the ammonia exposure experiment, fish were sampled at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after exposure to ammonia water (26.93 mg/L). The results showed that with the prolonged ammonia nitrogen exposure, plasma cortisol (COR), total cholesterol (TC), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels continued to rise, while glucose (GLU) levels first increased and later gradually decreased after 12 h. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes (SOD, CAT, and GPX) first increased and subsequently decreased with increasing exposure time. Through microscopic observation, it was found that the degree of liver damage increased with increasing stress time and was most serious at 96 h. In the post-poison recovery experiment, the fish exposed to ammonia were transferred to clean water, and samples were taken at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after recovery. The results showed that with the increasing recovery time, each index recovered to the initial level to varying degrees, but the recovery time of 96 h was not enough for the fish to return to the normal level. We also examined the regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway by the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant defense system. The results of this analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between Nrf2 and liver antioxidant gene expression levels, while there was a negative correlation between Keap1 and liver antioxidant gene expression levels, which may be observed because Nrf2 plays a key role in inducing antioxidant genes, and Keap1 may hinder the response to Nrf2. These results may provide a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the impact of ammonia exposure on fish and help to provide a foundation for managing the healthy reproduction of juvenile fish.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(5): nwaa277, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691642

RESUMO

Allopolyploidy is an important process in plant speciation, yet newly formed allopolyploid species typically suffer from extreme genetic bottlenecks. One escape from this impasse might be homoeologous meiotic pairing, during which homoeologous exchanges (HEs) generate phenotypically variable progeny. However, the immediate genome-wide patterns and resulting phenotypic diversity generated by HEs remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genome composition of 202 phenotyped euploid segmental allopolyploid individuals from the fourth selfed generation following chromosomal doubling of reciprocal F1 hybrids of crosses between rice subspecies, using whole-genome sequencing. We describe rampant occurrence of HEs that, by overcoming incompatibility or conferring superiority of hetero-cytonuclear interactions, generate extensive and individualized genomic mosaicism across the analyzed tetraploids. We show that the resulting homoeolog copy number alteration in tetraploids affects known-function genes and their complex genetic interactions, in the process creating extraordinary phenotypic diversity at the population level following a single initial hybridization. Our results illuminate the immediate genomic landscapes possible in a tetraploid genomic environment, and underscore HE as an important mechanism that fuels rapid phenotypic diversification accompanying the initial stages of allopolyploid evolution.

12.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-17, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698619

RESUMO

The safety evaluation of timosaponin BII (TBII) in beagle dogs with toxicokinetic study was performed. For the acute oral toxicity study, the minimum lethal dose (MLD) of TBII was more than 2000 mg/kg and suggested the characteristics of absorption saturation. For the 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity and toxicokinetic studies, there was no significant effect on all test parameters except for prolonged APTT in the 60 and 180 mg/kg groups, which recovered after withdrawal. The increase of drug exposure of 180 mg/kg group was not proportional to the increase of administration dose, showing the characteristics of absorption saturation.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(48): 25241-25245, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550636

RESUMO

Atomically dispersed transition metal sites have been extensively studied for CO2 electroreduction reaction (CO2 RR) to CO due to their robust CO2 activation ability. However, the strong hybridization between directionally localized d orbits and CO vastly limits CO desorption and thus the activities of atomically dispersed transition metal sites. In contrast, s-block metal sites possess nondirectionally delocalized 3s orbits and hence weak CO adsorption ability, providing a promising way to solve the suffered CO desorption issue. Herein, we constructed atomically dispersed magnesium atoms embedded in graphitic carbon nitride (Mg-C3 N4 ) through a facile heat treatment for CO2 RR. Theoretical calculations show that the CO desorption on Mg sites is easier than that on Fe and Co sites. This theoretical prediction is demonstrated by experimental CO temperature program desorption and in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. As a result, Mg-C3 N4 exhibits a high turnover frequency of ≈18 000 per hour in H-cell and a large current density of -300 mA cm-2 in flow cell, under a high CO Faradaic efficiency ≥90 % in KHCO3 electrolyte. This work sheds a new light on s-block metal sites for efficient CO2 RR to CO.

