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1.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 291, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetracentron sinense is an endemic and endangered deciduous tree. It belongs to the Trochodendrales, one of four early diverging lineages of eudicots known for having vesselless secondary wood. Sequencing and resequencing of the T. sinense genome will help us understand eudicot evolution, the genetic basis of tracheary element development, and the genetic diversity of this relict species. RESULTS: Here, we report a chromosome-scale assembly of the T. sinense genome. We assemble the 1.07 Gb genome sequence into 24 chromosomes and annotate 32,690 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses verify that the Trochodendrales and core eudicots are sister lineages and showed that two whole-genome duplications occurred in the Trochodendrales approximately 82 and 59 million years ago. Synteny analyses suggest that the γ event, resulting in paleohexaploidy, may have only happened in core eudicots. Interestingly, we find that vessel elements are present in T. sinense, which has two orthologs of AtVND7, the master regulator of vessel formation. T. sinense also has several key genes regulated by or regulating TsVND7.2 and their regulatory relationship resembles that in Arabidopsis thaliana. Resequencing and population genomics reveals high levels of genetic diversity of T. sinense and identifies four refugia in China. CONCLUSIONS: The T. sinense genome provides a unique reference for inferring the early evolution of eudicots and the mechanisms underlying vessel element formation. Population genomics analysis of T. sinense reveals its genetic diversity and geographic structure with implications for conservation.

2.
New Phytol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253431

RESUMO

Phenylpropanoid metabolism represents a substantial metabolic sink for the photosynthetically fixed carbon. The evolutionarily conserved Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1) is a major metabolic sensor that reprograms metabolism upon carbon deprivation. However, it is not clear if and how SnRK1-mediated sugar signaling pathway controls phenylpropanoid metabolism. Here, we show that Arabidopsis SnRK1 negatively regulates phenylpropanoid biosynthesis via a group of Kelch domain-containing F-Box (KFB) proteins that are responsible for the ubiquitination and degradation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Down-regulation of AtSnRK1 significantly promoted the accumulation of soluble phenolics and lignin polymers and drastically increased PAL cellular accumulation but only slightly altered its transcription level. Co-expression of SnRK1α with PAL in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the severe attenuation of the latter's protein level, but protein interaction assays suggested PAL is not a direct substrate of SnRK1. Furthermore, up- or down-regulation of AtSnRK1 positively affected KFB PALs gene expression, and energy starvation upregulated KFB PAL expression, which partially depends on AtSnRK1. Collectively, our study reveals that SnRK1 negatively regulates phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and KFBPALs act as regulatory components of the SnRK1 signaling network, transcriptionally regulated by SnRK1 and subsequently mediating proteasomal degradation of PAL in response to the cellular carbon availability.

3.
Plant Physiol ; 184(4): 1731-1743, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023939

RESUMO

During the course of evolution of land plants, different classes of flavonoids, including flavonols and anthocyanins, sequentially emerged, facilitating adaptation to the harsh terrestrial environment. Flavanone 3ß-hydroxylase (F3H), an enzyme functioning in flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis and a member of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) family, catalyzes the hydroxylation of (2S)-flavanones to dihydroflavonols, but its origin and evolution remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that functional flavone synthase Is (FNS Is) are widely distributed in the primitive land plants liverworts and evolutionarily connected to seed plant F3Hs. We identified and characterized a set of 2-ODD enzymes from several liverwort species and plants in various evolutionary clades of the plant kingdom. The bifunctional enzyme FNS I/F2H emerged in liverworts, and FNS I/F3H evolved in Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens and Selaginella moellendorffii, suggesting that they represent the functional transition forms between canonical FNS Is and F3Hs. The functional transition from FNS Is to F3Hs provides a molecular basis for the chemical evolution of flavones to flavonols and anthocyanins, which contributes to the acquisition of a broader spectrum of flavonoids in seed plants and facilitates their adaptation to the terrestrial ecosystem.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609403

