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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 739964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659307

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in fruit development and ripening in non-climacteric fruit. A variety of metabolites such as sugars, anthocyanins, fatty acids, and several antioxidants, which are regulated by various phytohormones, are important components of fruit quality in grape. Here, grape cultivar "Ruiduhongyu" was used to investigate the relationship between endogenous phytohormones and metabolites associated to grape berry quality under exogenous ABA treatment. 500 mg/L ABA significantly improved the appearance parameters and the content of many metabolites including sugar, anthocyanin, and other compounds. Exogenous ABA also increased the contents of ABA, auxin (IAA), and cytokinins (CTKs), and transcription level of ABA biosynthesis and signaling related genes in fruit. Furthermore, a series of genes involved in biosynthesis and the metabolite pathway of sugars, anthocyanins, and fatty acids were shown to be significantly up-regulated under 500 mg/L ABA treatment. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that there existed relatively strong cooperativities in the ABA/kinetin (KT)-appearance parameters, ABA/IAA/KT-sugars, ABA/indolepopionic acid (IPA)/zeatin riboside (ZR)-anthocyanins, and gibberellin 3 (GA3)/methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-fatty acids, indicating that 13 kinds of endogenous phytohormones induced by ABA had different contributions to the accumulation of quality-related metabolites, while all of them were involved in regulating the overall improvement of grape fruit quality. These results laid a primary foundation for better understanding that exogenous ABA improves fruit quality by mediating the endogenous phytohormones level in grape.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 698835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490096

RESUMO

Background: Neuronal activity regulated by synaptic communication exerts an important role in tumorigenesis and progression in brain tumors. Genes for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) annotated with the function 'vesicle' about synaptic connectivity were identified, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), one of those proteins, was found to have discrepant expression levels in neuropathies. However, the specific mechanism and prognostic value of SNAP25 during glioma progression remain unclear. Methods: Using RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the differential synaptosis-related genes between low grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) were identified as highly correlated. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and survival analysis were used to differentiate the outcome of low- and high-risk patients, and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohort was used for validation of the data set. RT-qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry assays were performed to examine the expression level of SNAP25 in glioma cells and samples. Functional assays were performed to identify the effects of SNAP25 knockdown and overexpression on cell viability, migration, and invasion. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics approach was presented for identifying crucial metabolic disturbances in glioma cells. In situ mouse xenograft model was used to investigate the role of SNAP25 in vivo. Then, an immunofluorescence assay of the xenograft tissue was applied to evaluate the expression of the neuronal dendron formation marker-Microtubule Associated Protein 2 (MAP2). Results: SNAP25 was decreased in level of expression in glioma tissues and cell lines, and low-level SNAP25 indicated an unfavorable prognosis of glioma patients. SNAP25 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and fostered glutamine metabolism of glioma cells, exerting a tumor suppressor role. Overexpressed SNAP25 exerted a lower expression level of MAP2, indicating poor neuronal plasticity and connectivity. SNAP25 could regulate glutaminase (GLS)-mediated glutaminolysis, and GLS knockdown could rescue the anti-tumor effect of SNAP25 in glioma cells. Moreover, upregulated SNAP25 also decreased tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival (OS) of the xenograft mouse. Conclusion: SNAP25, a tumor suppressor inhibited carcinogenesis of glioma via limiting glutamate metabolism by regulating GLS expression, as well as inhibiting dendritic formation, which could be considered as a novel molecular therapeutic target for glioma.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to quantify preoperative myocardial fibrosis using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), extracellular volume fraction (ECV%), and indexed extracellular volume (iECV) on cardiac magnetic resonance; determine whether this varies following surgery; and examine the impact on postoperative outcomes. BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis complicates chronic severe primary mitral regurgitation and is associated with left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. It is not known if this nonischemic fibrosis is reversible following surgery or if it affects ventricular remodeling and patient outcomes. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was conducted among 104 subjects with primary mitral regurgitation undergoing mitral valve repair. Cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing were performed preoperatively and ≥6 months after surgery. Symptoms were assessed using the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire. RESULTS: Mitral valve repair was performed for Class 2a indications in 65 patients and Class 1 indications in 39 patients. Ninety-three patients were followed up at 8.8 months (interquartile range: 7.4 months-10.6 months). Following surgery, there were significant reductions in both ECV% (from 27.4% to 26.6%; P = 0.027) and iECV (from 17.9 to 15.4 mL/m2; P < 0.001), but the incidence of LGE was unchanged. Neither preoperative ECV% nor LGE affected postoperative function, but iECV predicted left ventricular end-systolic volume index (ß = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.58; P < 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (ß = -0.61; 95% CI: -1.05 to -0.18; P = 0.006). Patients with above-median iECV of ≥17.6 mL/m2 had significantly larger postoperative values of left ventricular end-systolic volume index (30.5 ± 12.7 mL/m2 vs 23.9 ± 8.0 mL/m2; P = 0.003), an association that remained significant in subcohort analyses of patients in New York Heart Association functional class I. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral valve surgery results in reductions in ECV% and iECV, which are surrogates of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and preoperative iECV predicts the degree of postoperative remodeling irrespective of symptoms. (The Role of Myocardial Fibrosis in Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation; NCT02355418).

