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1.
Cancer Lett ; 538: 215699, 2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487312

RESUMO

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs)-based therapeutics have been identified to be one of the most promising immunotherapy strategies. However, their target repertoire is mainly restricted to cell surface antigens rather than intracellular antigens, resulting in a relatively limited scope of applications. Intracellular tumor antigens are identified to account for a large proportion of tumor antigen profiles. Recently, bsAbs that target intracellular oncoproteins have raised much attention, broadening the targeting scope of tumor antigens and improving the efficacy of traditional antibody-based therapeutics. Consequently, this review will focus on this emerging field and discuss related research advances. We introduce the classification, characteristics, and clinical applications of bsAbs, the theoretical basis for targeting intracellular antigens, delivery systems of bsAbs, and the latest preclinical and clinical advances of bsAbs targeting several intracellular oncotargets, including those of cancer-testis antigens, differentiation antigens, neoantigens, and other antigens. Moreover, we summarize the limitations of current bsAbs, and propose several potential strategies against immune escape and T cell exhaustion as well as some future perspectives.

2.
Oncologist ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Savolitinib has shown good tolerability and preliminary efficacy, but efficacy biomarkers require investigation. The main purpose of this study was to confirm in Chinese patients the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of savolitinib and to explore overall benefit in tumors bearing c-Met aberration. METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-center, 2-part phase I study. A starting dose of 600 mg QD was initiated in the escalation phase, utilizing a 3+3 design with repeated QD and BID dosing. In the dose expansion phase, we enrolled patients with gastric cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with documented c-met aberration into 5 cohorts to further explore biomarkers. c-Met overexpression and amplification were assessed by immunohistochemistry and FISH, respectively. RESULTS: The safety analysis set included 85 patients. Only one dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 fatigue) was reported in the 600 mg BID dosing group. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were nausea (29.4%), vomiting (27.1%), and peripheral edema (21.2%). Notably, in gastric cancer, response was only observed in patients with MET amplification (copy number 9.7-18.4), with an objective response rate of 35.7% and a disease control rate of 64.3%. For patients with NSCLC bearing a MET exon 14 skipping mutation, obvious target lesion shrinkage was observed in 2 of 4 patients, although PR was not achieved. CONCLUSION: The RP2D of savolitinib was established as 600 mg QD or 500 mg BID in Chinese patients. The promising response observed in patients with gastric cancer with c-met amplification and NSCLC with MET exon 14 skipping mutation warrants further investigation. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT0198555.

3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 190, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoantigens are considered ideal targets for immunotherapy, especially tumor vaccine, because of their strong specificity and immunogenicity. Here, we developed a neoantigen nanovaccine used liposomes with lymph-node targeting characteristic. METHODS: Our nanovaccine was composed of neoantigens, an amphiphilic liposome and an adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 51. Small animal imaging system and immunofluorescence staining were used to identify the distribution of nanovaccines. A subcutaneous-tumor-resection mouse model of melanoma was established to evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy. Flow cytometry was performed to assay the immune responses initiated by nanovaccines. RESULTS: Nanovaccines could traffic to lymph nodes, be uptaken by CD11c+ DCs and promote DCs maturity. After the treatment of our neoantigen nanovaccines, the average recurrence time was extended from 11 to 16 days and the median survival time was even prolonged 7.5 days relative to the control group (NS group). Nanovaccines increased neoantigen-specific T cells to 10-fold of free vaccines, and upregulated Th1 cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. The anti-tumor activity of spleen lymphocytes in the nanovaccine group was significantly stronger than that of other groups. However, some immune-inhibitory cells or molecules in tumor microenvironment have been detected upregulated under the immune pressure of neoantigen nanovaccines, such as Tregs and PD-L1. The efficacy of the neoantigen nanovaccine combined with anti-PD1 antibody or Treg inhibiting peptide P60 was better than that of the single treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a general vaccine strategy, triggering specific T cell responses, and provided feasible combination strategies for better anti-tumor efficacy.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Melanoma , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Imunidade , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfonodos , Melanoma/terapia , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-11, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468048

