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1.
Environ Res ; 186: 109503, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302867

RESUMO

Adding alkaline into an anaerobic waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation with thermophilic bacteria pretreatment could efficiently improve short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation to 3550 ± 120 mg COD/L. The acidification rate in combined test was 21.2%, while that was 15.6% and 10.7% in sole thermophilic bacteria pretreatment and control tests respectively. Four distinct groups of microbes could be identified with noticeable shifts using the combined pretreatments, and tremendous effects were analyzed on organic content especially of the soluble proteins and SCFAs concentrations. Particularly, alkaline addition would significantly change the functional microbial structures, including the decrease of Caloramator with the function of thermophilic proteolytic and the increase of Acidobacteria TM7 and Petrimonas sp. The results above suggested that alkaline addition could decrease the hydrolytic substances consume by thermotolerance bacteria and final improve SCFAs accumulation in fermentation process.

2.
Inflammation ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239392

RESUMO

Endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an extremely severe syndrome identified by global activation of inflammatory responses. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in the development of endotoxemia. Histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) is a key step of NET formation. We have previously demonstrated that simultaneous inhibition of PAD2 and PAD4 with pan-PAD inhibitors can decrease NETosis and improve survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxic shock. However, the effects of PAD2 specific inhibition during NETosis and endotoxic shock are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the specific PAD2 or PAD4 inhibitor on LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice. We found that PAD2 inhibition but not PAD4 inhibition improves survival. Also, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and NETosis were significantly reduced by PAD2 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that PAD2 inhibition can reduce NETosis, decrease inflammatory cytokine production, and protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. Our findings provided a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of endotoxic shock.

3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(4): 716-731, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347066

RESUMO

Stearoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturase (SAD) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid or palmitoleic acid in plastids. SAD is the key enzyme to control the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in plant cells. In order to analyze the regulation mechanism of soybean oleic acid synthesis, soybean (Glycine max) GmSAD family members were genome-wide identified, and their conserved functional domains and physicochemical properties were also analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The spatiotemporal expression profile of each member of GmSADs was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression vectors of GmSAD5 were constructed. The enzyme activity and biological function of GmSAD5 were examined by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and genetic transformation of oleic acid-deficient yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant BY4389. Results show that the soybean genome contains five GmSAD family members, all encoding an enzyme protein with diiron center and two conservative histidine enrichment motifs (EENRHG and DEKRHE) specific to SAD enzymes. The active enzyme protein was predicted as a homodimer. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that five GmSADs were divided into two subgroups, which were closely related to AtSSI2 and AtSAD6, respectively. The expression profiles of GmSAD members were significantly different in soybean roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds at different developmental stages. Among them, GmSAD5 expressed highly in the middle and late stages of developmental seeds, which coincided with the oil accumulation period. Transient expression of GmSAD5 in tobacco leaves increased the oleic acid and total oil content in leaf tissue by 5.56% and 2.73%, respectively, while stearic acid content was reduced by 2.46%. Functional complementation assay in defective yeast strain BY4389 demonstrated that overexpression of GmSAD5 was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid, resulting in high oil accumulation. Taken together, soybean GmSAD5 has strong selectivity to stearic acid substrates and can efficiently catalyze the biosynthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid. It lays the foundation for the study of soybean seed oleic acid and total oil accumulation mechanism, providing an excellent target for genetic improvement of oil quality in soybean.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases , Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Oleico/biossíntese , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/química , Soja/classificação , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early single-dose treatment with human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes promotes neuroprotection and promotes blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) in swine. The impact of an early single dose of exosomes on late survival (7-day), however, remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the impact of early single-dose exosome treatment on neurologic outcomes, brain lesion size, inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic markers, and mediators of neural plasticity in a 7-day survival model. METHODS: Yorkshire swine were subjected to a severe TBI (8-mm cortical impact) and HS (40% estimated total blood volume). After one hour of shock, animals were randomized (n=4/cohort) to receive either lactated Ringer's (LR; 5mL) or LR + exosomes (LR+EXO; 1 × 10 exosome particles). After an additional hour of shock, animals were resuscitated with normal saline. Daily neurologic severity scores (NSS) were compared. At 7 days following injury, lesion size, inflammatory markers, and mediators of inflammation (NF-κB), apoptosis (BAX), and neural plasticity (BDNF) in brain tissue were compared between groups. RESULTS: Exosome-treated animals had significantly lower NSS (first 4 days; p < 0.05) and faster neurologic recovery. At 7-days, exosome-treated animals had significantly smaller (p < 0.05) brain lesion sizes. Exosome-treated animals also had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18) and higher granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels compared to the control animals, indicating specific impacts on various cytokines. BAX and NF-κB levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in exosome-treated animals, while BDNF levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the exosome-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In a large animal model of TBI and HS, early single-dose exosome treatment attenuates neurologic injury, decreases brain lesion size, inhibits inflammation and apoptosis, and promotes neural plasticity over a seven-day period. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Not applicable (pre-clinical study).

