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1.
Front Chem ; 10: 1037542, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386000

RESUMO

Chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols by conventional analytical methods is usually required to perform complicated and time-consuming sample preparation processes. In recent decades, ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AI-MS) methods have been proven to be simple, rapid, and effective analytical tools for direct analysis of various complex samples. In this work, we applied porous paper filters for direct adsorptive sampling of tobacco smoke, and then the sampled paper filters were performed the emitters of the paper spray ionization (PSI) device. An auto-sampling device was made to control the generation and collection of tobacco smoke. Nicotine, the typical compound of tobacco smoke, was used to optimize the key conditions of auto-sampling. Moreover, different types of tobacco smoke were also compared with multivariate variable analysis, and the makers of tobacco smoke from different sources of tobacco smoke were investigated. By using this method, direct sampling and analysis of a single tobacco sample can be completed within minutes. Overall, our results show that PSI-MS is a powerful tool that integrates collection, extraction, ionization, and identification analytes in smoke.

2.
Brain Res ; 1798: 148133, 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341902

RESUMO

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is a common neurological disease characterized by the disordered secretion of cerebrospinal fluid from the choroid plexus, ventricular dilation, and increased intracranial pressure after hemorrhage. Although these pathological processes are well established, the effective biomarkers for the diagnosis of PHH are still limited, largely because the underlying mechanisms-including cell death in the choroid plexus-are not well defined. Ferroptosis, a newly recognized type of programmed cell death, has been found to play a key role in a variety of pathologic conditions and diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. However, whether ferroptosis is induced in PHH is still unknown. In the current study, a rat model of PHH was established to investigate the induction of ferroptosis in PHH. Along with defects in memory and cognition, we observed that rats with experimentally induced PHH also demonstrated lipid peroxidation (a key marker of ferroptosis), as well as a significant increase and a significant decrease in two ferroptosis-specific genes, ACSL4 and SLC7A11, respectively. Thus, ferroptosis may serve as an auxiliary indicator for the diagnosis of PHH.

3.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 470, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentamidine has been reported to have many pharmacological effects including anti- protozoal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential therapeutic role of Pentamidine and molecular mechanisms of Pentamidine on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway underlying the anti-tumor properties in endometrial cancer. METHODS: Our study was carried out in the central laboratory of Harbin Medical University from 2019 to 2021. Human endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A were treated with Pentamidine. The proliferation ability of cells was investigated by MTS and colony formation assays. The cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed by using the wound healing assay and Transwell assay. Western blotting was performed to measure the levels of AKT, p-AKT, MMP-2, and MMP-9. RESULTS: Our results revealed that treatment of Pentamidine inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of Ishikawa and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. Mechanistic investigation showed that Pentamidine inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and also reduced the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In addition, co-treatment with PI3K kinase inhibitor LY294002 and Pentamidine leaded to increased repression of cell viability and the protein expression of p-AKT in Ishikawa cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pentamidine suppresses PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of EC cells. These findings suggested that Pentamidine might be a potential candidate for treating EC through PI3K/AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Feminino , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/uso terapêutico , Pentamidina/farmacologia , Pentamidina/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia
4.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1036139, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439480

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the beam delivery time (BDT) reduction due to the improvement of machine parameters for Hitachi synchrotron-based proton PBS system. Methods: BDTs for representative treatment plans were calculated to quantitatively estimate the BDT improvement from our 2015 system at Mayo Clinic in Arizona to our system to be implemented in 2025 at Mayo Clinic in Florida, and to a hypothetical future system. To specifically assess how each incremental improvement in the operating parameters reduced the total BDT, for each plan, we simulated the BDT 10,368 times with various settings of the nine different operating parameters. The effect of each operating parameter on BDT reduction and its correlation with treatment plan characteristics were analyzed. The optimal number of multiple energy extraction (MEE) layers per spill for different systems was also investigated. Results: The median (range) decrease in BDT was 60% (56%-70%) from the 2015 to the 2025 system. The following incremental improvement in parameters of the 2015 system for the 2025 system played an important role in this decreased BDT: beam intensity (8 to 20 MU/s), recapture efficiency (50% to 80%), number of MEE layers per spill (4 to 8), scanning magnet preparation and verification time (1.9 to 0.95 msec), and MEE layer switch time (200 to 100 msec). Reducing the total spill change time and scanning magnet preparation and verification time from those of the 2025 system further reduced BDT in the hypothetical future system. 8 MEE layers per spill is optimal for a system with 50% recapture efficiency; 16 MEE layers per spill is optimal for a system with 80% recapture efficiency; and more than 16 MEE layers per spill is beneficial only for a system close to 100% recapture efficiency. Conclusions: We systematically studied the effect of each machine operating parameter on the reduction in total BDT and its correlation with treatment plan characteristics. Our findings will aid new and existing synchrotron-based proton beam therapy centers to make balanced decisions on BDT benefits vs. costs when considering machine upgrade or new system selection.

