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1.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22073, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847253

RESUMO

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) are important immune checkpoint receptors that prevent an overreacted maternal immune response to fetal antigens during pregnancy. Disruption of complex immune regulation mechanisms is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE). Our recent study showed that the Tim-3 pathway was involved in the regulation of decidual macrophage polarization. Decidual macrophages polarized to the M1 phenotype may impair uterine vessel remodeling during placentation, accounting for the occurrence of PE. Co-blockade of the PD-1/Tim-3 pathway was shown to successfully control tumor growth in preclinical cancer models. However, the effects of activating both PD-1 and Tim-3 pathways as a combined intervention strategy in PE are never reported. Herein, we observed the skew of decidual macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype in patients with PE and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PE-like rat model. Moreover, we found that the activation of PD-1/Tim-3 pathway by using PD-L1 and Gal-9 fusion proteins could alleviate the manifestation of the LPS-induced PE-like rats and protect their offspring. Compared with the single intervention, the combination of PD-L1and Gal-9 fusion proteins exhibited obvious advantages in the relief of PE-like symptoms, trophoblast invasion, and fetal vascular development, indicating a synergistic effect of the activated PD-1/Tim-3 pathway. The in vitro study also revealed that the combined intervention using PD-L1 and Gal-9 fusion proteins inhibited the LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization via the synergic activation of the ERK/GSK3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Together, our findings provide the first evidence that simultaneous activation of PD-1/Tim-3 signaling pathways may have an optimal protective effect and serve as a new potential target for PE intervention.

2.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 249, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848695

RESUMO

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase, which is also referred to as respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH), affects several processes in plants. However, the role of RBOHs in cell wall lignification is not well understood. In this study, we show that PuRBOHF, an RBOH isoform, plays an important role in secondary wall formation in pear stone cells. ROS were closely associated with lignin deposition and stone cell formation according to microscopy data. In addition, according to the results of an in situ hybridization analysis, the stage-specific expression of PuRBOHF was higher in stone cells than in cells of other flesh tissues. Inhibitors of RBOH activity suppressed ROS accumulation and stone cell lignification in pear fruit. Moreover, transient overexpression of PuRBOHF caused significant changes in the amount of ROS and lignin that accumulated in pear fruit and flesh calli. We further showed that PuMYB169 regulates PuRBOHF expression, while PuRBOHF-derived ROS induces the transcription of PuPOD2 and PuLAC2. The findings of this study indicate that PuRBOHF-mediated ROS production, which is regulated by a lignin-related transcriptional network, is essential for monolignol polymerization and stone cell formation in pear fruit.

3.
Liver Int ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary or autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis are at nutritional risk; their body composition and has not been extensively studied. We aimed to describe their body composition and identify clinical links. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), two reviewers segmented total psoas muscle area (tPMSA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (mm2 ) and measured visceral and subcutaneous thickness (mm). Clinical, laboratory and quality of life (QoL; using PedsQL) data were collected. Sarcopenia was defined as tPMSA ≤5th percentile. Analysis of variance, Wilcoxon rank test and multivariable modelling were performed. A paediatric cohort with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was used as a comparator following propensity score matching. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD) (33 [57%] with AIH) were included: median age 16 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 13-18), 33 (57%) male. Median time from diagnosis to MRI was 15 months (IQR: 2-39 months). Two patients (3%) had a BMIz indicative of mild malnutrition. tPMSA was measurable in 52 subjects (90%). Of those, 25 (48%) had sarcopenia. Sarcopenic patients had a lower blood urea nitrogen compared to non-sarcopenic (median [IQR]: 9.5 [8.0, 12.0] vs 11 [10, 14] mg/dL; P = .023). There was no difference in corticosteroid use between groups. The VFA of sarcopenic patients was higher (3156 [2064, 7492]) vs 2084 [688, 3092]) mm2 ; P = .005). Patient-reported QoL negatively associated with VFA and general health negatively associated with VFA. Compared with NAFLD, the odds ratio for sarcopenia with AILD was 14.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-90.7). CONCLUSION: In autoimmune liver diseases, sarcopenia is highly prevalent, associated with increased visceral fat and QoL.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151890, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822899