5.
Ann Hum Genet ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853946

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare heritable disease with systemic connective tissue disorder. Most of the patients represent autosomal dominant form of OI, and are usually resulting from the mutations in type I collagen genes. However, the gene mutations reported previously only account for ∼70% of the OI cases. Here, in a Chinese OI family, we examined seven patients and nine normal individuals using the whole genome sequencing and molecular genetic analysis. The mutation of rs66612022 (COL1A2:p.Gly328Ser) related to glycine substitution was found in the seven patients. Moreover, we identified a novel missense mutation (HMMR:p.Glu2Gln). Interestingly, the individuals of this family with both the mutations were suffering from OI, while the others carried one or none of them are normal. The mutations of COL1A2 and HMMR and their combined effect on OI would further expand the genetic spectrum of OI.

6.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692634

RESUMO

Background: Isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) MC1568 and ACY1083 are comparable to the non-selective HDACI valproic acid (VPA) in improving survival in rodents undergoing lethal hemorrhage. However, the organ-specific properties of isoform-specific HDACIs have not been fully evaluated. Also, whether they can act synergistically is not known. We hypothesized that isoform-specific HDACIs are superior to VPA in attenuating intestinal injury and act synergistically when coadministered. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were hemorrhaged (40% of total blood volume) and randomized to receive (n=4 per group) (1) MC1568 (5 mg/kg), (2) ACY1083 (30 mg/kg), (3) MC1568+ACY1083 (combination: 5 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, respectively), (4) VPA (250 mg/kg), or (5) normal saline (NS; vehicle; 250 µL). Animals were observed for 3 hours, after which blood samples were collected and samples of the ileum were harvested. Expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) was assessed in the tissues using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase 3) levels were assessed as a marker of apoptosis, and histologic sections of the ileum were examined for signs of bowel injury. Levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were also measured in the serum as global markers of inflammation. Results: Treatments with MC1568, ACY1083, MC1568+ACY1083, and VPA were associated with decreased IL-1ß levels in the intestine and serum compared with NS. IL-1ß and TNF-α levels were significantly lower in the ACY1083 group compared with the VPA group. CINC-1 levels were significantly lower in the isoform-specific HDACI groups compared with the NS; however, no significant differences were seen with VPA. All treatment groups had a lower expression of intestinal c-caspase 3 compared with NS. Furthermore, MC1568 and ACY1083 groups had lower apoptosis compared with the VPA group. Bowel injury scores were significantly lower in the isoform-specific HDACI groups compared with the NS group; however, the attenuation in the VPA-treated animals did not reach statistical significance. Discussion: Isoform-specific HDACIs provide superior intestinal protection compared with VPA in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. Level of evidence: Preclinical study.

