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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131683, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351278

RESUMO

Butachlor being an important member of chloroacetanilide herbicides, is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Exposure to butachlor can induce cancer, human lymphocyte aberration, and immunotoxic effects in animals. The current experimental trial was executed to determine the potential risks of herbicide butachlor to immunotoxicity and its mechanism of adverse effects on the spleen. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 8 mg/kg butachlor for 28 days, and the toxicity of butachlor on the spleen of mice was evaluated. We found that butachlor exposure led to an increase in serum ALB, GLU, TC, TG, and TP and changes in the morphological structure of the spleen of mice. More importantly, results showed that butachlor significantly increased the expression level of ATG-5, decreased the protein expression of LC3B and M-TOR, and significantly decreased the mRNA content of M-TOR and p62. Results revealed that the mRNA contents of APAF-1, CYTC, and CASP-9 related genes were significantly decreased after butachlor treatment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10) were reduced in the spleen of treated mice. This study suggested that butachlor induce spleen toxicity and activate the immune response of spleen tissue by targeting the CYTC/BCL2/M-TOR pathway and caspase cascading activation of spleen autophagy and apoptosis pathways which may ultimately lead to immune system disorders.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Baço
2.
Toxicology ; 462: 152957, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537261

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin is frequently detected in different food products and has been widely studied for its toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxic effects, relationship between gut microbiome and liver metabolite mediated hepatotoxicity mechanisms induced by ZEN are still not clear. Here, we reported that the different microscopic changes like swelling of hepatocyte, disorganization of hepatocytes and extensive vacuolar degeneration were observed, and the mitochondrial functions decreased in exposed mice. Results exhibited up-regulation in expression of signals of apoptosis and autophagy in liver of treated mice via mitochondrial apoptotic and autophagy pathway (Beclin1/p62). The diversity of gut microbiome decreased and the values of various microbiome altered in treated mice, including 5 phyla (Chloroflexi, Sva0485, Methylomirabilota, MBNT15 and Kryptonia) and genera (Frankia, Lactococcus, Anaerolinea, Halomonas and Sh765B-TzT-35) significantly changed. Liver metabolism showed that the concentrations of 91 metabolite including lipids and lipid like molecules were significantly changed. The values of phosphatidylcholine, 2-Lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidate concentrations suggestive of abnormal glycerophosphate metabolism pathway were significantly increased in mice due to exposure to ZEN. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the disorders in gut microbiome and liver metabolites due to exposure to ZEN in mice may affect the liver.

3.
Org Lett ; 23(18): 7199-7204, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468147

RESUMO

Rhodium(III)-catalyzed annulation of 2-biphenylboronic acids with three classes of activated alkenes has been realized, leading to the synthesis of fused or bridged cyclic skeletons via transmetalation-initiated C-H activation. In the annulative coupling of 2-biphenylboronic acid with a CF3-substituted enone, the bulky cyclopentadienyl ligand (CptBu) in the catalyst proved effective to promote the reductive elimination process prior to protonolysis, affording the [4 + 2] annulated products instead of the simple 1,4-addition product. Seven-membered rings were obtained when disubstituted cyclopropenones were employed. Bridged cycles were isolated from the coupling of 2-biphenylboronic acid with benzoquinones as a result of 2-fold Michael additions. The substrate scopes were found to be broad with up to 99% yield under air-tolerant conditions.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 712092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475863

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with multiple gastrointestinal diseases, but information regarding the gut microbial alternations in diarrheic giraffe remains scarce. Here, 16S rDNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing were conducted to investigate the gut microbial composition and variability in diarrheic giraffes. Results demonstrated that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla in the gut bacterial community, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were observed to be predominant in the gut fungal community regardless of health status. However, the species and relative abundance of preponderant bacterial and fungal genera in healthy and diarrheic giraffes were different. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community displayed a significant decrease in the alpha diversity, accompanied by distinct changes in taxonomic compositions. Bacterial taxonomic analysis revealed that the relative abundances of eight phyla and 12 genera obviously increased, whereas the relative abundances of two phyla and eight genera dramatically decreased during diarrhea. Moreover, the relative richness of five fungal genera significantly increased, whereas the relative richness of seven fungal genera significantly declined in diarrheic giraffes. Taken together, this study demonstrated that diarrhea could cause significant alternations in the gut microbial composition of giraffes, and the changes in the gut bacterial community were more significant than those in the gut fungal community. Additionally, investigating the gut microbial characteristics of giraffes in different health states is beneficial to provide a theoretical basis for establishing a prevention and treatment system for diarrhea from the gut microbial perspective.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(67): 8268-8271, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323257

RESUMO

Chiral RhIII catalysts can catalyze the asymmetric [4+1] spiroannulation of O-pivaloyl oximes with α-diazo homophthalimides under redox-neutral and acid/base-neutral conditions, leading to formation of chiral spirocyclic imines as a result of C-H activation and N-O cleavage. The reaction proceeded with high efficiency and features broad substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, and high to excellent enantioselectivities.