14.
J Cancer ; 12(19): 5723-5731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475986

RESUMO

Background: Collagen type 1 alpha 1 chain (COL1A1) is an extracellular matrix protein comprising two alpha 1 chains and one alpha 2 chain. Our previous study identified that COL1A1 is the key gene during the development and progression of lung adenocarcinoma by multi-omics analysis. However, the clinical significance of COL1A1 expression in lung cancer samples remains largely unknown. Here, we aimed to evaluate the level of COL1A1 in lung cancer samples and correlate its level with the clinical outcome. Methods: COL1A1 gene expression in lung cancer samples was analyzed using the Oncomine database (www.oncomine.org). A total of 308 lung cancer samples (208 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 100 blood samples) were assessed for protein expression of COL1A1. Immunohistochemistry staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect COL1A1 expression in tissues and serum, respectively. Results: We identified an elevation of COL1A1 in mRNA level and gene amplification in lung cancer tissues compared with normal lung tissues. High COL1A1 expression was observed in lung cancer tissues and serum (P < 0.05), it was significantly correlated with the peripheral type tumor, the larger diameter of the tumor, the occurrence of lymph node metastases and distant metastases, a higher TNM stage, and smoking (P < 0.05). High COL1A1 expression was associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and chemoresistance in lung cancer patients (P < 0.05). Multivariable Cox-regression analysis showed that COL1A1 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve was 0.909 for the combined COL1A1 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) measurement. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that COL1A1 could be used as a novel diagnostic, prognostic, and chemoresistance biomarker of human lung cancer, and these results provide a potential therapeutic strategy for lung cancer patients.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9056-9059, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498623

RESUMO

The previously unreported zwitterionic N-allylic ylide species from the corresponding Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of trifluoromethyl ketones and acrylonitrile are generated under the catalysis of cinchona-derived tertiary amines, and subsequently participate in switchable asymmetric [3+2] or [4+1] annulations with 1-azadienes in chemo-, regio-, and stereodivergent manners via catalyst or substrate control. A diverse range of frameworks, having a trifluoromethylated all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre or a tetrasubstituted alkene moiety, are generally constructed in good yields with excellent enantioselectivity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the development of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and clinical application in predicting the clinical outcomes of SARS-COV-2 patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on the hospitalized patients with SARS-COV-2 recruited from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China from 18 January to 10 March 2020. The patients with CNS symptoms were determined. Data regarding clinical symptoms and laboratory tests were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Of 1268 patients studied, 162 (12.8%) had CNS symptoms, manifested as unconsciousness (71, 5.6%), coma (69, 5.4%), dysphoria (50, 3.9%), somnolence (34, 2.7%) and convulsion (3, 0.2%), which were observed at median of 14 (interquartile range 9-18) days after symptom onset and significantly associated with older age (OR = 5.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-11.73), male (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.22-2.47) and preexisting hypertension (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.23-2.57). The presence of CNS symptoms could be predicted by abnormal laboratory tests across various clinical stages, including by lymphocyte counts of <0.93 × 109/L, LDH≥435 U/L and IL-6≥28.83 pg/L at 0-10 days post disease; by lymphocyte count<0.86 × 109/L, IL-2R ≥ 949 U/L, LDH≥382 U/L and WBC≥8.06 × 109/L at 11-20 days post disease. More patients with CNS symptoms developed fatal outcome compared with patients without CNS symptoms (HR = 33.96, 95% CI 20.87-55.16). CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms of COVID-19 were related to increased odds of developing poor prognosis and even fatal infection.

17.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 9(4): 339-349, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567566

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC) have a genetic predisposition toward the disease. However, there is scant knowledge regarding germline mutations in predisposing genes in the Chinese GC population. This study aimed to determine the spectrum and distribution of predisposing gene mutations among Chinese GC patients known to have hereditary high-risk factors for cancer. Methods: A total of 40 GC patients from 40 families were recruited from seven medical institutions in China. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 171 genes associated with cancer predisposition. For probands carrying pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants, Sanger sequencing was applied to validate the variants in the probands as well as their relatives. Results: According to sequencing results, 25.0% (10/40) of the patients carried a combined total of 10 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants involving nine different genes: CDH1 (n = 1), MLH1 (n = 1), MSH2 (n = 1), CHEK2 (n = 1), BLM (n = 1), EXT2 (n = 1), PALB2 (n = 1), ERCC2 (n = 1), and SPINK1 (n = 2). In addition, 129 variants of uncertain significance were identified in 27 patients. Conclusions: This study indicates that approximately one in every four Chinese GC patients with hereditary high risk factors may harbor pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline alterations in cancer-susceptibility genes. The results further indicate a unique genetic background for GC among Chinese patients.