RESUMO

Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) of groundwater in urbanized areas such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is challenging. Pre-selection methods are the most common approaches for NBL assessment, but it will overestimate (or underestimate) contaminated groundwater in urbanized areas by using present pre-selection methods with empirical definite values because of complicated human activities. Unlike present pre-selection methods, this study aims to establish a new pre-selection method with the indicative of Cl/Br ratios to identify contaminated groundwaters with convincing evidences. Specifically, this new method consists of indicatives of the oxidation capacity and the Cl/Br ratio combining with contaminated-markers. In addition, factors controlling NBL of Cl and NO3 in groundwater in various hydrogeological units in the PRD were also discussed. Main procedures of this new method: contaminated-markers in various hydrogeological units are extracted by a hierarchical cluster analysis, thereby determining threshold values of Cl/Br ratios and Cl concentration in various hydrogeological units for identifying contaminated groundwater; After that, groundwater chemical datasets was selected by the oxidation capacity, and then tested by Grubbs' test until normal distributions. Groundwater Cl and NO3 concentrations in datasets before and after this new method are dependent and independent of urbanization levels, respectively, indicating that the new method is useful for groundwater NBL assessment in urbanized areas such as the PRD. Both the seawater intrusion and the diffusion of Cl from marine deposits are likely to be responsible for the much higher NBL-Cl in coastal-alluvial and marine aquifers than in other hydrogeological units. Groundwater Cl enrichment resulted from groundwater recharge and evaporation is mainly responsible for the higher NBL-Cl in alluvial-proluvial aquifers than in lacustrine aquifers, fissured aquifers, as well as karst aquifers. More than double times NBL-NO3 in alluvial-proluvial and fissured aquifers than in other hydrogeological units is probably attributed to more oxidizing conditions of their vadose zones and groundwaters.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 193(Pt B): 1050-1058, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798184

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to prepare sodium alginate (SA)/pectin (PE) hydrogel microspheres using the extrusion method to encapsulate Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Microscopic observation showed that the beads were spherical with a smooth and uniform surface. For microspheres with a diameter range of 140-156 µm, the encapsulation efficiency reached 85.67%. After simulating saliva, gastric juice, and intestinal juice, the activity of the microcapsules was estimated to be 5.78 × 104 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL. These data show that the use of SA and PE encapsulated probiotics exhibit enhanced viability. In addition, double-layer beads containing probiotic microspheres and yogurt were prepared, and physical and chemical analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Texture and sensory property analysis revealed that the beads had good elasticity, chewiness, and high commercial value. Collectively, these findings indicate that SA and PE can be used for the encapsulation, protection, and gastrointestinal delivery of probiotics. Moreover, these microcapsules exhibit good stability in vitro and improve yogurt characteristics by increasing the survival rate of encapsulated probiotics, thus demonstrating their commercial application potential.

6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786646

RESUMO

Previous studies have found reduced leftward bias of facial processing in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, it is not clear whether they manifest a leftward bias in general visual processing. To shed light on this issue, the current study used the manual line bisection task to assess children 5 to 15 years of age with ASD as well as typically developing (TD) children. Results showed that children with ASD, similar to TD children, demonstrate a leftward bias in general visual processing, especially for bisecting long lines (≧ 80 mm). In both groups, participant performance in line bisection was affected by the hand used, the length of the line, the cueing symbol, and the location of the symbol. The ASD group showed a rightward bias when bisecting short lines (30 mm) with their left hands, which slightly differed from the TD group. These results indicate that while ASD individuals and TD individuals share a similar leftward bias in general visual processing, when using their left hands to bisect short lines, ASD individuals may show an atypical bias pattern.