7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(5): 1133-1139, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of death, and traumatic brain injury is one of the hallmark injuries of current military conflicts. Valproic acid (VPA) administration in high doses (300-400 mg/kg) improves survival in lethal trauma models, but effectiveness of lower doses on survival is unknown. This information is essential for properly designing the upcoming clinical trials. We, therefore, performed the current study to determine the lowest dose at which VPA administration improves survival in a model of lethal injuries. METHODS: Swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (10-mm cortical impact), 40% blood volume hemorrhage, and multiple trauma (femur fracture, rectus crush, and Grade V liver laceration). After 1 hour of shock, animals were randomized (n = 6/group) to four groups: normal saline (NS) resuscitation; or NS with VPA doses of 150 mg/kg (VPA 150) or 100 mg/kg (VPA 100) administered over 3 hours or 100 mg/kg over 2 hours (VPA 100 over 2 hours). Three hours after shock, packed red blood cells were given, and animals were monitored for another 4 hours. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. RESULTS: Without resuscitation, all of the injured animals died within 5 hours. Similar survival rates were observed in the NS (17%) and VPA 100 (0%) resuscitation groups. Survival rates in the 100-mg/kg VPA groups were significantly (p < 0.05) better when it was given over 2 hours (67%) compared to 3 hours (0%). 83% of the animals in the VPA 150 group survived, which was significantly higher than the NS and VPA 100 over 3 hours groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A single dose of VPA (150 mg/kg) significantly improves survival in an otherwise lethal model of multiple injuries. This is a much lower dose than previously shown to have a survival benefit and matches the dose that is tolerated by healthy human subjects with minimal adverse effects. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level V.

8.
Curr Mol Med ; 19(9): 673-682, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 inhibitors have demonstrated significant protective effects in traumatic injuries. However, their roles in neuroprotection and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Tubastatin A (Tub-A), an HDAC6 inhibitor, during oxygenglucose deprivation (OGD) in HT22 hippocampal cells. METHODS: HT22 hippocampal cells were exposed to OGD. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Cellular apoptosis was assessed by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Mitochondria membrane potential was detected using JC-1 dye. Expressions of acetylated α-tubulin, α-tubulin, cytochrome c, VDAC, Bax, Bcl- 2, cleaved caspase 3, phosphorylated Akt, Akt, phosphorylated GSK3ß and GSK3ß were analyzed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Tub-A induced acetylation of α-tubulin, demonstrating appropriate efficacy. Tub-A significantly increased cell viability and attenuated LDH release after exposure to OGD. Furthermore, Tub-A treatment blunted the increase in TUNEL-positive cells following OGD and preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential. Tub-A also attenuated the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm and suppressed the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase 3. This was mediated, in part, by the increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3ß signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: HDAC 6 inhibition, using Tub-A, protects against OGD-induced injury in HT22 cells by modulating Akt/GSK3ß signaling and inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214221

RESUMO

Palmitoleic acid (16:1Δ9) is one kind of ω-7 fatty acids (ω-7 FAs) widely used in food, nutraceutical and industry. However, such high-valued ω-7 FA only has a trace level in mature seeds of cotton and other common oil crops. We found that palmitoleic acid (>10.58 Mol%) was specially enriched in developing cotton endosperm which is disappeared in its mature seed. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism underlying high accumulation of palmitoleic acid in developing endosperm but not in embryo of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed. Of 17 stearoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturases (SAD) gene family members identified in upland cotton, six GhSADs may specifically work in the desaturation of palmitic acid (16:0-ACP) to produce palmitoleic acid (16:1Δ9-ACP), which were revealed by examining the key amino acids in the catalytic center and their cis-elements. Gene expression analysis showed that spatial patterns of these GhSADs were different in developing ovules, with GhA-SAD6 and GhD-SAD8 preferentially expressed in developing endosperms. Functional analysis by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and genetic complementary assay using yeast mutant BY4389 strain unable to synthesize unsaturated fatty acids demonstrated that GhA-SAD6 and GhD-SAD8 have strong substrate specificity for 16:0-ACP. In contrast, GhA-SAD5 and GhA-SAD7 exhibited high specific activity on 18:0-ACP. Taken together, these data evidence that GhA-SAD6 and GhD-SAD8 are responsible for making palmitoleic acid in developing cotton endosperms, and provide endogenous gene targets for genetic modification to enrich ω-7 FAs in cotton seed oil required for sustainable production of functionality-valued products.