4.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 9969372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457008

RESUMO

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable complication of liver surgery and liver transplantation. Hepatocyte apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathological process of hepatic IRI. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to repair and regenerate damaged tissues by producing bioactive factors, including cytokines, exosomes, and extracellular matrix components, which collectively form the secretome of these cells. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of the ADSCs secretome after liver ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy in miniature pigs. We successfully established laparoscopic liver ischemia-reperfusion with partial hepatectomy in miniature pigs and injected saline, DMEM, ADSC-secretome, and ADSCs directly into the liver parenchyma immediately afterwards. Both ADSCs and the ADSC-secretome improved the IR-induced ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes and significantly decreased the proportion of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells along with caspase activity. Consistent with this, P53, Bax, Fas, and Fasl mRNA and protein levels were markedly decreased, while Bcl-2 was significantly increased in the animals treated with ADSCs and ADSC-secretome. Our findings indicate that ADSCs exert therapeutic effects in a paracrine manner through their secretome, which can be a viable alternative to cell-based regenerative therapies.

5.
Ecohealth ; 18(1): 3-12, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212260

RESUMO

Chytridiomycosis, a leading cause for the global decline in the number of amphibians, is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. In this study, global distribution data of B. dendrobatidis were collected from January 2009 to May 2019. Space-time scan statistics and the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model were used to analyze the epidemic trends and aggregation of the pathogen, and predict B. dendrobatidis distribution through its relationships with climate factors, wind speed, and solar radiation. The results of space-time scan statistics show seven clusters of data for the distribution of B. dendrobatidis. The time was mainly concentrated in 2009, 2013, 2015, and 2016, and the regions were primarily concentrated in southeastern Canada, southwestern France, Nigeria, Cameroon, eastern Brazil, southeastern Brazil, central Madagascar, and central and eastern Australia. MaxEnt showed that annual precipitation had the largest contribution percentage in the model, and annual mean temperature highly influenced the distribution of B. dendrobatidis. The global high-risk areas of B. dendrobatidis distribution were mainly observed in western Canada, southern Brazil, Chile, the United Kingdom, Japan, the Republic of Korea, eastern South Africa, eastern Madagascar, southeastern Australia, and southern China.

6.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207742

RESUMO

Cell proliferation in early embryos by rapid cell cycles and its abrupt pause after a stereotypic number of divisions present an attractive system to study the timing mechanism in general and its coordination with developmental progression. In animals with large eggs, such as Xenopus, zebrafish, or Drosophila, 11-13 very fast and synchronous cycles are followed by a pause or slowdown of the cell cycle. The stage when the cell cycle is remodeled falls together with changes in cell behavior and activation of the zygotic genome and is often referred to as mid-blastula transition. The number of fast embryonic cell cycles represents a clear and binary readout of timing. Several factors controlling the cell cycle undergo dynamics and gradual changes in activity or concentration and thus may serve as temporal gradients. Recent studies have revealed that the gradual loss of Cdc25 protein, gradual depletion of free deoxyribonucleotide metabolites, or gradual depletion of free histone proteins impinge on Cdk1 activity in a threshold-like manner. In this review, we will highlight with a focus on Drosophila studies our current understanding and recent findings on the generation and readout of these temporal gradients, as well as their position within the regulatory network of the embryonic cell cycle.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(1): 016802, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270277

RESUMO

We use a pump-probe scheme to measure the time evolution of the C K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum from CO/Ru(0001) after excitation by an ultrashort high-intensity optical laser pulse. Because of the short duration of the x-ray probe pulse and precise control of the pulse delay, the excitation-induced dynamics during the first picosecond after the pump can be resolved with unprecedented time resolution. By comparing with density functional theory spectrum calculations, we find high excitation of the internal stretch and frustrated rotation modes occurring within 200 fs of laser excitation, as well as thermalization of the system in the picosecond regime. The ∼100 fs initial excitation of these CO vibrational modes is not readily rationalized by traditional theories of nonadiabatic coupling of adsorbates to metal surfaces, e.g., electronic frictions based on first order electron-phonon coupling or transient population of adsorbate resonances. We suggest that coupling of the adsorbate to nonthermalized electron-hole pairs is responsible for the ultrafast initial excitation of the modes.