7.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751749

RESUMO

Dementia causes a substantial global economic burden, but effective treatment is lacking. Recently, studies have revealed that gamma-band waves of electrical brain activity, particularly 40 Hz oscillations, are closely associated with high-order cognitive functions and can activate microglia to clear amyloid-ß deposition. Here, we found that compared with sham stimulation, applying 40-Hz high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the bilateral angular gyrus in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 37) resulted in up to 8 weeks of significantly improved cognitive function. Power spectral density analysis of the resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) demonstrated that 40-Hz rTMS modulated gamma-band oscillations in the left posterior temporoparietal region. Further testing with magnetic resonance imaging and TMS-EEG revealed the following: 40-Hz rTMS 1) prevented gray matter volume loss, 2) enhanced local functional integration within bilateral angular gyrus, as well as global functional integration in bilateral angular gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus, 3) strengthened information flow from the left posterior temporoparietal region to the frontal areas and strengthened the dynamic connectivity between anterior and posterior brain regions. These findings demonstrate that modulating gamma-band oscillations effectively improves cognitive function in patients with probable AD by promoting local, long-range, and dynamic connectivity within the brain.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657263

RESUMO

High concentration of nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater is a major concern because of its complex origin and harmful effects on human health. This study aims to investigate the distributions of nitrate in various aquifers and in areas with different land use types in alluvial-pluvial fans in North China Plain, to identify dominant sources and factors using hydrochemical data and principal component analysis, and to conduct health-risk assessment of groundwater nitrate using the models recommended by USEPA. Results show that approximately 76.1% groundwater in fissured aquifers showed high-NO3- (> 50 mg/L), and was 2.7 times of that in granular aquifers. In fissured aquifers, the proportion of high-NO3- groundwater (PHNG-WHO) in peri-urban areas was more than 1.3 times of those in other areas. Similarly, in shallow granular aquifers, the PHNG-WHO in peri-urban areas was also higher than that in other areas. By contrast, in deep granular aquifers, the PHNG-WHO in urbanized areas was 2.8 and 5.2 times of that in peri-urban areas and farmland, respectively. High NO3- levels in both granular and fissured aquifers originated mainly from domestic sewage and animal waste, and fertilizers are also important sources of NO3- in fissured aquifers. Intensive groundwater exploitation aggravated nitrate contamination because more thickness of vadose zones resulting from over-exploitation is in favor of nitrification. Risk assessment of groundwater nitrate indicated about 43.3%, 45.6%, and 54.2% of the groundwater samples showed unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk to adult males, adult females, and children, respectively. The proportion of samples with health risks had a significant positive correlation with the urbanization level. Our study indicates that several effective measures for pollution prevention, such as strengthening sewage treatment and prohibiting groundwater over-exploitation, must be adopted so as to ensure the sustainable management of groundwater and the safety of drinking water.

9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24063, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is urgently warranted to achieve better therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the phagocytosis of myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) in SAA patients. METHODS: Myeloid dendritic cells were induced in vitro from bone marrow mononuclear cells from 26 SAA patients and 12 normal controls (HCs). The phagocytosis of mDCs was detected by flow cytometry using FITC-Dextran (40KD), and its correlation with the immune status and severity of the disease was analyzed. RESULTS: The phagocytosis of mDC from untreated SAA patients was significantly stronger than that from complete remission group and HC group (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the latter two groups (p > 0.05). The phagocytosis of mDC from SAA patients correlated positively with the concentration of interleukin (IL)-2 (r = 0.389, p < 0.05), and IL-4 (r = 0.556, p < 0.05), negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ ratio (r = -0.421, p < 0.05). It also had negative correlations with the level of hemoglobin (r = -0.393, p < 0.05), white blood cell (r = -0.436, p < 0.05), platelet (r = -0.431, p < 0.05), and reticulocyte (r = -0.447, p < 0.05). The phagocytosis of mDC does not correlate with the response to IST. CONCLUSIONS: The increased phagocytosis of mDC in untreated SAA patients may contribute to abnormal activation of T helper (Th) and subsequent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation in these patients. It may be involved in the immune pathogenesis of SAA.

10.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pre-post pilot trial to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention (pre-clinic letter, shared decision making cards and follow-up phone call) designed to facilitate SDM in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We recruited physicians (n = 11) caring for IBD patients and families (n = 36) expected to discuss anti-tumor necrosis treatment. We measured feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, observed SDM, perceived SDM, decision conflict, and regret. Medical records were used to assess clinical outcomes, time to decision and adherence. We compared all outcomes between the usual care and intervention study arms. RESULTS: Two out of three intervention components were feasible. Visit length increased significantly in the intervention arm. Parents and patients rated the intervention as acceptable, as did most physicians. The intervention was associated with a higher-level of observed SDM. There was no difference perceived SDM, decision conflict, regret or quality of life outcomes between arms. Physician global assessment improved over time in the intervention arm. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial provides important guidance for developing a larger scale trial of a modified intervention. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Overall, our intervention shows promise in supporting SDM and engaging both parents and patients in pediatric IBD decisions.