RESUMO

Herein we report the synthesis, structure solution, and catalytic properties of PST-24, a novel channel-based medium-pore zeolite. This zeolite was synthesized via the excess fluoride approach. Electron diffraction shows that its structure is built by composite cas-zigzag (cas-zz) building chains, which are connected by double 5-ring (d5r) columns. While the cas-zz building chains are ordered in the PST-24 framework, the d5r columns adopt one of two possible arrangements; the two adjacent d5r columns are either at the same height or at different heights, denoted arrangements S and D, which can be regarded as open and closed valves that connect the channels, respectively. A framework with arrangement D only has a 2D 10-ring channel system, whereas that with arrangement S only contains 3D channels. In actual PST-24 crystals, the open and closed valves are almost randomly dispersed to yield a zeolite framework where the channel dimensionality varies locally from 2D to 3D.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 295(32): 11337-11345, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527722

RESUMO

Δ9 fatty acyl desaturases introduce a cis-double bond between C9 and C10 of saturated fatty acyl chains. From the crystal structure of the mouse stearoyl-CoA desaturase (mSCD1) it was proposed that Tyr-104, a surface residue located at the distal end of the fatty acyl binding pocket plays a key role in specifying 18C selectivity. We created mSCD1-Y104G to test the hypothesis that eliminating this bulky side chain would create an opening and permit the substrate's methyl end to protrude through the enzyme into the lipid bilayer, facilitating the desaturation of very-long-chain (VLC) substrates. Consistent with this hypothesis, Y104G acquired the ability to desaturate 24C and 26C acyl-CoAs while maintaining its Δ9-regioselectivity. We also investigated two distantly related very-long-chain fatty acyl (VLCFA) desaturases from Arabidopsis, ADS1.2 and ADS1.4, which have Ala and Gly, respectively, in place of the gatekeeping Tyr found in mSCD1. Substitution of Tyr for Ala and Gly in ADS1.2 and ADS1.4, respectively, blocked their ability to desaturate VLCFAs. Further, we identified a pair of fungal desaturase homologs which contained either an Ile or a Gly at this location and showed that only the Gly-containing desaturase was capable of very-long-chain desaturation. The conserved desaturase architecture wherein a surface residue with a single bulky side chain forms the end of the substrate binding cavity predisposes them to single amino acid substitutions that enable a switch between long- and very-long-chain selectivity. The data presented here show that such changes have independently occurred multiple times during evolution.

6.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 154-168, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408530

RESUMO

Plants produce several hundreds of thousands of secondary metabolites that are important for adaptation to various environmental conditions. Although different groups of secondary metabolites are synthesized through unique biosynthetic pathways, plants must orchestrate their production simultaneously. Phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates are two classes of secondary metabolites that are synthesized through apparently independent biosynthetic pathways. Genetic evidence has revealed that the accumulation of glucosinolate intermediates limits phenylpropanoid production in a Mediator Subunit 5 (MED5)-dependent manner. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this process, we analyzed the transcriptomes of a suite of Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate-deficient mutants using RNAseq and identified misregulated genes that are rescued by the disruption of MED5. The expression of a group of Kelch Domain F-Box genes (KFBs) that function in PAL degradation is affected in glucosinolate biosynthesis mutants and the disruption of these KFBs restores phenylpropanoid deficiency in the mutants. Our study suggests that glucosinolate/phenylpropanoid metabolic crosstalk involves the transcriptional regulation of KFB genes that initiate the degradation of the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first step of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. Nevertheless, KFB mutant plants remain partially sensitive to glucosinolate pathway mutations, suggesting that other mechanisms that link the two pathways also exist.