10.
Exp Ther Med ; 17(5): 3644-3654, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988748

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) treatment has always been challenging for elderly menopausal females. An animal model with a closer genetic association to human OP is essential for treatment research. Given its close genetic association to primates, the tree shrew is a suitable candidate for meeting the requirements for such an animal model. In the present study, a tree shrew OP model induced by ovariectomy (OVX), was established. Evaluation by multiple analysis methods, including blood biochemical indicators, uterus coefficients, micro-computed tomography analysis, histochemical analysis and scanning electron microscopic observation indicated that OVX was an appropriate method to establish the OP model in tree shrews. In addition, the biomolecular characteristics of OVX-induced osteoporosis were also assessed by transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The present study provides the methods used to confirm the successful establishment of the OP model in tree shrew, and suggests that the OP model is appropriate for human OP research.

11.
Oncol Lett ; 17(5): 4683-4694, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988824

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in the head and neck. The aim of the current study was to identify the key pathways and genes involved in NPC through bioinformatics analysis and to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying NPC proliferation and progression. Three gene expression profiles (GSE12452, GSE34573 and GSE64634) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 76 samples were analyzed, of which 59 were NPC samples and 17 were normal samples. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were subsequently conducted. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was constructed using Cytoscape software. Analysis of GSE12452, GSE34573 and GSE64634 datasets identified 1,301 (553 upregulated and 748 downregulated), 1,232 (348 upregulated and 884 downregulated) and 1,218 (555 upregulated and 663 downregulated) DEGs, respectively. Using Venn diagram analysis, 268 DEGs (59 upregulated and 209 downregulated) that intersected all three datasets, were selected for further analysis. The results of GO analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological processes, including 'cell adhesion', 'cell division', 'mitosis' and 'mitotic cell cycle'. The downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in 'microtubule-based movement', 'cilium movement', 'cilium axoneme assembly' and 'epithelial cell differentiation'. The KEGG pathway analysis results revealed that the upregulated DEGs were highly associated with several pathways, including 'extracellular matrix-receptor interaction', 'human papillomavirus infection', 'arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy' and 'focal adhesion', whereas the downregulated DEGs were enriched in 'metabolic pathways', 'Huntington's disease', 'fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis' and 'chemical carcinogenesis'. On the basis of the PPI network of the DEGs, the following top 10 hub genes were identified: Dynein axonemal light intermediate chain 1, dynein axonemal intermediate chain 2, calmodulin 1, coiled-coil domain containing 114, dynein axonemal heavy chain 5, radial spoke head 9 homolog, radial spoke head component 4A, NDC80 kinetochore complex component, thymidylate synthetase and coiled-coil domain containing 39. In conclusion, by performing a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of DEGs, putative targets that could be used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying NPC were identified.