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among females. As a virus-related cancer, cervical cancer has attracted a lot of attention to develop virus-targeted immune therapy, including vaccine and adoptive immune cell therapy (ACT). Adoptive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cell therapy has been found to be able to control advanced disease progression in some cervical cancer patients who have received several lines of treatment in a pilot clinical trial. In addition, sustainable therapeutic effect has been identified in some cases. The safety risks of TIL therapy for patients are minimal or at least manageable. In this review, we focused on the versatility of TILs and tried to summarize potential strategies to improve the therapeutic effect of TILs and discuss related perspectives.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 799026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273594

RESUMO

Personal neoantigen vaccines are considered to be effective methods for inducing, amplifying and diversifying antitumor T cell responses. We recently conducted a clinical study that combined neoantigen nanovaccine with anti-PD-1 antibody. Here, we reported a case with a clear beneficial outcome from this treatment. We established a process that includes comprehensive identification of individual mutations, computational prediction of new epitopes, and design and manufacture of unique nanovaccines for this patient. Nanovaccine started after a relapse in third-line treatment. We assessed the patient's clinical outcome and circulating immune response. In this advanced pancreatic cancer patient, the OS associated with the vaccine treatment was 10.5 months. A peptide-specific T-cell response against 9 of the 12 vaccine peptides could be detected sequentially. Robust neoantigen-specific T cell responses were also detected by IFN-γ ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining. In conclusion, sustained functional neoantigen-specific T cell therapy combined with immune checkpoint targeting may be well suited to help control progressive metastatic pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Peptídeos , Linfócitos T
6.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 29, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has demonstrated remarkable success in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, while the success has not yet been replicated in solid tumors. To some extent, the disappointing results can be attributed to the paucity and heterogeneity of target antigens in solid tumors since adequate antigens are the cornerstone for CAR-T cells to recognize and attack tumor cells. METHODS: We established a target-redirected universal CAR-T (TRUE CAR-T) cell therapeutic modality, in which exogenous antigens are loaded onto fusogenic nanoparticles to achieve in situ modification of cell membrane in solid tumors, providing targets for subsequent CAR-T cell therapy. The modification effect was evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopic imaging. The in vivo metabolism and biodistribution of fusogenic antigen loaded nanoparticles (F-AgNPs) was explored using near infrared living imaging. Then F-AgNPs mediated in situ antigen modification were cooperated with corresponding CAR-T cell therapy, and its antitumor efficacy was evaluated using immune function experiments and further investigated in different tumor models. RESULTS: Using F-AgNPs, exogenous antigens were selectively modified onto tumor cell membranes through membrane fusion, spread deeper into tumor tissues through intercellular lipid transfer, further activating corresponding CAR-T cells and mediating antitumor immune responses towards multiple types of tumor cells, despite of their inherent antigen profiles. The cooperative treatment of F-AgNPs and CAR-T cell therapy successfully suppressed tumor proliferation and prolonged survival in both subcutaneous and peritoneally disseminated tumor models. CONCLUSION: The fusogenic nanoparticle-based in situ antigen modification overcome the limitation of target antigens paucity and heterogeneity in solid tumors, improving the efficacy and broadening the applications of CAR-T cells, thus establishing a novel TRUE CAR-T cell therapeutic modality with universal application and translational potential in immunotherapies for solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 24(5): 659-670, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230593

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update the latest findings on the impacts of FA metabolism reprogramming on the phenotypes and functions of immune cells in tumor-related immune responses. We also summarize the combinatorial interventions of FA metabolism, which improve the effects of current immunotherapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies have shown that either the abnormality in signaling pathways or nutrition competition in the TME can lead to phenotypic reprogramming of FA metabolism and functional changes in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, thereby influencing the therapeutic effects of cancer immunotherapies. Accordingly, regulating FA metabolism in immune cells has emerged and become promising approaches to synergize with immunotherapies. One of the mechanisms behind suboptimal therapeutic effects of immunotherapies is metabolic reprogramming of the TME that impairs immunosuppressive activity. FA metabolism is a crucial process involved in the survival and function of primary immune cells. It is of great significance to explore the feasibility of overcoming FA metabolic barriers to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia
8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 782730, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299738

