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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 706-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564435

RESUMO

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.

2.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-16, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530097

RESUMO

Background: With the rapid growth of the elderly population and public health challenges in China, concerns arise related to disability associated with activities of daily living (ADLs) and alcohol consumption status. This study assesses the relationships of alcohol consumption status with basic daily activities among Chinese older adults. Methods: A total of 5,133 participants aged 60 years or above from three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2009, 2012, and 2014) were analyzed. Independent ADL items included bathing, dressing, toileting, indoor moving, continence, and feeding (without others' assistance). Multilevel ordered logistic regression model estimation was used to examine the results of total scores based on the Katz index. Multilevel logistic regression models also were estimated to study each index item separately to examine differences across each of the six ADLs. Additional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to examine the validity of the index. Results: Preliminary CFA showed that most items had good factor loadings (>0.700), except for continence (0.256) and feeding (0.481). Based on the ordered regression model, former (AOR = 0.412, 95% CI: 0.294, 0.579, p < 0.001) and non-alcohol consumption (AOR = 0.598, 95% CI: 0.447, 0.800, p < 0.001) were negatively associated with the total score. Non-alcohol consumption status was negatively associated with ADL items separately (all ps < 0.05), with the exceptions of continence and feeding. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may be associated with Chinese older adults' better ADLs. However, further clinical or experimental trials are needed to examine the impact of alcohol consumption on older adults' ADLs.

3.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic (SBP)≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic (DBP)≥90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA =931, nAA= 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14210, nAA= 2480) and had SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5266, nAA= 1817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg) while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of SNPs with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P=1.1*10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P=1.5*10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278 OR=0.71[95% CI 0.6-0.8]). SNPs in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

5.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Aging Health ; : 898264319862417, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339435

RESUMO

Objective: This research investigates the associations between smoking frequency and body mass index (BMI) among older adults in China with and without the inclusion of food consumption behaviors. Method: Applying three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2009, 2012, and 2014), with 12,312 observations from 4,104 participants, gender-stratified panel ordered logistic regressions were performed. Food consumption included intake frequency and types of fruits, vegetables, staple food, cooking oil, and meat. Results: Among male older adults, more frequent smoking behavior was associated with lower BMI with the inclusion of food consumption behaviors. However, more frequent smoking behavior was not associated with BMI among female participants with the inclusion of food consumption behaviors. Former smoking status was not associated with BMI in all models. Discussion: The findings suggest the need of food consumption behaviors when researchers study the associations between smoking frequency and obesity. Gender gaps also should be considered.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

8.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1102-1114, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increases in circulating LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed direct LDL-C and hsCRP concentrations compared to standard risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Study. METHODS: We used stored frozen plasma samples (-80 °C) obtained after an overnight fast from 3147 male and female participants (mean age, 58 years) free of CVD at cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study. Overall, 677 participants (21.5%) had a CVD end point over a median of 16.0 years of follow-up. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), direct LDL-C (Denka Seiken and Kyowa Medex methods), and hsCRP (Dade Behring method) concentrations were measured by automated analysis. LDL-C was also calculated by both the Friedewald and Martin methods. RESULTS: Considering all CVD outcomes on univariate analysis, significant factors included standard risk factors (age, hypertension, HDL-C, hypertension treatment, sex, diabetes, smoking, and TC concentration) and nonstandard risk factors (non-HDL-C, direct LDL-C and calculated LDL-C, TG, and hsCRP concentrations). On multivariate analysis, only the Denka Seiken direct LDL-C and the Dade Behring hsCRP were still significant on Cox regression analysis and improved the net risk reclassification index, but with modest effects. Discordance analysis confirmed the benefit of the Denka Seiken direct LDL-C method for prospective hard CVD endpoints (new-onset myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or CVD death). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the Denka Seiken direct LDL-C and Dade Behring hsCRP measurements add significant, but modest, information about CVD risk, compared to standard risk factors and/or calculated LDL-C.