5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 467, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422716

RESUMO

A selective method for the determination of myosmine (a tobacco alkaloid) was developed using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) based on Fe3O4@SiO2 and PAMAM dendrimers. Fe3O4@SiO2 with excellent magnetism and rapid separation performance was chosen as carrier for the MIPs. Moreover, the MIPs modified with PAMAM dendrimers exhibited a regular structure and abundant functional groups, which improve the efficiency of imprinting sites. The myosmine concentration was measured by HPLC with PDA detector, and the UV detection wavelength was set to 200 nm. The linear range of this assay was 13.2-400 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and the detection limit was 4.0 mg/L (S/N = 3). The MIPs have been used for the determination of myosmine in cigarettes, and the recovery range was 84.2-93.5%, with RSD values in the range 0.41-3.1%. In conclusion, our MIPs combine advantages of simple preparation and remarkable selectivity, which gives them excellent application prospects for the sensitive determination of trace myosmine in tobacco products.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Dendrímeros , Impressão Molecular , Produtos do Tabaco , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Polímeros/química
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 632(Pt B): 285-298, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427423

RESUMO

To adequately utilize solar energy for water pollution remediation, tailoring graphite carbon nitride (CN) with sufficient active sites exposure, visible-light harvest and eminent charge separation/migration/recombination efficiency, has long been pursuing. Herein, a pyrazine doped distorted architecture CN with advancing n-π* electron transition was tailored via one-pot thermal-melting assemble following thermal-induce copolymerization of pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and urea. Various characterizations verify the successful construction of distorted porous thin wall CN. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption, photoelectric and band structure analysis manifest that the optimized 20-PACN sample possesses propelled visible-light capture ability with wavelength above 500 nm, more active sites exposure with high specific surface area and hybrid electron structure with distinctly improved charge separation/migration/recombination efficiency. More importantly, 10 mg of 20-PACN can photodegradation 97 % of tetracycline (91 % of rhodamine B or 91 % of methylene blue) within 100 min, which is 7.1 times of bulk counterparts. ESR and quenching tests confirm that apart from h+, ⋅O2- and 1O2 significantly assist to the photodegradation reaction, which profit from upshifted CB and the appearance of intermediate state. The mass spectrum, toxicity prediction and on-line infrared spectroscopy explicated intermediates, routes and toxicity, as well as real-time monitor the variation of functional groups during photodegradation reaction. At last, combined the above test characterization and density functional theory analysis, a potential propelled mechanism of photodegradation was proposed.

7.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2022: 6788394, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213091

RESUMO

To study the differences in phenolic compounds between tobacco smokers' saliva and mainstream smoke, a method was developed for the analysis of 12 phenolic compounds in saliva and mainstream smoke based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD). The contents and distributions of phenolic compounds in tobacco smokers' saliva and mainstream smoke were compared. The results were as follows: (1) Phenolic compounds were quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard method using 4-fluorophenol as an internal standard. For smokers' saliva samples, the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.2 to 19.1 µg/L, and the recoveries were from 80.2% to 119.2% at the three spiked levels. For mainstream smoke samples, the LOQs ranged from 0.03 to 0.26 µg/cig, and the recoveries ranged from 84.9% to 107.0% at the three spiked levels. (2) The contents of phenolic compounds from 14 cigarettes in mainstream smoke and smokers' saliva were determined. In mainstream smoking, the main phenolic compounds were hydroquinone, catechol, phenol, meta- and para-Cresol, and o-methylhydroquinone. In smokers' saliva, the main phenolic compounds were phenol and meta- and para-Cresol and the contents of phenolic compounds in smokers' saliva from different cigarettes were significantly different. (3) The content distribution patterns of phenolic compounds in smokers' saliva differed from those in mainstream smoke. The predominant phenolic compound in mainstream smoke was dihydroxybenzene, while monophenols predominated in smokers' saliva. (4) The contents of phenolic compounds from five kinds of cigarettes were analyzed in the saliva of different smokers using principal component analysis, which indicated that cigarettes with different sensory effects were clearly distinguished by differences in the contents of phenolic compounds in saliva.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 61(34): 13453-13461, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969492