7.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(10): 1147-1154, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Developing a dynamic regulation strategy is an essential step in establishing an automatic control system for manipulating metabolic fluxes and cellular behaviors. To broaden the extent of the application, a system that can generally control any gene of interest is demanded. RESULTS: Through characterization and optimization, the strategy repressed the immediate expression incrementally from 0 to 90% during culturing. Moreover, by changing single base pair in the lux box of the Plux promoter, the degree of repression of the target genomic gene was tuned to a difference of 70%. This strategy is expected to control metabolic flux without disrupting cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: We engineered bacterial small RNA to develop a pathway-independent strategy that can dynamically repress the expression of any gene at the posttranscription level.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Percepção de Quorum , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/biossíntese
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214217

RESUMO

Cytokinins (CKs) are a group of mobile adenine derivatives that act as chemical signals regulating a variety of biological processes implicated in plant development and stress responses. Their synthesis, homeostasis, and signaling perception evoke complicated intracellular traffic, intercellular movement, and in short- and long-distance translocation. Over nearly two decades, subsets of membrane transporters have been recognized and implicated in the transport of CKs as well as the related adenylates. In this review, we aim to recapitulate the key progresses in exploration of the transporter proteins involved in cytokinin traffic and translocation, discuss their functional implications in the cytokinin-mediated paracrine and long-distance communication, and highlight some knowledge gaps and open issues toward comprehensively understanding the molecular mechanism of membrane transporters in controlling spatiotemporal distribution of cytokinin species.

9.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 15-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213247

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), an α-herpesvirus targeting avian species, causes fatal Marek's disease (MD) in chickens. The host interferon (IFN) responses play a key role in resisting viral infection. However, host IFN responses following MDV infection in the chicken central immune organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius), which contain numerous MDV target cells, is poorly understood. In this study, we performed animal experiments in specific pathogen-free chickens infected with two virulent MDV strains (BS/15 and Md5) or without infection as negative controls. Specifically, the type I IFN (IFN-α and IFN-ß) transcriptional and proteomic expression levels at 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days post infection (dpi) were detected and analyzed. Our results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-α and IFN-ß in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were mainly downregulated in cytolytic infection (such as 10 dpi) and reactivation (such as 17 dpi) stages, but not the latent (such as 14 dpi) stage of MDV infection, which was determined by comprehensively analyzing the MDV viral load and immune organ damage caused by MDV infection. These data suggest that MDV could inhibit the expression of host type I IFNs, which may be involved in the MDV-induced host immunosuppression and contribute to the immune escape of MDV from host immunity. Furthermore, we found that the downregulated expression of the host type I IFNs induced by BS/15 and Md5 infection was significantly different, which we speculated may be related to the diverse virulence and pathogenicity of MDV strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MDV mostly inhibited the expression of type I IFNs in infected hosts, which may be associated to its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas , Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2 , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Timo/imunologia , Carga Viral , Virulência
10.
Plant Cell ; 31(6): 1344-1366, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962392

RESUMO

Angiosperms have evolved the metabolic capacity to synthesize p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin subunits in their cell walls to better adapt to the harsh terrestrial environment. The structural characteristics of lignin subunits are essentially determined by three cytochrome P450-catalzyed reactions. NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is commonly regarded as the electron carrier for P450-catalyzed reactions during monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we show that cytochrome b 5 isoform D (CB5D) is an indispensable electron shuttle protein specific for S-lignin biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CB5D localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and physically associates with monolignol P450 enzymes. Disrupting CB5D in Arabidopsis resulted in a >60% reduction in S-lignin subunit levels but no impairment in G-lignin formation compared with the wild type, which sharply contrasts with the impaired G- and S-lignin synthesis observed after disrupting ATR2, encoding Arabidopsis CPR. The defective S-lignin synthesis in cb5d mutants was rescued by the expression of the gene encoding CB5D but not with mutant CB5D devoid of its electron shuttle properties. Disrupting ATR2 suppressed the catalytic activity of both cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), but eliminating CB5D specifically depleted the latter's activity. Therefore, CB5D functions as an obligate electron shuttle intermediate that specifically augments F5H-catalyzed reactions, thereby controlling S-lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocromos b/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Citocromos b/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(19): 6271-6275, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884064