12.
Oncol Rep ; 41(4): 2168-2180, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816522

RESUMO

In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), lymph node (N) metastases are associated with cancer aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Identifying meaningful gene modules and representative biomarkers relevant to the N stage helps predict prognosis and reveal mechanisms underlying tumor progression. The present study used a step­wise approach for weighted gene co­expression network analysis (WGCNA). Dataset GSE65858 was subjected to WGCNA. RNA sequencing data of HNC downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and dataset GSE39366 were utilized to validate the results. Following data preprocessing, 4,295 genes were screened, and blue and black modules associated with the N stage of HNC were identified. A total of 16 genes [keratinocyte differentiation associated protein, suprabasin, cornifelin (CNFN), small proline rich protein 1B, desmoglein 1 (DSG1), chromosome 10 open reading frame 99, keratin 16 pseudogene 3, gap junction protein ß2, dermokine, LY6/PLAUR domain containing 3, transmembrane protein 79, phospholipase A2 group IVE, transglutaminase 5, potassium two pore domain channel subfamily K member 6, involucrin, kallikrein related peptidase 8] that had a negative association with the N­stage in the blue module, and two genes (structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 and mutS homolog 6) that had a positive association in the black module, were identified to be candidate hub genes. Following further validation in TCGA and dataset GSE65858, it was identified that CNFN and DSG1 were associated with the clinical stage of HNC. Survival analysis of CNFN and DSG1 was subsequently performed. Patients with increased expression of CNFN displayed better survival probability in dataset GSE65858 and TCGA. Therefore, CNFN was selected as the hub gene for further verification in the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database. Finally, functional enrichment and gene set enrichment analyses were performed using datasets GSE65858 and GSE39366. Three gene sets, namely 'P53 pathway', 'estrogen response early' and 'estrogen response late', were enriched in the two datasets. In conclusion, CNFN, identified via the WGCNA algorithm, may contribute to the prediction of lymph node metastases and prognosis, probably by regulating the pathways associated with P53, and the early and late estrogen response.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Desmogleína 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Cancer Med ; 8(3): 1197-1208, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741461

RESUMO

Metastasis and invasion are the primary causes of malignant progression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is crucial step of acquisition of "stemness" properties in tumor cells. However, the mechanism of esophageal cancer metastasis remains unclear. This research was designed to explore the role and mechanism of SMAD4 and miR-130a-3p in the progression of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)-induced EMT in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-130a-3p in ESCC cell line and normal esophageal epithelial cell was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression levels of TGF-ß-induced changes in EMT were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Dual-luciferase report assays were used to validate the regulation of miR-130a-3p-SMAD4 axis. The effect of miR-130a-3p and SMAD4 in TGF-ß-induced migration, invasion in the ESCC cell line EC-1 was investigated by wound healing assays and Transwell assays. Here we found that knocked down SMAD4 could partially reverse TGF-ß-induced migration, invasion, and EMT progression in the ESCC cell line EC-1. miR-130a-3p, which directly targets SMAD4, is down-regulated in ESCC. miR-130a-3p inhibits the migration and invasion of EC-1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, miR-130a-3p inhibits TGF-ß-induced EC-1 cell migration, invasion, and EMT progression in a SMAD4-dependent way. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanism underlying ESCC metastasis. The TGF-ß/miR-130a-3p/SMAD4 pathway could be potential targets for clinical treatment of ESCC.

14.
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(3): 265-275, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single-dose (150 mg/kg) of valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to decrease brain lesion size and improve neurologic recovery in preclinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the longer-term (30 days) impact of single-dose VPA treatment after TBI has not been well evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (cortical impact), hemorrhagic shock, and polytrauma. Animals remained in hypovolemic shock for 2 hours before resuscitation with normal saline (NS; volume = 3× hemorrhaged volume) or NS + VPA (150 mg/kg) (n = 5/cohort). Brain samples were harvested 30 days after injuries. The cerebral cortex adjacent to the site of cortical impact was evaluated using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Neural apoptosis, inflammation, degeneration, plasticity, and signaling pathways were evaluated. RESULTS: For apoptosis, VPA treatment significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the number of TUNEL (+) cells and expression of cleaved-caspase 3. For inflammation and degeneration, expression of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1, glial fibrillary acid protein, amyloid-ß, and phosphorylated-Tau protein were significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) in the VPA-treated animals compared with the NS group. For, plasticity, VPA treatment also increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the NS group. For signaling pathways, nuclear factor-κB was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) and cytosolic IκBα expression was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the VPA-treated animals compared with the NS group. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a single dose of VPA (150 mg/kg) can decrease neural apoptosis, inflammation, and degenerative changes, and promote neural plasticity at 30 days after TBI. In addition, VPA acts, in part, via regulation of nuclear factor-κB and IκBα pathways.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 874-880, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal inflammation is a mediator of multiorgan failure in trauma. We have previously shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC6) inhibitors, including ACY1083, improve survival and preserve intestinal tight junction integrity in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, mechanisms leading to this alleviation in intestinal injury remain poorly defined. In this study, we sought to determine whether HDAC6 inhibition by ACY1083 can attenuate intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in rats subjected to HS. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to hemorrhage (40% of total blood volume) followed by intravenous injection of either ACY1083 (30 mg/kg) dissolved in cyclodextrin or cyclodextrin only (vehicle group). Three hours after hemorrhage, blood samples were collected, and small bowel was harvested. Histological effects of ACY1083 on small bowel were examined. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were assessed as a marker for neutrophil infiltration. Whole cell lysates were analyzed for acetylated α-tubulin, metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, TNF-α, IL-6, and cleaved caspase 3 using Western blot. The levels of ADAM17, TNF-α, and IL-6 in serum were also examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: ACY1083 treatment significantly attenuated HS-induced intestinal injury and MPO production. Both systemic and intestinal TNF-α and IL-6 levels were attenuated following ACY1083 administration. Increased acetylation of α-tubulin was observed in rats treated with ACY1083, along with a significantly decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3 following hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of HDAC6 with ACY1083 provides intestinal protection by attenuating both the inflammatory and apoptotic responses during HS.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998291