9.
Nature ; 570(7759): 71-76, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118516

RESUMO

Protein-coding genetic variants that strongly affect disease risk can yield relevant clues to disease pathogenesis. Here we report exome-sequencing analyses of 20,791 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 24,440 non-diabetic control participants from 5 ancestries. We identify gene-level associations of rare variants (with minor allele frequencies of less than 0.5%) in 4 genes at exome-wide significance, including a series of more than 30 SLC30A8 alleles that conveys protection against T2D, and in 12 gene sets, including those corresponding to T2D drug targets (P = 6.1 × 10-3) and candidate genes from knockout mice (P = 5.2 × 10-3). Within our study, the strongest T2D gene-level signals for rare variants explain at most 25% of the heritability of the strongest common single-variant signals, and the gene-level effect sizes of the rare variants that we observed in established T2D drug targets will require 75,000-185,000 sequenced cases to achieve exome-wide significance. We propose a method to interpret these modest rare-variant associations and to incorporate these associations into future target or gene prioritization efforts.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1800, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755687

RESUMO

Genome-Wide Association (GWA) with population-based imputation (PBI) has been successful in identifying common variants associated with complex diseases; however, much heritability remains to be explained and low frequency variants (LFV) may contribute. To identify LFV, a study of unrelated individuals may no longer be as efficient as a family study, where rare population variants can be frequent in families. Family-based imputation (FBI) provides an opportunity to evaluate LFV. To compare the performance of PBI and FBI, we conducted extensive simulations, generating genotypes using SeqSIMLA from various reference panels for families. We masked genotype information for variants unavailable in Framingham 550 K GWA genotype data in less informative subjects selected by GIGI-Pick. We implemented IMPUTE2 with duoHMM in SHAPEIT (Impute2_duoHMM) for PBI, MERLIN and GIGI for FBI and PedBLIMP for a hybrid approach. In general, FBI in both MERLIN and GIGI outperformed other approaches with imputation accuracy greater than 0.99 for the squared correlation and imputation quality scores (IQS) especially for LFV, although imputation accuracy from MERLIN depends on pedigree splitting for larger families. PBI performed worst with the exception of good imputation accuracy for common variants when a closely ancestry matched reference is used. In summary, linkage disequilibrium (LD) information from large available genotype resources provides good imputation for common variants with well-selected reference panels without requiring densely sequenced data in family members, while imputation of LFV with FBI benefits more from information on inheritance patterns within families yielding better imputation.

12.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(2): e1135-e1148, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is unclear if older adults' preventive health care utilization is associated with better health in China, as the elderly population and prevalence of chronic disease have escalated. METHODS: Applying the Donabedian's model for evaluating quality of health care, we analyzed data from the 2012 and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey with 5304 older adults 65 years old and above. The study used propensity score matching to decrease selection bias on preventive care utilization. Preventive care utilization was defined as the use of annual physical examination at least once a year among older adults. Three ordered logistic regression models were performed to evaluate preventive care utilization and three health-related measurements of current health status, overall health status improvement in the past 12 months, and life satisfaction, controlling for socioeconomic, demographic, and biological factors. RESULTS: Older adults who used preventive care reported better health status, overall health status improvement in the past 12 months, and life satisfaction (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.24, 1.20, 1.30, respectively; all Ps < 0.01), compared with participants who did not use preventive care. CONCLUSION: The research findings suggest that the Chinese central government should continue to enhance the role of preventive care services with further reforms in order to improve older adults' health and life conditions.