6.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131226, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146870

RESUMO

Butachlor is a systemic herbicide widely applied on wheat, rice, beans, and different other crops, and is frequently detected in groundwater, surface water, and soil. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the potential adverse health risks and the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to butachlor in invertebrates, other nontarget animals, and public health. For this reason, a total of 20 mice were obtained and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental mice in one group were exposed to butachlor (8 mg/kg) and the mice in control group received normal saline. The liver tissues were obtained from each mice at day 21 of the trial. Results indicated that exposure to butachlor induced hepatotoxicity in terms of swelling of hepatocyte, disorders in the arrangement of hepatic cells, increased concentrations of different serum enzymes such as alkaline phosphate (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The results on the mechanisms of liver toxicity indicated that butachlor induced overexpression of Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Cyt-c, p53, Beclin-1, ATG-5, and LC3, whereas decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and p62 suggesting abnormal processes of apoptosis and autophagy. Results on different metabolites (61 differential metabolites) revealed upregulation of PE and LysoPC, whereas downregulation of SM caused by butachlor exposure in mice led to the disruption of glycerophospholipids and lipid metabolism in the liver. The results of our experimental research indicated that butachlor induces hepatotoxic effects through disruption of lipid metabolism, abnormal mechanisms of autophagy, and apoptosis that provides new insights into the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in mice induced by butachlor.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas/toxicidade , Animais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Camundongos
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55140-55153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128171

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal which is being used widely in the industry and agriculture. However, the overuse of Cu makes it a common environmental pollutant. In order to investigate the testicular toxicity of Cu, the pigs were divided into three groups and were given Cu at 10 (control), 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The feeding period was 80 days. Serum hormone results showed that Cu exposure decreased the concentrations of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and increased the concentration of thyroxine (T4). Meanwhile, Cu exposure upregulated the expression of Cu transporter mRNA (Slc31a1, ATP7A, and ATP7B) in the testis, leading to increase in testicular Cu and led to spermatogenesis disorder. The Cu exposure led to an increased expression of antioxidant-related mRNA (Gpx4, TRX, HO-1, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, CAT), along with increase in the MDA concentration in the testis. In LG group, the ROS in the testis was significantly increased. Furthermore, the apoptotic-related mRNA (Caspase3, Caspase8, Caspase9, Bax, Cytc, Bak1, APAF1, p53) and protein (Active Caspase3) and the autophagy-related mRNA (Beclin1, ATG5, LC3, and LC3B) expression increased after Cu exposure. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the testicular tissue decreased, while the number of apoptotic cells increased, as a result of oxidative stress. Overall, our study indicated that the Cu exposure promotes testicular apoptosis and autophagy by mediating oxidative stress, which is considered as the key mechanism causing testicular degeneration as well as dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cobre , Testículo , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
9.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130222, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794430

RESUMO

Fluorine (F) and its compounds produced from industrial production and coal combustion can cause air, water and soil contamination, which can accumulate in animals, plants and humans via food chain threatening public health. Fluoride exposure affects liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and reproductive system in humans and animals. Literature regarding fluoride influence on intestinal structure and microbiota composition in ducks is scarce. This study was designed to investigate these effects by using simple and electron microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated an impaired structure with reduced relative distribution of goblet cells in the fluoride exposed group. Moreover, the gut microbiota showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla in both control and fluoride-exposed groups. Specifically, fluoride exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 9 bacterial phyla and 15 bacterial genera. Among them, 4 phyla (Latescibacteria, Dependentiae, Zixibacteria and Fibrobacteres) and 4 genera (Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Reyranella and Arenimonas) weren't even detectable in the gut microbiota of the ducks. In summary, higher fluoride exposure can significantly damage the intestinal structure and gut microbial composition in ducks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Patos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8871328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532499