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: A phase 2 study LAPACT indicated nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (AG) improved outcomes of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Conventional radiotherapy failed to show benefit, indicating high dose to volume with high risk of recurrence is needed. The high dose can be delivered through hypofractionated tomotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). However, there is a lack of such prospective trials and more data are needed to validate the role of AG plus hypofractionated tomotherapy with SIB in patients with LAPC. Materials and Methods: Patients with LAPC receiving AG plus tomotherapy at the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital between 2018 and 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment was scheduled as follows: nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every three weeks for at least two cycles, followed by hypofractionated tomotherapy with SIB (high dose field: 50 Gy/10 fractions, the remainder: 30 Gy/10 fractions). Then patients were given AG until intolerance or disease progression. Results: Overall, 22 patients completing the chemoradiotherapy were included. The median follow-up was 15.2 months. After the chemoradiotherapy, 5 patients achieved a partial response (PR), 15 had a stable disease (SD), and another 2 patients were with progressive disease (PD). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 12.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-21.3 months) and 16.3 months (95% CI 10.9-21.6 months), respectively. The optimal carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 response and chemotherapy cycles ≥6 were correlated with favorable PFS and OS. The most common recurrent pattern was peritoneal dissemination (22.7%) and the locoregional recurrence rate was relatively low (4.5%). Treatments were well-tolerated. The most common grade ≥3 adverse event was thrombocytopenia (13.6%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of AG followed by hypofractionated tomotherapy with SIB in patients with LAPC. The hypofractionated tomotherapy with SIB was safe and showed high local control rate. Further study with a larger population to validate our data is underway.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor gene AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) and systemic inflammatory response (SIR) have been reported to be related to the sensitivity to immunotherapy. This study intended to explore the relationship between ARID1A expression and SIR, and to further elucidate the prognostic value of ARID1A expression in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression of ARID1A were detected in 272 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues. The data of nine systemic inflammation markers were collected 1 week before gastrectomy. Univariate and multivariate COX analysis were used to screen out independent predictors of GC. RESULTS: Negative expression of ARID1A protein was related to GC with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) (p = 0.033), positive programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) (p = 0.005) and lower albumin level (p = 0.0064). Low expression of ARID1A mRNA was common in GC with abnormal E-cadherin (p = 0.020) and a higher platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (p = 0.0391). Multivariate COX analysis showed that the expression of ARID1A protein (p = 0.023), age (p = 0.004), T stage (p = 0.009) and N stage (p = 0.009) were independent predictors of GC. The nomogram established by independent predictors can accurately evaluate the survival risk of patients with GC. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of ARID1A protein expression was associated with the dMMR subtype and high expression of PD-L1 in GC. Negative ARID1A protein and low expression of mRNA were associated with aberrant systemic inflammatory markers. The expression of ARID1A protein had important prognostic significance in GC.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1417-1427, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133063

RESUMO

Resistance to irradiation (IR) remains a major therapeutic challenge in tumor radiotherapy. The development of novel tumor-specific radiosensitizers is crucial for effective radiotherapy against solid tumors. Here, we revealed that remodeling tumor tissue penetration via tumor-penetrating peptide internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid RGD (iRGD) enhanced irradiation efficacy. The growth of 4T1 and CT26 multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) and tumors was delayed significantly by the treatment with IR and iRGD. Mechanistically, iRGD reduced hypoxia in MCTS and tumors, resulting in enhanced apoptosis after MCTS and tumors were treated with IR and iRGD. This is the first report that shows enhanced radiation efficacy by remodeling tumor-specific tissue penetration with iRGD, implying the potential clinical application of peptides in future tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos , Hipóxia Tumoral , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos , Radioterapia
11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 800484, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211402