18.
Trials ; 22(1): 652, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute renal colic caused by urinary calculi (ARCUC) has a considerable impact on the quality of life. Acupuncture might be a potential treatment option. However, the evidence is limited. We will conduct this trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture as adjunctive treatment to diclofenac for ARCUC. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 80 eligible patients who are diagnosed with urinary stone renal colic will be randomly allocated to the acupuncture group or the sham acupuncture group. Each patient will receive 1 session of acupuncture or sham acupuncture. The primary outcome will be the response rate of patients achieving a reduction of > 50% on visual analog score (VAS) from baseline to 10 min after treatment. Secondary outcomes will include the VAS, remedial analgesia, re-visit and admission rate, blinding assessment, credibility and expectancy, and adverse event. All patients who receive randomization will be included in the intent-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION: The finding of this trial will provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of ARCUC. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ChiCTR 1900025202 . Registered on August 16, 2019.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Cólica Renal , Cálculos Urinários , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cólica Renal/diagnóstico , Cólica Renal/etiologia , Cólica Renal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Ecol Evol ; 11(17): 11874-11889, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522347

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying heritable phenotypic divergence associated with adaptation in response to environmental stresses may involve both genetic and epigenetic variations. Several prior studies have revealed even higher levels of epigenetic variation than genetic variation. However, few population-level studies have explored the effects of epigenetic variation on species with high levels of genetic diversity distributed across different habitats. Using AFLP and methylation-sensitive AFLP markers, we tested the hypothesis that epigenetic variation may contribute to differences in plants occupying different habitats when genetic variation alone cannot fully explain adaptation. As a cosmopolitan invasive species, Phragmites australis (common reed) together with high genetic diversity and remarkable adaptability has been suggested as a model for responses to global change and indicators of environmental fluctuations. We found high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity and significant genetic/epigenetic structure within each of 12 studied populations sampled from four natural habitats of P. australis. Possible adaptive epigenetic variation was suggested by significant correlations between DNA methylation-based epigenetic differentiation and adaptive genetic divergence in populations across the habitats. Meanwhile, various AMOVAs indicated that some epigenetic differences may respond to various local habitats. A partial Mantel test was used to tease out the correlations between genetic/epigenetic variation and habitat after controlling for the correlation between genetic and epigenetic variations. We found that epigenetic diversity was affected mostly by soil nutrient availability, suggesting that at least some epigenetic differentiation occurred independently of genetic variation. We also found stronger correlations between epigenetic variation and phenotypic traits than between genetic variation and such traits. Overall, our findings indicate that genetically based differentiation correlates with heterogeneous habitats, while epigenetic variation plays an important role in ecological differentiation in natural populations of P. australis. In addition, our results suggest that when assessing global change responses of plant species, intraspecific variation needs to be considered.

20.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109704, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525369

RESUMO

Histone variants are crucial regulators of chromatin structure and gene transcription, yet their functions within the brain remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that the H2A histone variant H2A.Z is essential for neuronal survival. Mice lacking H2A.Z in GABAergic neurons or Purkinje cells (PCs) present with a progressive cerebellar ataxia accompanied by widespread degeneration of PCs. Ablation of H2A.Z in other neuronal subtypes also triggers cell death. H2A.Z binds to the promoters of key nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes to regulate their expression and promote organelle function. Bolstering mitochondrial activity genetically or by organelle transplant enhances the survival of H2A.Z-ablated neurons. Changes in bioenergetic status alter H2A.Z occupancy at the promoters of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, an adaptive response essential for cell survival. Our results highlight that H2A.Z fulfills a key, conserved role in neuronal survival by acting as a transcriptional rheostat to regulate the expression of genes critical to mitochondrial function.

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