RESUMO

Electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR) with renewable electricity is a potentially sustainable method to reduce CO2 emissions. Palladium supported on cost-effective transition-metal carbides (TMCs) are studied to reduce the Pd usage and tune the activity and selectivity of the CO2 RR to produce synthesis gas, using a combined approach of studying thin films and practical powder catalysts, in situ characterization, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Notably, Pd/TaC exhibits higher CO2 RR activity, stability and CO Faradaic efficiency than those of commercial Pd/C while significantly reducing the Pd loading. In situ measurements confirm the transformation of Pd into hydride (PdH) under the CO2 RR environment. DFT calculations reveal that the TMC substrates modify the binding energies of key intermediates on supported PdH. This work suggests the prospect of using TMCs as low-cost and stable substrates to support and modify Pd for enhanced CO2 RR activity.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(10)2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304854

RESUMO

Due to the dispersive and multimode natures, only nonlinear Lamb waves with exact phase-velocity matching were generally used in previous studies to evaluate the evenly distributed microstructural evolution in the incipient stage of material degradation, because of the cumulative generation of second harmonics, which was also found within a significant propagation distance for mode pair S0-s0 with quasi phase-velocity matching at low frequency. To explore the feasibility of fatigue damage evaluation by using this mode pair and fully utilize its unique merits, the cumulative second harmonic analysis was performed on aluminum alloy specimens with various material damage produced by the continuous low cycle fatigue tests. Similar to mode pair S1-s2 with exact phase-velocity matching, a mountain shape curve between the normalized acoustic nonlinearity parameter and the fatigue life was also achieved with the peak point at about 0.65 fatigue life for mode pair S0-s0, even though a relatively higher sensitivity to fatigue damage was observed for mode pair S1-s2. The excited frequency selection was further analyzed in a certain frequency range, where the quasi phase-velocity matching condition was satisfied for mode pair S0-s0 owing to the less dispersive property. Results show that the fatigue damage can be effectively detected using the mode pair S0-s0, and a relatively lower excited frequency was preferred due to its higher sensitivity to microstructural evolution.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 293(51): 19844-19853, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348899

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have important industrial, physiological, and nutritional properties. Plants use the sequential activities of FAD2 and FAD3 desaturases to convert 18:1Δ9 to the important PUFA 18:3Δ9,12,15, whereas the fungus Fusarium verticillioides 7600 uses the bifunctional desaturase Fm1 for both reactions. Here, we used a combination of sequence comparisons, structural modeling, and mutagenesis experiments to investigate Fm1's regioselectivity and identified two functionally relevant clusters of residues that contribute to Fm1 activity. We found that cluster I (Leu153, Phe157, and His194), located near the catalytic iron ions, predominantly affects activity, whereas cluster II (Tyr280, His284, and Leu287), located in a helix forming the entrance to the substrate-binding pocket, mainly specifies 15-desaturation. Individual or combined substitutions of cluster II residues substantially reduced 15-desaturation. The combination of F157W from cluster I with Y280L, H284V, and L287T from cluster II created an increased-activity variant that almost completely lost the ability to desaturate at C15 and acted almost exclusively as a 12-desaturase. No variants were identified in which 15-desaturation occurred in the absence of 12-desaturation. Fm1 displayed only traces of activity with C16 substrate, but several cluster I variants exhibited increased activity with both 18:1 and 16:1 substrates, converting 16:1Δ9 to 16:3Δ9,12,15, consistent with Fm1 performing sequential v + 3 desaturation reactions at C12 and then C15. We propose that cluster II residues interact with the substrate headgroup when the acyl chain contains both Δ9 and Δ12 double bonds, in which case C15 becomes positioned adjacent to the di-iron site enabling a second v + 3 desaturation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/química , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(25): 21321-21327, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856210

RESUMO

Pt-based materials are the most efficient catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. However, fabrication of active and stable Pt catalysts still remains challenging. In this work, Pt-l-phenylalanine (Pt-LPHE) films, with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles (NPs) featuring predominately (111) facets, have been prepared via a room-temperature electron reduction method. Loading Pt-LPHE onto carbon support produces a novel nanomaterial (Pt-AL/C), resulting in a simultaneous loading of highly dispersed Pt NPs and N doping. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the N dopants stabilize the Pt NPs and reduce the *O/*OH binding energies on the Pt NPs. As a result, the Pt-AL/C nanomaterial shows significantly enhanced ORR activity and stability over commercial Pt/C after 10 000 cycle stability tests. This work provides a novel eco-friendly and energy-neutral approach for preparing metal NPs with controllable structures and sizes.