8.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21748, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152016

RESUMO

Although adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hADSC) transplantation has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic modality for Parkinson's disease (PD), its underlying mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the therapeutic effects of stereotaxic injection of hADSCs in the striatum of the 6-OHDA-induced mouse model. Furthermore, an in vitro PD model was constructed using tissue-organized brain slices. The therapeutic effect was also evaluated using a co-culture of the hADSCs and 6-OHDA-treated brain slice. The analysis of hADSC exocrine proteins using RNA-sequencing, human protein cytokine arrays, and label-free quantitative proteomics identified key extracellular factors in the hADSC secretion environment. The degeneration and apoptosis of the dopaminergic neurons were measured in the PD samples in vivo and in vitro, and the beneficial effects were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, Fluoro-Jade C, TUNEL assay, and immunofluorescence analysis. This study found that hADSCs protected the dopaminergic neurons in the in vivo and vitro models. We identified Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as a key extracellular factor in the hADSC secretion environment. Moreover, we found that human recombinant PTX3 (rhPTX3) treatment could rescue the pathophysiological behavior of the PD mice in vivo, prevent dopaminergic neuronal death, and increase neuronal terminals in the ventral tegmental area + substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum in the PD brain slices in vitro. Furthermore, testing of the pro-apoptotic markers in the PD mouse brain following rhPTX3 treatment revealed that rhPTX3 can prevent apoptosis and degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons. This study discovered that PTX3, a hADSC-secreted protein, potentially protected the dopaminergic neurons against apoptosis and degeneration during PD progression and improved motor performance in PD mice, indicating the possible mechanism of action of hADSC replacement therapy for PD. Thus, our study discovered potential translational implications for the development of PTX3-based therapeutics for PD.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Oncol Lett ; 22(2): 607, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188709

RESUMO

Tumor-derived exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) serve a vital biological role in tumorigenesis and development, but the effects and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the impact of exosomal miR-433 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and understand its mechanism of action in NSCLC progression, the present study isolated the exosomes from the plasma of patients with NSCLC after chemotherapy and found that miR-433 expression was lower in plasma of patients with resistant NSCLC compared with in plasma of patients with sensitive NSCLC and in normal serum. Additionally, miR-433 expression was markedly negatively associated with a large tumor size, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage and a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. miR-433 inhibited tumor growth by blocking the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo, as well as by promoting apoptosis and T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, miR-433 inhibited chemoresistance to cisplatin by regulating DNA damage. Moreover, miR-433 inactivated the WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathway by targeting transmembrane p24 trafficking protein 5 in NSCLC. Overall, the current findings may provide a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for patients with NSCLC.

10.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 24: 768-779, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996258

RESUMO

N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification in eukaryotic cells, and it regulates RNA transcription, processing, splicing, degradation, and translation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as transcriptional products with no or limited protein coding ability more than 200 nt in length, play an important role in epigenetic modification, mRNA transcription, splicing, stability, translation, and other biological functions. Extensive studies have shown that both m6A modification and lncRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as kinds of cancers, heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, periodontitis, human abdominal aortic aneurysm, and obesity. To date, m6A modification has been identified as an important biological function in enrichment and regulation of lncRNAs. In this review, we summarize the role of m6A modification in the regulation and function of tumor-related lncRNAs. Moreover, we discuss the potential applications and possible future directions in the field.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(19): 22708-22716, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960785

RESUMO

Void formation at the Li/ceramic electrolyte interface of an all-solid-state battery on discharge results in high local current densities, dendrites on charge, and cell failure. Here, we show that such voiding is reduced at the Li/Li6PS5Cl interface at elevated temperatures, sufficient to increase the critical current before voiding and cell failure from <0.25 mA cm-2 at 25 °C to 0.25 mA cm-2 at 60 °C and 0.5 mA cm-2 at 80 °C under a relatively low stack-pressure of 1 MPa. Increasing the stack-pressure to 5 MPa and temperature to 80 °C permits stable cycling at 2.5 mA cm-2. It is also shown that the charge-transfer resistance at the Li/Li6PS5Cl interface depends on pressure and temperature, with relatively high pressures required to maintain low charge-transfer resistance at -20 °C. These results are consistent with the plastic deformation of Li metal dominating the performance of the Li anode, posing challenges for the implementation of solid-state cells with Li anodes.