RESUMO

It is a challenge to fabricate atomically dispersed metal clusters in polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) for durable photocatalytic reactions owing to the thermodynamic stability limitation. Herein, atomically dispersed Ru clusters are implanted into the PCN skeleton matrix based on an ionic diffusion and coordination (IDC) strategy, the stability of which is improved owing to the robust Ru-N bonds in the formed RuN4 and RuN3 configurations. Additionally, RuN4 and RuN3 as charge transport bridges between two adjacent melon strands efficaciously conquer hydrogen bond restriction in the skeleton to facilitate the in-plane mobility and separation of charge carriers. Moreover, the synergistic effect of adjacent Ru atoms is triggered on the assembled RuN3-RuN4 and RuN3-RuN3 in the atomically dispersed Ru clusters to significantly decrease hydrogen adsorption energy. As a result, the optimal PCN-Ru photocatalyst achieves nearly 6 times higher than the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (PHE) rate of the Pt/PCN benchmark and maintains the long-term stable running for 104 h of 26 cycles; its overall PHE performance is far superior to the most of single atoms supported on g-C3N4 photocatalysts reported. The findings here gain new insight into the preparation strategy, structure configuration, and reaction mechanism for atomically dispersed metal clusters supported on PCN, which further stimulates the intensive investigations toward developing more efficient and stable PCN-like photocatalytic materials.

9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 281: 121587, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797948

RESUMO

In this test, the eggshell membrane (ESM) is selected as the support membrane for the biocompatibility and anchors CNTs on the surface to increase the mechanical properties. Then Ag NPs are decorated on CNTs-ESM substrate as SERS substrate by twice in-situ reduction. Finally, a layer of imprinted polymers is coated on the surface of the substrate to synthesize the imprinted membrane for selective detection of spiramycin. It is exhibited from the characteristic results that the CNTs significantly increase the mechanical properties and the detection sensitivity, simultaneously. When the concentration of SP changes between 10-6 âˆ¼ 10-11 M, there is a linear relationship between SERS intensity and SP concentration. The detection limit is 10-11 M, and the correlation coefficient R2 is 0.9864. The SERS imprinted membrane can be applied into the detection of antibiotics in practical sample, which broadens the research field of antibiotics detection.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Espiramicina , Antibacterianos , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
10.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 28(8): 30-37, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839110

RESUMO

Context: Slow transit constipation (STC) has a high incidence worldwide, which not only seriously affects patients' normal lives but also may cause malignant intestinal lesions. Among the limited treatment options for STC, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is considered to be the key to STC treatment in the future. Objective: The study intended to examine the impacts of acupuncture plus acupoint application on MAPK and ERK in STC rats, with the aim of preliminarily exploring the relevant mechanisms for treating STC as well as providing new ideas and means for future clinical treatment. Design: The research team designed a randomized, controlled animal study. Setting: The study was carried out at department of Department of Rehabilitation, Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. Animals: The animals were 30 six-to-eight-week-old, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, half male and half female and weighing a mean of 200 ± 20 g. Intervention: The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups, 10 rats in each group: a negative control group that wasn't induced with STC and received no treatments; a positive control group, the model group (MG), that was induced with STC and received no treatments; and an intervention group that was induced with STC and received the investigated treatments. The intervention group was treated with acupuncture at Tianshu point (ST25) and received acupoint application from Chinese medicine. Outcome Measures: The study measured the alterations in the rats' body weight and feces, as well as the rats' intestinal motility, using intragastric administration of activated carbon. The rats were killed to obtain their intestinal tissues, for measuring expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) using Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Postintervention, at 28 days after induction of STC, the rats' weights weren't significantly different in the intervention and control groups (P > .05) but were significantly higher than that in the model group (P < .05). The rats' weights in the intervention and control groups gradually increased significantly, while those in the model group gradually decreased significantly (P < .05). The defecation volume and fecal water content (FWS) decreased in the significantly model group but increased significantly in the intervention group (P < .05). The intestinal motility test revealed no significant differences in the propulsion rate between the intervention and control groups (P > .05), but the rate was significantly lower in the model group than that of the intervention group (P < .05). The intestinal fecal residue in the model group was the highest among the three groups, followed in descending order by the intervention group and the control group, with the differences being statistically significant (P < .05). In addition, the MAPK and ERK in the model group significantly increased, and the values were significantly higher in the intervention group than those of the model group (P < .05). Conclusions: Acupuncture plus acupoint application can validly improve the defecation and intestinal motility of STC rats, possibly through inhibiting MAPK and ERK.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Ratos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia
11.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(17)2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878611