15.
Ultrasonics ; 90: 18-22, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902663

RESUMO

The feasibility of fatigue damage evaluation has been investigated using nonlinear Lamb waves with group-velocity mismatching. To choose an efficient mode pair, a parameter is proposed to quantify the efficiency of cumulative second-harmonic generation (SHG) of Lamb waves based on the normal modal analysis. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify the proposed parameter, which demonstrates that whether the matching condition of group velocity is satisfied or not, the efficiency of cumulative SHG increases with the order of Lamb mode for the five low-order Lamb waves investigated. Then, S3-s6 mode pair with group-velocity mismatching is chosen to characterize the fatigue damage of an aluminium alloy for the high efficiency of cumulative SHG. Results show that S3-s6 mode pair is sensitive to fatigue damage evolution and the integrated amplitude of second harmonics increases by nearly 300% with fatigue cycles. Nonlinear Lamb waves with group-velocity mismatching are validated to be a candidate to efficiently evaluate the fatigue damage.

16.
Nat Plants ; 4(5): 299-310, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725099

RESUMO

Lignin is a complex and irregular biopolymer of crosslinked phenylpropanoid units in plant secondary cell walls. Its biosynthesis requires three endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, C4H, C3'H and F5H, to establish the structural characteristics of its monomeric precursors. These P450 enzymes were reported to associate with each other or potentially with other soluble monolignol biosynthetic enzymes to form an enzyme complex or a metabolon. However, the molecular basis governing such enzyme or pathway organization remains elusive. Here, we show that Arabidopsis membrane steroid-binding proteins (MSBPs) serve as a scaffold to physically organize monolignol P450 monooxygenases, thereby regulating the lignin biosynthetic process. We find that although C4H, C3'H and F5H are in spatial proximity to each other on the ER membrane in vivo, they do not appear to directly interact with each other. Instead, two MSBP proteins physically interact with all three P450 enzymes and, moreover, MSBPs themselves associate as homomers and heteromers on the ER membrane, thereby organizing P450 clusters. Downregulation of MSBP genes does not affect the transcription levels of monolignol biosynthetic P450 genes but substantially impairs the stability and activity of the MSBP-interacting P450 enzymes and, consequently, lignin deposition, and the accumulation of soluble phenolics in the monolignol branch but not in the flavonoid pathway. Our study suggests that MSBP proteins are essential structural components in the ER membrane that physically organize and stabilize the monolignol biosynthetic P450 enzyme complex, thereby specifically controlling phenylpropanoid-monolignol branch biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estabilidade Proteica , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
17.
Chemosphere ; 204: 359-370, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674148

RESUMO

The present study uses nanometer-scale synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence to investigate season differences in concentrations and distributions of major (Ca, K, S and P) and trace elements (As, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn) in the root system of Spartina alterniflora collected from Jamaica Bay, New York, in April and September 2015. The root samples were cross-sectioned at a thickness of 10 µm. Selected areas in the root epidermis and endodermis were mapped with a sampling resolution of 100 and 200 nm, varying with the mapping areas. The results indicate that trace element concentrations in the epidermis and endodermis vary among the elements measured, possibly because of their different chemical properties or their ability to act as micronutrients for the plants. Elemental concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, P, S and Zn) within each individual root sample and between the root samples collected during two different seasons are both significantly different (p < 0.01). Furthermore, this study indicates that the nonessential elements (As and Cr) are significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with Fe, with high concentrations in the root epidermis, while others are not, implying that Fe may be a barrier to nonessential element transport in the root system. Hierarchy cluster analysis shows two distinct groups, one including As, Cr and Fe and the other the rest of the elements measured. Factor analysis also indicates that the processes and mechanisms controlling element transport in the root system can be different between the nutrient and nonessential elements.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
18.
New Phytol ; 217(2): 909-924, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083033