RESUMO

Sepsis results in millions of deaths every year, with acute lung injury (ALI) being one of the leading causes of mortality in septic patients. As neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are abundant in sepsis, neutralizing components of NETs may be a useful strategy to improve outcomes of sepsis. Citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3) has been recently shown to be involved in the NET formation. In this study, we demonstrate that CitH3 damages human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and potentiates NET formation through a positive feedback mechanism. We developed a novel CitH3 monoclonal antibody to target peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) 2 and PAD 4 generated CitH3. In a mouse model of lethal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced shock, neutralizing CitH3 with the newly developed anti-CitH3 monoclonal antibody attenuates inflammatory responses, ameliorates ALI, and improves survival. Our study suggests that effectively blocking circulating CitH3 might be a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of endotoxemia.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (138)2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199035

RESUMO

Hemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable deaths in trauma. Endovascular management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage has been at the forefront of trauma care in recent years. Since complete aortic occlusion presents serious concerns, the concept of partial aortic occlusion has gained a growing attention. Here, we present a large animal model of hemorrhagic shock to investigate the effects of a novel partial aortic balloon occlusion catheter and compare it with a catheter that works on the principles of complete aortic occlusion. Swine are anesthetized and instrumented in order to conduct controlled fixed-volume hemorrhage, and hemodynamic and physiological parameters are monitored. Following hemorrhage, aortic balloon occlusion catheters are inserted and inflated in the supraceliac aorta for 60 min, during which the animals receive whole-blood resuscitation as 20% of the total blood volume (TBV). Following balloon deflation, the animals are monitored in a critical care setting for 4 h, during which they receive fluid resuscitation and vasopressors as needed. The partial aortic balloon occlusion demonstrated improved distal mean arterial pressures (MAPs) during the balloon inflation, decreased markers of ischemia, and decreased fluid resuscitation and vasopressor use. As swine physiology and homeostatic responses following hemorrhage have been well-documented and are like those in humans, a swine hemorrhagic shock model can be used to test various treatment strategies. In addition to treating hemorrhage, aortic balloon occlusion catheters have become popular for their role in cardiac arrest, cardiac and vascular surgery, and other high-risk elective surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Suínos
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 34(9): 1478-1490, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255682