11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 688, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal growth velocity standards have yet to be established for the Chinese population. This study aimed to establish such standards suitable for the Chinese population. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, population-based longitudinal cohort study including 9075 low-risk singleton pregnant women. Data were collected from the clinical records of 24 hospitals in 18 provinces of China. Demographic characteristics, reproductive history, fetal ultrasound measurements, and perinatal outcome data were collected. The fetal ultrasound measurements included biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), head circumference (HC), and femur diaphysis length (FDL). We used linear mixed models with cubic splines to model the trajectory of four ultrasound parameters and estimate fetal weight. Fetal growth velocity was determined by calculating the first derivative of fetal size curves. We also used logistic regression to estimate the association between fetal growth velocities in the bottom 10th percentile and adverse perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: Fetal growth velocity was not consistent over time or among individuals. The estimated fetal weight (EFW) steadily increased beginning at 12 gestational weeks and peaked at 35 gestational weeks. The maximum velocity was 211.71 g/week, and there was a steady decrease in velocity from 35 to 40 gestational weeks. The four ultrasound measurements increased in the early second trimester; BPD and HC peaked at 13 gestational weeks, AC at 14 gestational weeks, and FDL at 15 gestational weeks. BPD and HC also increased from 19 to 24 and 19 to 21 gestational weeks, respectively. EFW velocity in the bottom 10th percentile indicated higher risks of neonatal complications (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-2.78) and preterm birth < 37 weeks (OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 2.64-5.14). Sensitivity analyses showed that EFW velocity in the bottom 10th percentile was significantly associated with more adverse pregnancy outcomes for appropriate-for-gestational age neonates. CONCLUSIONS: We established fetal growth velocity curves for the Chinese population based on real-world clinical data. Our findings demonstrated that Chinese fetal growth patterns are somewhat different from those of other populations. Fetal growth velocity could provide more information to understand the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, especially for appropriate-for-gestational age neonates.

12.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716858

RESUMO

The resistance to cisplatin, the most common platinum chemotherapy drug, may confine the efficacy of treatment in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Aberrant expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins set the stage for resistance to cisplatin in EOC; besides, chemosensitivity in EOC can be chalked up to dysregulation of specific miRNAs. Herein, we investigated whether there is a potential correlation between miR-874-3p and the X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, a member of the IAP protein family in cisplatin-resistant EOC cells. The lower expression of miR-874-3p was found in SKOV3-DDP cells; it was also in association with cisplatin-resistance in EOC cells. XIAP was found to contribute to developing platinum resistance and is an authentic target for miR-874-3p in SKOV3-DDP cells. Consistently, restoration of miR-874-3p expression reversed cisplatin resistance in such cells by modulating XIAP and NF-κB/Survivin signaling pathway. Besides, siRNA knock down of XIAP in SKOV3-DDP cells had an anti-migratory effect like those with miR-874 overexpression. Importantly, the enforced expression of XIAP rescued SKOV3-DDP cells from the cytotoxic effects of miR-874-3p. Finally, miR-874-3p sensitized EOC cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, at least in part, through targeting XIAP. The cytotoxic effects of miR-874-3p can be attributed to the targeting XIAP in cisplatin-resistant EOC cells. We believe that the combination of cisplatin with miR-874-3p may make a potential strategy to reverse cisplatin resistance.