RESUMO

Flavonoids ubiquitously distribute to the terrestrial plants and chalcone isomerase (CHI)-catalyzed intramolecular and stereospecific cyclization of chalcones is a committed step in the production of flavonoids. However, so far the bona fide CHIs are found only in vascular plants, and their origin and evolution remains elusive. We conducted transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence search, subsequent phylogenetic analysis, and detailed biochemical and genetic characterization to explore the potential existence of CHI proteins in the basal bryophyte liverwort species and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. We found that both liverwort and Selaginella species possess canonical CHI-fold proteins that cluster with their corresponding higher plant counterparts. Among them, some members exhibited bona fide CHI activity, which catalyze stereospecific cyclization of both 6'-hydroxychalcone and 6'-deoxychalcone, yielding corresponding 5-hydroxy and 5-deoxyflavanones, resembling the typical type II CHIs currently known to be 'specific' for legume plants. Expressing those primitive bona fide CHIs in the Arabidopsis chi mutant restores the seed coat transparent testa phenotype and the accumulation of flavonoids. These findings, in contrast to our current understanding of the evolution of enzymatic CHIs, suggest that emergence of the bona fide type II CHIs is an ancient evolution event that occurred before the divergence of liverwort lineages.


Assuntos
Embriófitas/enzimologia , Evolução Molecular , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas , Ciclização , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Teste de Complementação Genética , Liases Intramoleculares/química , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Cinética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética/genética
19.
Molecules ; 22(12)2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189744

RESUMO

Nanoparticle/metal-organic frameworks (MOF) based composites have recently attracted significant attention as a new class of catalysts. Such composites possess the unique features of MOFs (including clearly defined crystal structure, high surface area, single site catalyst, special confined nanopore, tunable, and uniform pore structure), but avoid some intrinsic weaknesses (like limited electrical conductivity and lack in the "conventional" catalytically active sites). This review summarizes the developed strategies for the fabrication of nanoparticle/MOF composites for catalyst uses, including the strategy using MOFs as host materials to hold and stabilize the guest nanoparticles, the strategy with subsequent MOF growth/assembly around pre-synthesized nanoparticles and the strategy mixing the precursors of NPs and MOFs together, followed by self-assembly process or post-treatment or post-modification. The applications of nanoparticle/MOF composites for CO oxidation, CO2 conversion, hydrogen production, organic transformations, and degradation of pollutants have been discussed. Superior catalytic performances in these reactions have been demonstrated. Challenges and future developments are finally addressed.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Hidrogênio/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Oxirredução
20.
Plant Physiol ; 175(3): 1082-1093, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899963

RESUMO

The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic responses, plant development, and leaf senescence. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA or gentisic acid) is one of the most commonly occurring aromatic acids in green plants and is assumed to be generated from SA, but the enzymes involved in its production remain obscure. DMR6 (Downy Mildew Resistant6; At5g24530) has been proven essential in plant immunity of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but its biochemical properties are not well understood. Here, we report the discovery and functional characterization of DMR6 as a salicylic acid 5-hydroxylase (S5H) that catalyzes the formation of 2,5-DHBA by hydroxylating SA at the C5 position of its phenyl ring in Arabidopsis. S5H/DMR6 specifically converts SA to 2,5-DHBA in vitro and displays higher catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km = 4.96 × 104 m-1 s-1) than the previously reported S3H (Kcat/Km = 6.09 × 103 m-1 s-1) for SA. Interestingly, S5H/DMR6 displays a substrate inhibition property that may enable automatic control of its enzyme activities. The s5h mutant and s5hs3h double mutant overaccumulate SA and display phenotypes such as a smaller growth size, early senescence, and a loss of susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. S5H/DMR6 is sensitively induced by SA/pathogen treatment and is expressed widely from young seedlings to senescing plants, whereas S3H is more specifically expressed at the mature and senescing stages. Collectively, our results disclose the identity of the enzyme required for 2,5-DHBA formation and reveal a mechanism by which plants fine-tune SA homeostasis by mediating SA 5-hydroxylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Homeostase , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gentisatos/química , Gentisatos/metabolismo , Cinética , Metabolômica , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética
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