RESUMO

Objective.To investigate synchrotron-based proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) beam delivery time (BDT) using novel continuous scanning mode.Approach.A BDT calculation model was developed for the Hitachi particle therapy system. The model was validated against the measured BDT of 36 representative clinical proton PBS plans with discrete spot scanning (DSS) in the current Hitachi proton therapy system. BDTs were calculated with the next generation using Mayo Clinic Florida system operating parameters for conventional DSS, and novel dose driven continuous scanning (DDCS). BDTs of DDCS with and without Break Spots were investigated.Main results.For DDCS without Break Spots, the use of Stop Ratio to control the transit dose largely reduced the beam intensity and consequently, severely prolonged the BDT. DDCS with Break Spots was able to maintain a sufficiently high beam intensity while controlling transit dose. In DDCS with Break Spots, tradeoffs were made between beam intensity and number of Break Spots. Therefore, BDT decreased with increased beam intensity but reached a plateau for beam intensity larger than 10 MU s-1. Averaging over all clinical plans, BDT was reduced by 10% for DDCS with Break Spots compared to DSS.Significance.DDCS with Break Spots reduced BDT. DDCS has the potential to further reduce BDT under the ideal scenario which requests both stable beam intensity extraction and accurately modelling the transit dose. Further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Síncrotrons
12.
Talanta ; 249: 123676, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738206

RESUMO

A novel SERS membrane is synthesized by combining metal lattice and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology. Since R6G is a carcinogenic and harmful pollutant, and traditional detection methods have many drawbacks and have research value, this paper selects R6G as the detection target. The SERS substrates are synthesized by loading Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the surface of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Au NPs are synthesized through a controllable hydrothermal method. The synthesized AuNPs are covered by some gold particles, forming a fold pattern. Finally, the synthesized structure is immobilized on the surface of the PVDF membrane by the phase inversion method. It is suggested that the prepared Au NPs@PVDF membrane exhibits adjustable cavity structure, strong plasmon coupling, tunable magnetic plasmon resonance, prominent SERS performances. The prepared Au NPs@PVDF membrane showed sensitive SERS activity, good mechanical strength and reusability, expanding the application field of SERS detection. Overall, this study establishes a novel technique for the synthesis of SERS membrane with excellent SERS property and expands the application field of SERS detection.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polivinil , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
13.
Dalton Trans ; 51(24): 9486-9494, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678597

RESUMO

The advancement of a bifunctional electrocatalyst consisting of Earth's rich elements and exhibiting high efficiency is the key to obtain hydrogen fuel by overall water splitting (OWS). Here, a facile and extensible hydrothermal synthesis of an electrocatalyst on iron foam (MoOx/Fe1-xS/IF) as a robust bifunctional catalyst with excellent catalytic activity is designed for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with an overpotential of 142 mV at 100 mA cm-2, and for the OER with lower overpotentials of 300 and 500 mV at 100 and 1000 mA cm-2. The good activity is ascribed to the controllable morphology, stronger bonding of the catalyst to a substrate and optimized electronic configuration. When used as bifunctional electrocatalysts toward alkaline overall water splitting, MoOx/Fe1-xS/IF delivers a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at a low cell voltage of 1.56 V for 110 h. Such high performance coupled with low-cost iron-based materials suggests that the present strategy may open new avenues for the rational design of electrocatalysts and for use in practical water splitting.