13.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 749162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650419

RESUMO

Non-invasive neuromodulation technology is important for the treatment of brain diseases. The effects of focused ultrasound on neuronal activity have been investigated since the 1920s. Low intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) can exert non-destructive mechanical pressure effects on cellular membranes and ion channels and has been shown to modulate the activity of peripheral nerves, spinal reflexes, the cortex, and even deep brain nuclei, such as the thalamus. It has obvious advantages in terms of security and spatial selectivity. This technology is considered to have broad application prospects in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and neuropsychiatric disorders. This review synthesizes animal and human research outcomes and offers an integrated description of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of tFUS in varying experimental and disease conditions.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531872

RESUMO

Background: Varicocele (VC) is present in 35 - 40% of men with infertility. However, current surgical and antioxidant treatments are not completely effective. In addition to oxidative stress, it is likely that other factors such as testicular immune microenvironment disorder contribute to irreversible testicular. Evidence suggests that VC is associated with anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs), spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion abnormalities, and testicular cytokine production. Moreover, inhibition of inflammation can alleviate VC-mediated pathogenesis. The normal function of the testis depends on its immune tolerance mechanism. Testicular immune regulation is complex, and many infectious or non-infectious diseases may damage this precision system. Results: The testicular immune microenvironment is composed of common immune cells and other cells involved in testicular immunity. The former includes testicular macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells, whereas the latter include Leydig cells and Sertoli cells (SCs). In animal models and in patients with VC, most studies have revealed an abnormal increase in the levels of ASAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the seminal plasma, testicular tissue, and even peripheral blood. It is also involved in the activation of potential inflammatory pathways, such as the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing (NLRP)-3 pathway. Finally, the development of VC-mediated infertility (VMI) may be facilitated by abnormal permeability of proteins, such as claudin-11, that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Conclusions: The testicular immune response, including the production of ASAs and inflammatory factors, activation of inflammatory pathways, and destruction of the BTB may be involved in the pathogenesis of VMI it is necessary to further explore how patient outcomes can be improved through immunotherapy.

15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 8020067, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484417

RESUMO

Background: Immunosuppression has a key function in sepsis pathogenesis, so it is of great significance to find immune-related markers for the treatment of sepsis. Methods: Datasets of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis from the ArrayExpress database were extracted. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CAP group and normal group by Limma package were performed. After calculation of immune score through the ESTIMATE algorithm, the DEGs were selected between the high immune score group and the low immune score group. Enrichment analysis of the intersected DEGs was conducted. Further, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) of the intersected DEGs was drawn by Metascape tools. Related publications of the key DEGs were searched in NCBI PubMed through Biopython models, and RT-qPCR was used to verify the expression of key genes. Results: 360 intersected DEGs (157 upregulated and 203 downregulated) were obtained between the two groups. Meanwhile, the intersected DEGs were enriched in 157 immune-related terms. The PPI of the DEGs was performed, and 8 models were obtained. In sepsis-related research, eight genes were obtained with degree ≥ 10, included in the models. Conclusion: CXCR3, CCR7, HLA-DMA, and GPR18 might participate in the mechanism of CAP with sepsis.

16.
Carbohydr Res ; 509: 108422, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478936

RESUMO

The modification of polysaccharides is important for enhancing their biological activities. In this study, a pure inulin-type fructan, denoted as Jerusalem artichoke polysaccharide (P-JAP), was purified from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and modified by sulfation via treatment with a sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex to produce its sulfated derivative (S-JAP). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirmed the successful introduction of sulfate groups. The inhibitory effects of S-JAP on the proliferation of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells was evaluated via a CCK-8 assay, and the pro-apoptotic effects were assessed using annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The inhibition rates of various concentrations of S-JAP on HepG2 cells after 24, 48, and 72 h were significantly higher than those of P-JAP; moreover, S-JAP succeeded in promoting cell apoptosis. Thus, the sulfate-modified polysaccharide extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers was shown to exhibit effective antitumor activity with potential for further development.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 32(50)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500443