RESUMO

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an effective substrate for mitochondrial energy metabolism and is known to prevent neurodegeneration and attenuate heavy metal-induced injury. In this study, we investigated the function of ALC in the recovery of mouse spermatogonia cells (GC-1 cells) after heat stress (HS). The cells were randomly divided into three groups: control group, HS group (incubated at 42°C for 90 min), and HS + ALC group (treatment of 150 µM ALC after incubated at 42°C for 90 min). After heat stress, all of the cells were recovered at 37°C for 6 h. In this study, the content of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cell supernatant and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was markedly decreased, while the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase3) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. Furthermore, the number of autophagosomes and the expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Beclin1, and LC3II) and protein levels of p62 were increased, but the expression of LAMP1 was decreased in the HS group compared to the CON group. However, treatment with ALC remarkably improved cell survival and decreased cell oxidative stress. It was unexpected that levels of autophagy were markedly increased in the HS + ALC group compared to the HS group. Taken together, our present study evidenced that ALC could alleviate oxidative stress and improve the level of autophagy to accelerate the recovery of GC-1 cells after heat stress.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/citologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129572, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485040

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), a bio accumulative herbicide is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Due to continuous application, atrazine persists in the environment and causes deleterious impacts including neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and gut microbiota disorders. Therefore, this study for the first time reports the variation in the gut microbiota, induction of process of apoptosis and autophagy in mice induced by ATR. Results indicated that TUNEL-positive hepatocytes suggestive of apoptosis were increased in livers of different experimental mice. Results on metabolic analysis in liver tissues indicated an overall change in seventy-six metabolites particularly Uridine 5'-diphosphate, Propenoylcarnitine and Chinenoside V resulting in generation of energy-related metabolic disorders and imbalance of oxidation/autoxidation status. Results on gut microbiome inquisition showed that ATR changed the richness and diversity of gut microbiota of mice and number of Firmicutes. Moreover, results also revealed that ATR induced apoptosis via disruption of apoptotic (Bax, Bcl2, and Casp3) and autophagy (LC3/Map1lc3a, Beclin 1/Becn1 and P62/Sqstm1) genes. Results of our experimental study confirmed that changes in gut microbiota play a significant role in process of gut immune regulation and inflammation via different metabolites. In conclusion, the findings of our study provide a new idea for the involvement of mechanisms of detoxification in liver and inquisition of gut microbiota plays crucial role in regulation of physiological activities through liver-gut axis to mitigate toxic effects in animals.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Herbicidas , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Autofagia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Camundongos
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(15): 8391-8395, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331025

RESUMO

Reported herein is the rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of anilines bearing an N-isoquinolyl directing group for oxidative [3+2] annulation with four classes of internal alkynes, leading to atroposelective indole synthesis via dynamic kinetic annulation with C-N reductive elimination constituting the stereo-determining step. This reaction proceeds under mild conditions with high regio- and enantioselectivity and functional group compatibility.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(15): 8396-8400, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331137

RESUMO

Desymmetrization of gem-dimethyl groups en route to the rhodium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective sp3 C-H amidation is reported. Synthetically important ß-amino alcohol derivatives were accessed in moderate to good yields and high enantioselectivity. The high enantioselectivity is enabled by an appropriate oxime directing group, sterically biased gem-groups in the C-H substrate, and high reactivity of the amidating reagent.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(100): 15631-15634, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283807

RESUMO

Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H acylation of heteroarenes has been realized using cyclobutenones as an acylating reagent. This coupling proceeded via integration of C-H activation of heteroarenes and C-C cleavage of cyclobutenones. The reaction features excellent regio/chemoselectivity leading to versatile chalcones with exclusive E-selectivity.

15.
Org Lett ; 22(19): 7475-7479, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903007

RESUMO

The rhodium(III)-catalyzed coupling of C-H substrates with iodonium ylides has been realized for the efficient synthesis of diverse cyclic skeletons, where the iodonium ylides have been identified as efficient and outstanding carbene precursors. The reaction systems are applicable to both sp2 and sp3 C-H substrates under mild and redox-neutral conditions. The catalyst loading can be as low as 0.5 mol % in a gram-scale reaction. Representative products exhibit cytotoxicity toward human cancer cells at nanomolar levels.

16.
Org Lett ; 22(2): 438-442, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887052

RESUMO

Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling between acrylic acids and yndienones has been realized for the synthesis of cis-hydrobenzofuranone. The reaction proceeded in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity under mild and redox-neutral conditions via a sequence of carboxylic acid-directed olefinic C-H activation, alkyne insertion, and Michael addition. Representative products were found to exhibit cytotoxicity toward the A549 cancer cell line at micromolar levels.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110063, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846860