14.
Lab Chip ; 22(12): 2376-2391, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635092

RESUMO

Flexible and wearable electronic sensors hold great promise for improving the quality of life, especially in the field of healthcare monitoring, owing to their low cost, flexibility, high electromechanical coupling performance, high sensitivity, and biocompatibility. To achieve high piezoelectric performance similar to that of rigid materials while satisfying the flexible requirements for wearable sensors, we propose novel hybrid films based on lead zirconate titanate powder and microfibrillated cellulose (PZT/MFC) for plantar pressure measurements. The flexible films made using the polarization process are tested. It was found that the maximum piezoelectric coefficient was 31 pC N-1 and the maximum tensile force of the flexible films was 26 N. A wide range of bending angles between 15° and 180° proves the flexibility capability of the films. In addition, the charge density shows a proportional relation with the applied mechanical force, and it could sense stress of 1 kPa. Finally, plantar pressure sensors are arranged and packaged with a film array followed by connection with the detection module. Then, the pressure curves of each point on the plantar are obtained. Through analysis of the curve, several parameters of human body motions that are important in the rehabilitation of diabetic patients and the detection of sports injury can be performed, including stride frequency, length and speed. Overall, the proposed PZT/MFC wearable plantar pressure sensor has broad application prospects in the field of sports injury detection and medical rehabilitation training.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Celulose , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Chumbo , Pressão , Qualidade de Vida , Titânio , Zircônio
15.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 187, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the risk factors for intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling in patients with isolated traumatic acute subdural haematomas (ASDH). METHODS: A total of 256 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for isolated traumatic ASDH between April 2013 and December 2020 were included. We evaluated the risk factors for intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling in patients with isolated traumatic ASDH was 21.88% (56/256). Dilated pupils (OR = 24.78), subarachnoid haemorrhage (OR = 2.41), and the time from injury to surgery (OR = 0.32) were independent risk factors for intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling, while no independent associations were observed between these risk factors and sex, age, the mechanism of injury, the Glasgow Coma Scale score, site of haematoma, thickness of haematoma, midline shift and the status of the basal cistern, although the mechanism of injury, the Glasgow Coma Scale score and the status of the basal cistern were correlated with the incidence of intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the risk factors for intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling in patients with isolated traumatic ASDH. An increased risk of intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling occurs in patients with bilaterally dilated pupils, subarachnoid haemorrhage and a shorter time from injury to surgery. These findings should help neurosurgeons obtain information before surgery about intraoperative acute diffuse brain swelling in patients with isolated traumatic ASDH.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico , Hematoma Subdural Agudo , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 830824, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309887

RESUMO

The topic of physical activity interventions for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been discussed for decades, but there are still inconsistent views on the effect of its intervention in different studies. With the increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is necessary to update newly published studies and systematically evaluate the effects of physical activity interventions. Scientific citation databases (e.g., PubMed, EMBASE, etc.) and registration databases (e.g., ISRCTN, CHICTR, etc.) were checked to screen RCTs and systematic reviews of physical activity interventions in AD. Then extract and review the intervention methods and their evaluation results in the included studies. Spearman correlation method was used to test the association between the mean difference (MD) of intervention results and activity time. The Hedges'g method was used to combine continuous data to analyze the standard MD (SMD) of different intervention types or time subgroups. The overall results show that physical activity intervention can improve the cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life (Qol) of AD patients, but the duration of the intervention significantly affected the outcome of the assessment. Subgroup analysis results showed that an intervention duration of 2-5 months had a significant advantage: cognitive function (Minimum Mental State Examination: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 ∼ 0.61, P < 0.01), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory: SMD = -0.48, 95% CI = -0.85 ∼-0.11, P < 0.01), and quality of life (Qol-AD: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23 ∼ 0.71, P < 0.01). The systematic review and analysis results of updated RCTs suggested that short-term (2-5 months) physical activity interventions were more beneficial in improving cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and Qol in patients with AD. And there was no evidence of differences in the effectiveness of different physical activity interventions.