RESUMO

A highly dispersed Mn/TiO2catalyst, which has high efficiency for NO conversion with CO and almost completed N2selectivity at a low-temperature range (350-550 K), was investigated using experimental and DFT theoretical calculation. The characterization results illustrated that the catalyst assembled with nanoparticles and the Mn doping into the TiO2surface lattice led to the formation of Mn-O-Ti configuration, which enhanced the dispersion of Mn on the body of TiO2. The DFT study mapped out the complete catalytic cycle, including reactants adsorption, oxygen vacancy generation, N2O intermediates formation, N2formation in Eley-Rideal (ER), Langmuir-Hinshelwood, and termolecular Eley-Rideal mechanisms. With thermodynamic and kinetic analysis combined with experimental results, the ER reaction process was considered to be the fundamental mechanism over the highly dispersed Mn/TiO2catalyst. The calculation results indicated that N2O was a significant intermediate. However, the rapid N2O reduction process led to high N2selectivity. The rate-limiting step was the deoxygenation step of NO-MnOv/TiO2from N-O bond scission. The active site Mn-Ovpair embedded in Mn/TiO2was responsible not only for the formation of N-Mn/TiO2in the ER-1 step but also for the N2O deoxygenation process to make the final product N2in the ER-2 step. The synergetic effect between Mn 3d electron and the oxygen vacancy of TiO2were responsible for the catalytic activity of Mn/TiO2.

18.
Syst Biol Reprod Med ; 67(5): 383-394, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474604

RESUMO

Folic acid is critical to maintaining normal male reproductive function. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a crucial role in folic acid deficiency. Studies have shown that Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is involved in ER stress, but the specific mechanism in male reproduction is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of folic acid deficiency on spermatogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice fed with folic acid deficiency induced diet(0.3 mg/kg) were used. A significant decrease in the sperm concentration in the folic acid deficiency group was observed. Meanwhile, folic acid deficiency decreased Cav-1 expression in the testis tissue and increased endoplasmic reticulum stress-related PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, CHOP gene expression. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency can affect male reproduction through the Cav-1-PERK-eIFα-ATF4-CHOP pathway.Abbreviations: ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; Ca2+: calcium ion; Cav-1: Caveolin-1; CCK-8: cell counting kit-8; CHOP: CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; DSB: double strand breakage; eIF2α: eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 alpha; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FD: folic acid deficiency; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; HE: hematoxylin and eosin; H3K4me3: histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation; PERK: protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase; PI: propidium iodide; RT-qPCR: quantitative reverse transcription PCR; TUNEL: TdT mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112798, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592528

RESUMO

Mancozeb (MZ), an antibacterial pesticide, has been linked to reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, whether MZ has cardiactoxicity is unclear. In this study, the cardiotoxic effects of exposure to environment-related MZ concentrations ranging from 1.88 µM to 7.52 µM were evaluated at the larval stage of zebrafish. Transcriptome sequencing predicted the mechanism of MZ-induced cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish by enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Consistent with morphological changes, the osm, pfkfb3, foxh1, stc1, and nrarpb genes may effect normal development of zebrafish heart by activating NOTCH signaling pathways, resulting in pericardial edema, myocardial fibrosis, and congestion in the heart area. Moreover, differential gene expression analysis indicated that cyp-related genes (cyp1c2 and cyp3c3) were significantly upregulated after MZ treatment, which may be related to apoptosis of myocardial cells. These results were verified by real-time quantitative RT-qPCR and acridine orange staining. Our findings suggest that MZ-mediated cardiotoxic development of zebrafish larvae may be related to the activation of Notch and apoptosis-related signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zineb , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Maneb , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Zineb/toxicidade
20.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523109

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. The hospitalized children under 18 years old who met the criteria for CAP were enrolled. The throat swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected which were then screened 18 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR assay. Viral pathogens were present in 56.6% (1539/2721) of the enrolled cases, with the detection rate of single virus in 39.8% of the cases and multiple viruses in 16.8% of the cases. The most frequently detected virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (15.2%, 414/2721). The highest detection rate of virus was in < 6-month-age group (70.7%, 292/413). RSV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) and influenza B virus (Flu B) showed the similar prevalence patterns both in north and south China, but HPIVs, Flu A, human bocavirus (HBoV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human coronaviruses (HCoVs) showed the distinct circulating patterns in north and south China. Human enterovirus/human rhinovirus (HEV/HRV) (27.6%, 27/98), HBoV (18.4%, 18/98), RSV (16.3%, 16/98) and HMPV (14.3%, 14/98) were the most commonly detected viruses in severe pneumonia cases with single virus infection. In conclusion, viral pathogens are frequently detected in pediatric CAP cases and may therefore play a vital role in the aetiology of CAP. RSV was the most important virus in hospitalized children with CAP in Chinese mainland.

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