RESUMO

Enhancing soybean (Glycine max) oil production is crucial to meet the market demand of vegetable oil. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final acylation reaction of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, acting as one of the rate-limiting enzymes for oil biosynthesis in plant seeds. Here, a cDNA clone VgDGAT1A encoding the DGAT1 protein was isolated from the high oil plant Vernonia galamensis. VgDGAT1A was specifically overexpressed in soybean seeds, and several high-generation transgenic lines (T7) were obtained by continuous selection. qPCR analysis showed that VgDGAT1A was highly expressed in the mid-development stage (30-45 DAF) of the transgenic seeds. Accordingly, the DGAT enzyme activity in the transgenic seeds was increased by 7.8 folds in comparison with the wild-type controls. Seed oil and starch contents were, respectively, increased by 5.1% (Dry weight) and reduced by 2%-3% in the transgenic soybeans. Importantly, protein content was not significantly different between transgenic and control seeds. Seed weight and germination rate of the transgenic lines exhibited no negative effect. Fatty acid profiling demonstrated that antioxidant oleic acid (C18:1Δ9) content in the transgenic seed oil was elevated by 8.2% compared to the control, and correspondingly, easily-oxidized linoleic acid (C18:2Δ9,12) and linolenic acid (C18:3Δ9,12,15) were decreased by 6% and 2% respectively. Taken together, seed-specific overexpression of an exogenous VgDGAT1A gene can break the negative linkage of oil and protein contents in soybean seeds, indicating that engineering of this highly-active DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve oil yield and nutritional value in oilseeds.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Soja/genética , Vernonia/genética
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 833: 432-440, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981294

RESUMO

Immune cell death caused by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), referred to as NETosis, can contribute to the pathogenesis of endotoxemia and organ damage. Although the mechanisms by which infection induces NETosis and how that leads to organ dysfunction remain largely unknown, NET formation is often found following citrullination of histone H3 (CitH3) by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD). We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of PAD and subsequent CitH3-mediated NET formation increases endothelial permeability and pulmonary dysfunction and, therefore, that inhibition of PAD can mitigate damage and improve survival in lethal endotoxemia. Here, we showed that treatment with YW3-56, a PAD2/PAD4 inhibitor, significantly diminished PAD activation, blocked LPS-induced pulmonary vascular leakage, alleviated acute lung injury, and improved survival in a mouse model of lethal LPS-induced endotoxemia. We found CitH3 in the bloodstream 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of LPS (35 mg/kg) into mice. Additionally, CitH3 production was induced in cultured neutrophils exposed to LPS, and NETs derived from these LPS-treated neutrophils increased the permeability of endothelial cells. However, YW3-56 reduced CitH3 production and NET formation by neutrophils following LPS exposure. Moreover, treatment with YW3-56 decreased the levels of circulating CitH3 and abolished neutrophil activation and NET formation in the lungs of mice with endotoxemia. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which PAD-NET-CitH3 can play a pivotal role in pulmonary vascular dysfunction and the pathogenesis of lethal endotoxemia.


Assuntos
2-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Endotoxemia/tratamento farmacológico , Histonas/metabolismo , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , 2-Naftilamina/farmacologia , 2-Naftilamina/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Citrulinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Endotoxemia/complicações , Endotoxemia/mortalidade , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microvasos/citologia , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/patologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Inflammation ; 41(6): 2101-2109, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047002

RESUMO

We have found earlier that Tubastatin A (TubA), a selective inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), improves survival in a mouse model of lethal cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully established. This study sought to test the hypothesis that TubA could affect both lung and splenic functions. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to CLP, and randomized to receive either TubA (70 mg/kg) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or DMSO alone, 1 h following CLP. Sham animals acted as control. Twenty-four hours later, lung tissue was harvested for pathological examination, and splenic tissue was harvested for bacterial colonization. In a parallel study, the spleen was collected 48 h following CLP, and single cell suspension was prepared. Splenocytes then underwent flow cytometry to analyze the immune cell population. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without the presence of TubA (10 µM) at 37 °C for 3 h to assess the effect on macrophage phagocytosis. We found that acute lung injury secondary to lethal sepsis was attenuated by TubA. Treatment with TubA restored the percentage of B lymphocytes, and significantly increased percentages of innate immune cells and macrophages compared to the vehicle-treated CLP group. Moreover, TubA significantly decreased the bacterial load in the spleen, and improved the phagocytic ability of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in vitro. Such findings may help to explain the beneficial effects of TubA treatment in a model of lethal sepsis, as previously reported.


Assuntos
Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fagocitose , Punções , Células RAW 264.7 , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/mortalidade , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
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