18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 614: 532-537, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121511

RESUMO

Evidence shows that self-supported electrocatalysts are crucial role to solving environmental and energy issues. In this study, self-supported 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets grown in situ on nickel-iron foam (NFF) were prepared by a one-step solvothermal process. The hierarchical nanostructure possesses a high specific surface area and abundant metal sites, which are beneficial for electrocatalytic reactions. In the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER), the optimal NiFe(20Ni)-MOF/NFF can drive current densities of 10, 50 and 100 mA cm-2 at small overpotentials of 226, 277 and 294 mV, respectively. According to the characterization results, the OER performance is improved by the synergistic action of bimetals and the generation of hydroxides/oxyhydroxides. This work provides new insights into fabricating self-supported MOF-based electrodes for water splitting that are simple and highly efficient.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(5): 7082-7092, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076207

RESUMO

Selenium-heterocyclic and side-chain strategies for developing near-infrared (NIR) small fused-ring acceptors (FRAs) to further obtain short-circuit current density (Jsc) have proven advantageous in the top-performing polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a new electron-rich central selenium-containing heterocycle core (BTSe) attaching alkyl side chains with a terminal phenyl group was coupled with a difluorinated and dichlorinated electron-accepting terminal 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC) to afford two types of new FRAs, BTSe-IC2F and BTSe-IC2Cl. Interestingly, in spite of the weaker intramolecular charge transfer, BTSe-IC2F shows a stronger NIR response because of the smaller bandgap (Egopt) up to 1.26 eV, benefiting from the stronger ordered molecular packing in comparison to BTSe-IC2Cl with an Egopt of 1.30 eV. Additionally, thermal annealing induced an evident red shift by ∼50 nm in the absorption of D18:BTSe-IC2F blend films. Such a phenomenon may be attributed to the synergistic impact of the formation of inward constriction toward the molecular backbone because of the combination of bulky side chains and fluorinated IC as well as the reduced aromaticity of the selenium heterocycle. Consequently, the thermally annealed device based on BTSe-IC2F/D18 achieves a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.3% with a high fill factor (FF) of 77.22%, which is among the highest reported PCE values for selenium-heterocyclic FRAs in binary PSCs. The improved Jsc and FF values of the D18:BTSe-IC2F film are simultaneously achieved mainly because of the preferred face-on orientations, the well-balanced electron/hole mobility, and the favorable blend morphology compared to D18:BTSe-IC2Cl. This work suggests that the selenium-heterocyclic fused-ring core (with proper side chains) combined with fluorinated terminal groups is an effective strategy for obtaining highly efficient NIR-responsive FRAs.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108486, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973529

RESUMO

Compelling evidence has confirmed that inflammatory pathways involving TLR4-regulated cytokines and immune cells are vitallyimportant for the pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), hinting that pharmacological prevention of PHH is feasible. TAK-242, as a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor, downregulates TLR4-induced inflammatory responses and becomes a potent and noveltherapeuticdrugcandidatefor PHH. In the present study, we investigate whether TAK-242 protects against hydrocephalus and improves the prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). We also explore the possible role of TAK-242 for the regulation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway. A model of PHH was conducted in 6-week-old Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were divided into four main groups, including the sham, IVH + vehicle, IVH + TAK-242 and IVH groups. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to measure the lateral ventricle volume. Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF) were applied to detect the expression of TLR4, NF-κB, fibronectin and laminin. A combined scoring system and Morris water maze were employed to evaluate neurological functions after IVH. We found that IVH induced heightened activation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway. We observed the increased lateral ventricular volume, elevation of NF-κB in choroidplexus, as well as fibronectin and laminin in the subarachnoid space (SAS) and ventricular wall after IVH. Obviously, TAK-242 treatment effectively inhibited the up-regulation of NF-κB, fibronectin, laminin and significantly alleviated ventriculomegaly after IVH. Importantly, TAK-242 improved neurocognitive deficits after PHH. In conclusion, TAK-242 attenuated IVH-induced hydrocephalus and improved the prognosis of PHH. The underlying mechanism involved the TAK-242-mediated downregulation of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrocefalia/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfonamidas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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