RESUMO

Some of the mutant peptides produced by gene mutation transcription and translation have the ability to induce specific T cells, which are called new antigens. Neoantigen-based peptide, DNA, RNA, and dendritic cell vaccines have been used in the clinic. In this paper, we describe a lung metastasis of a phyllodes tumor patient demonstrating pathological complete response following treatment containing personalized multi-epitope peptide neoantigen nano-vaccine. Based on whole-exome sequencing (WES), RNA sequencing, and new antigen prediction, several mutated peptide fragments were predicted to bind to the patient's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotypes, including ten peptides with high predicted binding affinity for six genes. The pulmonary metastases remained stable after the four cycles of anti-PD1 and anlotinib. After the addition of the multi-epitope peptide neoantigen nano-vaccine, the tumor began to collapse and contracture developed, accompanied by a decrease of tumor markers to normal, and complete pathological remission was achieved. With the use of the vaccination, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) was used every time, and low-dose cyclophosphamide was injected every 3 weeks to improve efficacy. Peripheral blood immune monitoring demonstrated immune reactivity against a series of peptides, with the most robust post-vaccine T-cell response detected against the HLA-DRB1*0901-restricted SLC44A5 V54F peptide.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This first-in-human phase 1 trial is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, preliminary efficacy, and biomarkers of sugemalimab, a full-length, fully human anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, in Chinese patients with advanced malignancies. METHODS: Eligible patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic solid tumors or lymphomas were enrolled in phase 1a to receive sugemalimab following a modified 3 + 3 design. The primary endpoints included safety, tolerability, and the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D). In phase 1b, patients with 7 selected types of tumor received sugemalimab at the RP2D alone (monotherapy cohorts) or in combination with standard-of-care (SOC) chemotherapy (combination cohorts). The primary endpoint of phase 1b was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: As of 19 February 2020, 29 and 178 patients were treated in phase 1a and 1b, respectively. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in phase 1a, and the RP2D of sugemalimab was determined as 1200 mg fixed dose once every 3 weeks. Sugemalimab-related adverse events (AEs) were mostly (75.9%) grade 1-2 in phase 1a. Antitumor activity was observed across dose levels with an ORR of 24.1%. In phase 1b, 15.9% and 40.4% of patients in the monotherapy and combination cohorts, respectively, reported grade 3-5 sugemalimab-related AEs. Promising efficacy was observed in all combination cohorts, with ORRs ranging from 47.6 to 75.0%. Exploratory biomarker analysis did not indicate significant differences in responses at different PD-L1 expression/tumor mutation burden levels. CONCLUSIONS: Sugemalimab was well-tolerated and showed promising antitumor activity as monotherapy or in combination with SOC chemotherapy in advanced malignancies. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on Oct 18, 2017, number NCT03312842.