13.
Hum Genet ; 138(2): 199-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671673

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10-4) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Recombinases/genética
14.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1202-1208, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies show that higher hemoglobin A1c (A1C) predicts coronary artery disease (CAD). It remains unclear whether this association is driven entirely by glycemia. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to test whether A1C is causally associated with CAD through glycemic and/or nonglycemic factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To examine the association of A1C with CAD, we selected 50 A1C-associated variants (log10 Bayes factor ≥6) from an A1C genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 159,940) and performed an inverse-variance weighted average of variant-specific causal estimates from CAD GWAS data (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D; 60,801 CAD case subjects/123,504 control subjects). We then replicated results in UK Biobank (18,915 CAD case subjects/455,971 control subjects) and meta-analyzed all results. Next, we conducted analyses using two subsets of variants, 16 variants associated with glycemic measures (fasting or 2-h glucose) and 20 variants associated with erythrocyte indices (e.g., hemoglobin [Hb]) but not glycemic measures. In additional MR analyses, we tested the association of Hb with A1C and CAD. RESULTS: Genetically increased A1C was associated with higher CAD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.61 [95% CI 1.40, 1.84] per %-unit, P = 6.9 × 10-12). Higher A1C was associated with increased CAD risk when using only glycemic variants (OR 2.23 [1.73, 2.89], P = 1.0 × 10-9) and when using only erythrocytic variants (OR 1.30 [1.08, 1.57], P = 0.006). Genetically decreased Hb, with concomitantly decreased mean corpuscular volume, was associated with higher A1C (0.30 [0.27, 0.33] %-unit, P = 2.9 × 10-6) per g/dL and higher CAD risk (OR 1.19 [1.04, 1.37], P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evidence supports a causal link between higher A1C and higher CAD risk. This relationship is driven not only by glycemic but also by erythrocytic, glycemia-independent factors.

15.
Liver Int ; 39(6): 1022-1026, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emerging data from paediatric populations suggest that variants in the autophagy-governing immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) gene may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) susceptibility. We examined the relationship between IRGM rs13361189 variants and NAFLD in a community-based cohort of adults. METHODS: We included all Framingham Heart Study participants with available data on the IRGM rs13361189 variant, undergoing study-directed computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen (2002-2005). Using multivariable linear and logistic regression modelling, we evaluated cross-sectional associations between rs13361189 genotype and hepatic steatosis (HS). Among the subset of participants without baseline HS and who underwent follow-up CT scan between 2008 and 2011, we used multivariable logistic regression modelling to assess the longitudinal relationship between IRGM rs13361189 genotype and risk for incident HS. RESULTS: Among 2070 participants (50% women; mean age 51 ± 11 years), 332 (16%) had one copy of the variant rs13361189 variant C allele, while 19 (1%) had the CC genotype. Compared to the TT genotype, there was no increased odds of prevalent HS with the CT or CC genotype (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.93 [95% CI 0.68-128] and 0.86 [95% CI 0.46-1.63], respectively). Among individuals without baseline HS (n = 1052), 19.3% developed incident HS over median 6.1 years. Compared to the TT genotype, neither the CT nor the CC genotype were significantly associated with incident HS (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In our community-based, longitudinal cohort of Caucasian adults, variants in the autophagy-governing IRGM gene at the rs13361189 locus were not associated with increased prevalent or incident HS.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although areal bone mineral density (aBMD) assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the clinical standard for determining fracture risk, most older adults who sustain a fracture have T scores greater than -2·5 and thus do not meet the clinical criteria for osteoporosis. Importantly, bone fragility is due to low BMD and deterioration in bone structure. We assessed whether indices of high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) were associated with fracture risk independently of femoral neck aBMD and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score. METHODS: We assessed participants in eight cohorts from the USA (Framingham, Mayo Clinic), France (QUALYOR, STRAMBO, OFELY), Switzerland (GERICO), Canada (CaMos), and Sweden (MrOS). We used Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) to estimate the association between HR-pQCT bone indices (per 1 SD of deficit) and incident fracture, adjusting for age, sex, height, weight, and cohort, and then additionally for femoral neck DXA aBMD or FRAX. FINDINGS: 7254 individuals (66% women and 34% men) were assessed. Mean baseline age was 69 years (SD 9, range 40-96). Over a mean follow-up of 4·63 years (SD 2·41) years, 765 (11%) participants had incident fractures, of whom 633 (86%) had femoral neck T scores greater than -2·5. After adjustment for age, sex, cohort, height, and weight, peripheral skeleton failure load had the greatest association with risk of fracture: tibia HR 2·40 (95% CI 1·98-2·91) and radius 2·13 (1·77-2·56) per 1 SD decrease. HRs for other bone indices ranged from 1·12 (95% CI 1·03-1·23) per 1 SD increase in tibia cortical porosity to 1·58 (1·45-1·72) per 1 SD decrease in radius trabecular volumetric bone density. After further adjustment for femoral neck aBMD or FRAX score, the associations were reduced but remained significant for most bone parameters. A model including cortical volumetric bone density, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness at the distal radius and a model including these indices plus cortical area at the tibia were the best predictors of fracture. INTERPRETATION: HR-pQCT indices and failure load improved prediction of fracture beyond femoral neck aBMD or FRAX scores alone. Our findings from a large international cohort of men and women support previous reports that deficits in trabecular and cortical bone density and structure independently contribute to fracture risk. These measurements and morphological assessment of the peripheral skeleton might improve identification of people at the highest risk of fracture. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health National Institute of Arthritis Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