RESUMO

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that can cause male reproductive malfunctions and is widely distributed in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced GC-1 spermatogonial (spg) cells. Our results found that ATO increased the levels of catalase (CAT) and malonaldehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), while decreasing glutathione (GSH) and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Therefore, ATO triggered oxidative stress in GC-1 spg cells. In addition, ATO also caused severe mitochondrial dysfunction that included an increase in residual oxygen consumption (ROX), and decreased the routine respiration, maximal and ATP-linked respiration (ATP-L-R), as well as spare respiratory capacity (SRC), and respiratory control rate (RCR); ATO also damaged the mitochondrial structure, including mitochondrial cristae disordered and dissolved, mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, degradation of p62, LC3 conversion, increasing the number of acidic vesicle organelles (AVOs) and autophagosomes and autolysosomes are demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ATO may be associated with autophagy. Meanwhile, the metabolomics analysis results showed that 20 metabolites (10 increased and 10 decreased) were significantly altered with the ATO exposure, suggesting that maybe there are the perturbations in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins. We concluded that ATO was toxic to GC-1 spg cells via inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy as well as the disruption of normal metabolism. This study will aid our understanding of the mechanisms behind ATO-induced spermatogenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/enzimologia , Espermatogônias/metabolismo
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 610781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665171

RESUMO

Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) are indigenous to the Tibetan Plateau and display a high diarrhea rate due to poor habitat and husbandry conditions. Lactobacillus has been shown to exert beneficial effects as antimicrobial, growth promotion, and gut microbiota in humans and/or murine models, but the relevant data regarding Lactobacillus isolated from yaks was unavailable. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus from yaks on the intestinal microbial community in a mouse model and determine whether Lactobacillus supplementation contributed in alleviating diarrhea by modulating gut microbiota. A total of 12 ileac samples from four groups were collected for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results revealed that although Lactobacillus supplementation did not change the diversity of gut microbiota in mice, the proportion of some intestinal microbiota significantly changed. Specifically, the proportion of Lactobacillus and Sphingomonas in the Lactobacillus treated-group (L-group) were increased as compared to control group (C-group), whereas Pantoea, Cutibacterium, Glutamicibacter, Turicibacter, Globicatella, Microbacterium, Facklamia, unidentified_Corynebacteriaceae, Brachybacterium, and Staphylococcus were significantly decreased in the L-group. In contrast, Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection significantly decreased the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as Globicatella, Acinetobacter, Aerococcus, and Comamonas, while loads of pathogenic bacteria significantly increased including Roseburia and Megasphaera. Interestingly, Lactobacillus administration could ameliorate the microbial community structure of E. coli-induced diarrheal mice by reducing the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Paenibacillus, Aerococcus, Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Facklamia, and Globicatella. Results in this study revealed that Lactobacillus supplementation not only improved the gut microbiota but also alleviated diarrhea in mice, which may be mediated by modulating the composition and function of gut microbiota. Moreover, this study is expected to provide a new theoretical basis for the establishment of a preventive and treatment system for diarrhea in yaks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli , Lactobacillus , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10764-10767, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432805

RESUMO

Mn(i)-Catalyzed synthesis of seven- or eight-membered carbocycles is disclosed via C-H activation of heteroarenes and coupling with alkyne-functionalized 1,3-cyclopentadiones or 1,3-cyclohexadiones. This n to n + 2 (n = 5, 6) ring expansion reaction proceeded via a C-H alkenylation/carbonyl addition/retro-Aldol cascade. Structurally diverse mid-sized carbocycles were constructed via cleavage of both C-H and C-C bonds in a single operation.

20.
Chem Sci ; 10(14): 3987-3993, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015939

RESUMO

Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds have a profound impact on human health. Despite the numerous synthetic methods, diversified, step-economic, and general synthesis of heterocycles remains limited. C-H bond functionalization catalyzed by rhodium(iii) cyclopentadienyls has proven to be a powerful strategy in the synthesis of diversified heterocycles. Herein we describe rhodium(iii)-catalyzed sp2 and sp3 C-H activation-oxidative annulations between aromatic substrates and 1,3-enynes, where alkenyl-to-allyl 1,4-rhodium(iii) migration enabled the generation of electrophilic rhodium(iii) π-allyls via remote C-H functionalization. Subsequent nucleophilic trapping of these species by various sp2-hybridized N-nucleophiles delivered three classes (external salts, inner salts, and neutral azacycles) of five-membered azacycles bearing a tetrasubstituted saturated carbon center, as a result of [4 + 1] annulation with the alkyne being a one-carbon synthon. All the reactions proceeded under relatively mild conditions with broad substrate scope, high efficiency, and excellent regioselectivity. The synthetic applications of this protocol have also been demonstrated, and experimental studies have been performed to support the proposed mechanism.

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