14.
Adv Mater ; 34(10): e2109376, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967049

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in fundamental cellular processes and pathological progression of many diseases. While most research and current knowledge focuses on the processes of biological and mechanical changes in ECM signaling residing cancer cells to respond, little is known of the converse-of how cancer cells initiate the changes of ECM properties. Here, it is reported that blocking the cancer cell signaling leads to disruption of tumor ECM. Using recombinant proteins (RPs) and recombinant protein-drug conjugates (RPDCs) that simultaneously target both epidermal growth factor receptor and integrin, it is demonstrated that multireceptor-mediated active modulation of tumor ECM can inhibit and even reverse tumor remodeling of the physiological and structural microenvironment. These results not only provide insights into the regulatory roles of cancer cells in developing a protumoral microenvironment, but also introduce a new therapeutic platform or strategy to treat cancers.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular , Neoplasias , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(10): e1347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a better response to anti-PD1 immunotherapy. We hypothesised that genetic alterations induced by EBV infection are responsible for the activation of key immune responses and hence are predictive of anti-PD1 efficacy. METHODS: With transcriptome data of gastric cancer (GC), we explored differentially expressed genes (DEGs) specific for EBV infection and performed coexpression network analysis using the DEGs to identify the consistent coexpression genes (CCGs) between EBV-positive and EBV-negative GC tissues. We selected the tag genes of the CCGs and validated them using RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry. We established murine models and collected tissues from clinical patients to test the value of SLAMF8 in predicting anti-PD1 treatment. The location and expression of SLAMF8 were characterised by multiplex immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR. Moreover, exogenous overexpression and RNA-sequencing analysis were used to test the potential function of SLAMF8. RESULTS: We identified 290 CCGs and validated the tag gene SLAMF8 in transcriptome data of gastrointestinal cancer (GI). We observed that the T-cell activation pathway was significantly enriched in high-expression SLAMF8 GI cancers. Higher SLAMF8 expression was positively associated with CD8 expression and a better response to anti-PD1 treatment. We further observed dynamically increased expression of SLAMF8 in murine models relatively sensitive to anti-PD1 treatment. SLAMF8 was mainly expressed on the surface of macrophages. Exogenous overexpression of SLAMF8 in macrophages resulted in enrichment of positive regulation of multiple immune-related pathways. CONCLUSION: Higher SLAMF8 expression may predict better anti-PD1 immunotherapy efficacy in GI cancer.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 693386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, chemotherapy remains the only effective treatment of unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In the past few years, the interest in immunological anticancer therapy rises sharply. AGIG is a novel chemo-immunotherapy regimen that combines nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine chemotherapy with sequential recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy. We conducted a single-arm prospective phase II study to determine the efficacy and safety of the first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with AGIG regimen. METHODS: Nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) were administered intravenously to all patients on days 1 and 8 triweekly, interleukin-2 (1000000U) and GM-CSF (100 µg) were administered subcutaneously on days 3-5 after chemotherapy. The primary end point was ORR by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary end points included safety profile, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS). Patients' conditions along with the efficacy and safety were assessed every two cycles. RESULTS: Between 11/2018 and 01/2020, sixty-four patients were enrolled. In the sixty-four evaluable patients, the disease control rate (DCR) and overall response rate (ORR) were 76.6% and 43.75%, respectively. The median follow-up time was 12.1 (range 7.1-22.4) months. The median PFS was 5.7 (range 1.63-15.8) months. The median OS was 14.2 (range 2.9-22.0) months. The most common adverse event was fever (75%). The incidence of III/IV grade neutropenia was 4.69%. In subgroup analyses, we found that eosinophil count in the blood elevated three times higher than baseline level predicted a longer survival. CONCLUSIONS: The AGIG chemo-immunotherapy regimen has presented favorable ORR, OS, and manageable toxicities as first-line therapeutic strategy of advanced pancreatic cancer treatment. This regimen may be a novel reliable therapeutic option for patients with preserved performance status. The improvement of treatment efficiency may be related to the activation of non-specific immune response. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/. identifier NCT03768687.

17.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(12): 1015-1024, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the global phase 3 RAINBOW study, ramucirumab plus paclitaxel significantly improved overall survival compared with placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. RAINBOW-Asia, a bridging study with similar design to RAINBOW, aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel for advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma in Asian, predominantly Chinese, patients. METHODS: RAINBOW-Asia was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 32 centres in China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Adult patients (≥18 years) with metastatic or locally advanced, unresectable gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma who previously received fluoropyrimidine-platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned with a centralised interactive web response system in a 2:1 ratio to receive ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo intravenously on days 1 and 15 plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle. Randomisation was stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and presence of peritoneal metastases. The co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety analysis included patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02898077, and has been completed. FINDINGS: Between March 2, 2017, and June 30, 2020, 440 patients were randomly assigned to receive ramucirumab plus paclitaxel (n=294) or placebo plus paclitaxel (n=146). Median progression-free survival was 4·14 months (95% CI 3·71-4·30) in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group compared with 3·15 months (2·83-4·14) in the placebo plus paclitaxel group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·765, 95% CI 0·613-0·955, p=0·0184). Median overall survival was 8·71 months (95% CI 7·98-9·49) in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group and 7·92 months (6·31-9·10) in the placebo plus paclitaxel group (HR 0·963, 95% CI 0·771-1·203, p=0·7426). The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (159 [54%] of 293 patients in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group vs 56 [39%] of 145 in the placebo plus paclitaxel group), decreased white blood cell count (127 [43%] vs 42 [29%]), anaemia (46 [16%] vs 24 [17%]), hypertension (21 [7%] vs nine [6%]), and febrile neutropenia (18 [6%] vs one [<1%]). INTERPRETATION: These findings, along with the results from RAINBOW, support the use of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel as second-line therapy in a predominantly Chinese population with advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company, USA. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Segurança , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 401, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poorly cohesive (PC) is a unique histologic subtype of gastric cancer (GC), with an increasing incidence in recent years. However, the molecular characteristics and therapeutic targets of PC GC are not yet well studied and there are no effective therapies for these patients. METHODS: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of 556 GC patients, including 64 PC GC, were collected for next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical characteristics and genomic profiling were analyzed. FGFR2 expression was detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). FGFR2 inhibitors response was studied in vitro. RESULTS: Among 556 GC patients, PC GC patients were younger (P = 0.004), had lower tumor mutation burden (TMB-L) (P = 0.001) than non-PC GC. The top 10 most frequently mutated genes in PC GC were TP53 (48%), CDH1 (31%), ARID1A (14%), FGFR2 (14%), ERBB2 (9%), CDKN2A (9%), FGF3 (8%), LRP1B (9%), FGF19 (8%) and FGF4 (8%). Noticeably, FGFR2 is more frequently mutated than non-PC GC (14% vs. 6%, P = 0.037), including copy number variants (CNVs, 12.5%) and gene rearrangements (3.1%, FGFR2/VTI1A and FGFR2/TACC2). Former studies have confirmed that gain of copy number could increase FGFR2 expression and sensitivity to FGFR2 inhibitors in GC. However, no research has verified the function of FGFR2 rearrangements in GC. Our results showed that cell lines of GC transfected with TACC2-FGFR2 fusion had increased mRNA and protein expression of FGFR2, and were more sensitive to FGFR2 inhibitors. FGFR2 inhibitors might be a new therapeutic target for PC GC. In addition, we found patients of PC GC harboring gene rearrangements (n = 9) had poorer overall survival (OS) in comparison with patients without any gene rearrangement (n = 19) (16.0 months vs 21.0 months, P = 0.043). Gene rearrangement might be an adverse prognostic factor for PC GC patients. CONCLUSIONS: FGFR2 alterations were recurrent in PC GC and FGFR2 inhibitors might be a new therapeutic target for PC GC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas de Transporte , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
19.
Cancer Sci ; 112(11): 4490-4500, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537997