12.
Nat Mater ; 20(8): 1121-1129, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888903

RESUMO

Lithium dendrite (filament) propagation through ceramic electrolytes, leading to short circuits at high rates of charge, is one of the greatest barriers to realizing high-energy-density all-solid-state lithium-anode batteries. Utilizing in situ X-ray computed tomography coupled with spatially mapped X-ray diffraction, the propagation of cracks and the propagation of lithium dendrites through the solid electrolyte have been tracked in a Li/Li6PS5Cl/Li cell as a function of the charge passed. On plating, cracking initiates with spallation, conical 'pothole'-like cracks that form in the ceramic electrolyte near the surface with the plated electrode. The spallations form predominantly at the lithium electrode edges where local fields are high. Transverse cracks then propagate from the spallations across the electrolyte from the plated to the stripped electrode. Lithium ingress drives the propagation of the spallation and transverse cracks by widening the crack from the rear; that is, the crack front propagates ahead of the Li. As a result, cracks traverse the entire electrolyte before the Li arrives at the other electrode, and therefore before a short circuit occurs.

13.
Opt Express ; 29(7): 11009-11020, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820222

RESUMO

Lens aberrations degrade the image quality and limit the viewing angle of light-field displays. In the present study, an approach to aberration reduction based on a pre-correction convolutional neural network (CNN) is demonstrated. The pre-correction CNN is employed to transform the elemental image array (EIA) generated by a virtual camera array into a pre-corrected EIA (PEIA). The pre-correction CNN is built and trained based on the aberrations of the lens array. The resulting PEIA, rather than the EIA, is presented on the liquid crystal display. Via the optical transformation of the lens array, higher quality 3D images are obtained. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed through simulations and optical experiments. A 70-degree viewing angle light field display with the improved image quality is demonstrated.

14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 218, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is inevitable in complicated liver surgery and is a major factor leading to postoperative complications and liver dysfunction. Studies have shown that the paracrine mechanisms of stem cell may be essential to tissue repair and functional improvement after transplantation. However, the role of the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell secretome (ASC-secretome) in liver regeneration in large animals remains to be determined. METHODS: Twenty-four miniature pigs were subjected to laparoscopic liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy and divided into the following four groups: the saline group, the DMEM group, the ASC group and the ASC-secretome group. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected before the operation and at 1, 3 and 7 days after the operation, and changes in tissue pathology, serum inflammation, liver function, angiogenesis-related factors and liver tissue regeneration-related genes and proteins were evaluated. RESULTS: Detailed histological analysis showed that ASCs and the ASC-secretome changed pathological damage to liver tissue after liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01). Compared with the saline and DMEM control groups, the ASC-secretome group had significantly reduced expression levels of ALP (1 and 3 days: p < 0.05), ALT (1 day: p < 0.01; 3 days: p < 0.05) and AST (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01), which promoted the recovery of liver function. Moreover, detection of the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß (1 day: p < 0.01; 3 days: p < 0.05), IL-6 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.05) and IL-10 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01) in serum confirmed that the ASC-secretome had obvious anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, the ASC-secretome increased the expression levels of ANG-1 (3 days: p < 0.01), ANG-2 (3 and 7 days: p < 0.01) and VEGF (1 and 7 days: p < 0.05; 3 days: p < 0.01) and promoted angiogenesis during liver regeneration. Moreover, it promoted the mRNA expression of HGF and Cyclin D1 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01); increased the levels of p-STAT3 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01), PCNA and Ki67 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01; 7 days: p < 0.05); inhibited the negative feedback of SOCS3 (1 and 3 days: p < 0.01); and decreased the mRNA expression of TGF-ß (3 days: p < 0.01). The cytokines and growth factors detected in the ASC-secretome included TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, ANG-1, ANG-2, VEGF and b-FGF. CONCLUSION: The ASC-secretome alleviates the inflammatory response induced by ischaemia-reperfusion combined with partial hepatectomy in miniature pigs and promotes liver regeneration.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Hepatectomia , Isquemia , Fígado , Regeneração Hepática , Reperfusão , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
15.
Opt Express ; 29(5): 7435-7452, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726245