18.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-15, 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451104

RESUMO

Secondhand smoking (SHS) has become a critical challenge in Chinese society, and progress on SHS prevention remains unknown. There is little knowledge targeting Chinese older adults generally to investigate the associations between SHS exposure experiences during earlier life stages and health-related measurements. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative data set, the 2014 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n = 4,414), multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for Chinese provinces were used for analyses. Two health-related measurements included self-reported health status and life satisfaction. All regression models included the same set of predictors and covariates with socioeconomic factors and basic biological information. Approximately 40% and 47% of older adults reported SHS exposure in childhood and in younger adulthood at home, respectively. Older adults with SHS exposure in childhood had lower odds of reporting better health status, compared with those who did not have such exposure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.69, 95% CI [0.55, 0.86], p < .01). However, life satisfaction was not associated with any SHS exposure experiences. Policy makers and public health practitioners should continue to investigate the long-term effect of SHS exposure on human health, including older adults. Policy regarding SHS prevention should be enhanced.

19.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 27, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275881

RESUMO

Background: DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification, can be affected by environmental factors and thus regulate gene expression levels that can lead to alterations of certain phenotypes. Network analysis has been used successfully to discover gene sets that are expressed differently across multiple disease states and suggest possible pathways of disease progression. We applied this framework to compare DNA methylation levels before and after lipid-lowering medication and to identify modules that differ topologically between the two time points, revealing the association between lipid medication and these triglyceride-related methylation sites. Methods: We performed quality control using beta-mixture quantile normalization on 463,995 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and deleted problematic sites, resulting in 423,004 probes. We identified 14,850 probes that were nominally associated with triglycerides prior to treatment and performed weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to construct pre- and posttreatment methylation networks of these probes. We then applied both WGCNA module preservation and generalized Hamming distance (GHD) to identify modules with topological differences between the pre- and posttreatment. For modules with structural changes between 2 time points, we performed pathway-enrichment analysis to gain further insight into the biological function of the genes from these modules. Results: Six triglyceride-associated modules were identified using pretreatment methylation probes. The same 3 modules were not preserved in posttreatment data using both the module-preservation and the GHD methods. Top-enriched pathways for the 3 differentially methylated modules are sphingolipid signaling pathway, proteoglycans in cancer, and metabolic pathways (p values < 0.005). One module in particular included an enrichment of lipid-related pathways among the top results. Conclusions: The same 3 modules, which were differentially methylated between pre- and posttreatment, were identified using both WGCNA module-preservation and GHD methods. Pathway analysis revealed that triglyceride-associated modules contain groups of genes that are involved in lipid signaling and metabolism. These 3 modules may provide insight into the effect of fenofibrate on changes in triglyceride levels and these methylation sites.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

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