RESUMO

Various cancer vaccines have been developed to generate and amplify antigen-specific T cell responses against malignancy. Among them, in situ vaccination is one of the most practical types as it can trigger immune responses without previous antigen identification. Here we reported a novel in situ vaccine by intratumoral injection of imiquimod and OX40 agonist. In mice bearing hepatic carcinoma, both the injected tumor and the noninjected tumor in the distant lesion of the same mice were suppressed after vaccination. Further studies found that this in situ vaccine triggered systemic tumor-specific responses, with one-fold increase of effector memory T cells properties and stronger toxicity of lymphocytes in spleen. Besides, we found that imiquimod upregulated the expression of OX40 on CD4+ T cells and thus enhanced the effectiveness of OX40 agonist. Five immune-positive-related pathways were activated after vaccination. This in situ vaccine caused little harm to normal organs and provided long-term protection against the same syngeneic tumor rechallenge. Due to its effectiveness, feasibility and safety, this strategy could potentially be applied to various types of late-stage solid tumors and worthy of further clinical research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores OX40/agonistas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Imiquimode/administração & dosagem , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Injeções Intralesionais/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
20.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 9(4): 339-349, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC) have a genetic predisposition toward the disease. However, there is scant knowledge regarding germline mutations in predisposing genes in the Chinese GC population. This study aimed to determine the spectrum and distribution of predisposing gene mutations among Chinese GC patients known to have hereditary high-risk factors for cancer. METHODS: A total of 40 GC patients from 40 families were recruited from seven medical institutions in China. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 171 genes associated with cancer predisposition. For probands carrying pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants, Sanger sequencing was applied to validate the variants in the probands as well as their relatives. RESULTS: According to sequencing results, 25.0% (10/40) of the patients carried a combined total of 10 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants involving nine different genes: CDH1 (n = 1), MLH1 (n = 1), MSH2 (n = 1), CHEK2 (n = 1), BLM (n = 1), EXT2 (n = 1), PALB2 (n = 1), ERCC2 (n = 1), and SPINK1 (n = 2). In addition, 129 variants of uncertain significance were identified in 27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that approximately one in every four Chinese GC patients with hereditary high risk factors may harbor pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline alterations in cancer-susceptibility genes. The results further indicate a unique genetic background for GC among Chinese patients.

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