RESUMO

Time-multiplexed light-field displays (TMLFDs) can provide natural and realistic three-dimensional (3D) performance with a wide 120° viewing angle, which provides broad potential applications in 3D electronic sand table (EST) technology. However, current TMLFDs suffer from severe crosstalk, which can lead to image aliasing and the distortion of the depth information. In this paper, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of crosstalk in TMLFD systems are identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the specific structure of the slanted lenticular lens array (LLA) and the non-uniformity of the emergent light distribution in the lens elements are the two main factors responsible for the crosstalk. In order to produce clear depth perception and improve the image quality, a novel ladder-type LCD sub-pixel arrangement and a compound lens with three aspheric surfaces are proposed and introduced into a TMLFD to respectively reduce the two types of crosstalk. Crosstalk simulation experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed methods. Structural similarity (SSIM) simulation experiments and light-field reconstruction experiments also indicate that aliasing is effectively reduced and the depth quality is significantly improved over the entire viewing range. In addition, a tabletop 3D EST based on the proposed TMLFD is presented. The proposed approaches to crosstalk reduction are also compatible with other lenticular lens-based 3D displays.

17.
Biochem Genet ; 59(3): 799-812, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538926

RESUMO

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is an emerging novel pestivirus causing the congenital tremor (CT) in piglets. The worldwide distribution characteristic of APPV make it a threat to global swine health. E2 is the major envelope glycoprotein of APPV and the crucial target for vaccine development. Considering the genetic variability of APPV complete genomes and its E2 gene as well as gaps for codon analysis, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage patterns was performed. Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and effective number of codon (ENC) analyses showed that a relatively instable change existed and a slight low codon usage bias (CUB) were displayed in APPV genomes. ENC-plot analysis and correlation analyses of nucleotide compositions and ENC showed that mutation pressure and natural selection both affected the codon usage bias of the APPV and natural selection had a more obvious influence for E2 gene compared with complete genomes. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analyses confirmed the above results. Correlation analyses between Gravy and Aromaticity values and the codon bias showed that natural selection played an important role in shaping the synonymous codon bias. Furthermore, neutrality plot analysis showed that natural selection was the main force while mutation pressure was a minor force influencing the codon usage pattern of the APPV E2 gene and complete genomes. The results could illustrate the codon usage patterns of APPV genomes and provided valuable basic data for further fundamental research of evolution of APPV.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Genoma Viral , Pestivirus/genética , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Mutação
19.
Arch Virol ; 166(1): 157-165, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125585

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric pathogen belonging to the family Coronaviridae that causes the porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious disease with high mortality in piglets and symptoms that include dehydration and severe diarrhea. Considering the high frequency of genetic mutations in PEDV and its potential for interspecies transmission, as it can infect and replicate in bat and human cells, a comprehensive analysis of its codon usage bias was performed. The effective number of codons (ENC) and the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) were determined, revealing codon usage bias in the PEDV genome. Principal component analysis (PCA), an ENC plot, and a parity rule 2 (PR2) plot showed that mutation pressure and natural selection have influenced the codon usage bias of the PEDV genomes. Correlation analysis with GRAVY and aromaticity values and neutrality plot analysis indicated that natural selection was the main force influencing the codon usage pattern, while mutation pressure played a minor role. This study provides valuable basic data for further fundamental research on evolution of PEDV.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon/genética , Códon/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Suínos
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 445-457, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568445

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease. Since its first outbreak in 1930, RVF epidemics have caused huge economic losses and public health impacts in Africa. In 2000, RVF became a disease of global concern as it spread to the Arabian Peninsula. In our study, a Geographic Information System-based risk assessment for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever in China was established by means of ecological niche modelling. Based on occurrence records (RVF records from FAO EMPRES-i, vector records from literatures and GBIF) and high-resolution environmental layers, the prediction maps of RVF occurrence probability and distribution of five potential RVF vectors in China were modelled using Maxent. An internal validation was adopted for model verification, and high AUC values were obtained (0.918 for RVF and 0.837-0.992 for vectors). By overlaying the RVF prediction map with the combined RVF vector prediction map using Fuzzy overlay tool ('AND' operator) of ArcMap 10.2, we got the first risk map of possible RVF vector transmission. This map was further overlaid with the latest livestock distribution map ('AND' operator) to generate the second risk map of possible RVF threat to domestic livestock. The south-west border provinces in China, Yunnan, Guangxi and Tibet were predicted to have a high possibility of RVF occurrence. Conditions conducive to the local amplification of RVF also exist in these areas. Temperature seasonality, mean temperature of dry season and precipitation of the driest month were considered as key environmental variables for RVF, and common environmental conditions were found conductive for vectors. It is suggested to establish proper surveillance systems in south-west border areas to minimize the possibility of RVF invasion. Our findings can serve as a valuable reference for prevention measures to be implemented.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Culicidae , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Epidemias , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tibet
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