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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230203

RESUMO

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are standard of care for major depressive disorder (MDD) pharmacotherapy, but only approximately half of these patients remit on SSRI therapy. Our previous genome-wide association study identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signal across the glutamate-rich 3 (ERICH3) gene that was nearly genome-wide significantly associated with plasma serotonin (5-HT) concentrations, which were themselves associated with SSRI response for MDD patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic PGRN-AMPS SSRI trial. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis which demonstrated that those SNPs were significantly associated with SSRI treatment outcomes in four independent MDD trials. However, the function of ERICH3 and molecular mechanism(s) by which it might be associated with plasma 5-HT concentrations and SSRI clinical response remained unclear. Therefore, we characterized the human ERICH3 gene functionally and identified ERICH3 mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms that are highly expressed in central nervous system cells. Coimmunoprecipitation identified a series of ERICH3 interacting proteins including clathrin heavy chain which are known to play a role in vesicular function. Immunofluorescence showed ERICH3 colocalization with 5-HT in vesicle-like structures, and ERICH3 knock-out dramatically decreased 5-HT staining in SK-N-SH cells as well as 5-HT concentrations in the culture media and cell lysates without changing the expression of 5-HT synthesizing or metabolizing enzymes. Finally, immunofluorescence also showed ERICH3 colocalization with dopamine in human iPSC-derived neurons. These results suggest that ERICH3 may play a significant role in vesicular function in serotonergic and other neuronal cell types, which might help explain its association with antidepressant treatment response.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17260-17268, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632007

RESUMO

Understanding how a network of interconnected neurons receives, stores, and processes information in the human brain is one of the outstanding scientific challenges of our time. The ability to reliably detect neuroelectric activities is essential to addressing this challenge. Optical recording using voltage-sensitive fluorescent probes has provided unprecedented flexibility for choosing regions of interest in recording neuronal activities. However, when recording at a high frame rate such as 500 to 1,000 Hz, fluorescence-based voltage sensors often suffer from photobleaching and phototoxicity, which limit the recording duration. Here, we report an approach called electrochromic optical recording (ECORE) that achieves label-free optical recording of spontaneous neuroelectrical activities. ECORE utilizes the electrochromism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) thin films, whose optical absorption can be modulated by an applied voltage. Being based on optical reflection instead of fluorescence, ECORE offers the flexibility of an optical probe without suffering from photobleaching or phototoxicity. Using ECORE, we optically recorded spontaneous action potentials in cardiomyocytes, cultured hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain slices. With minimal perturbation to cells, ECORE allows long-term optical recording over multiple days.


Assuntos
Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Poliestirenos , Tiofenos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos
3.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(50): 10676-10684, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756106

RESUMO

The relaxation dynamics of thymine and its derivatives thymidine and thymidine monophosphate are studied using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy applied to a water microjet. Two absorption bands are studied; the first is a bright ππ* state which is populated using tunable-ultraviolet light in the range 4.74-5.17 eV and probed using a 6.20 eV probe pulse. By reversing the order of these pulses, a band containing multiple ππ* states is populated by the 6.20 eV pulse and the lower energy pulse serves as the probe. The lower lying ππ* state is found to decay in ∼400 fs in both thymine and thymidine independent of pump photon energy, while thymidine monophosphate decays vary from 670 to 840 fs with some pump energy dependence. The application of a computational quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical scheme at the XMS-CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER level of theory suggests that conformational differences existing between thymidine and thymidine monophosphate in solution account for this difference. The higher lying ππ* band is found to decay in ∼600 fs in all three cases, but it is only able to be characterized when the 5.17 eV probe pulse is used. Notably, no long-lived signal from an nπ* state can be identified in either experiment on any of the three molecules.

5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(1): 80-85, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655951

RESUMO

Potent covalent inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) based on an aminopyrazole carboxamide scaffold have been identified. Compared to acrylamide-based covalent reactive groups leading to irreversible protein adducts, cyanamide-based reversible-covalent inhibitors provided the highest combined BTK potency and EGFR selectivity. The cyanamide covalent mechanism with BTK was confirmed through enzyme kinetic, NMR, MS, and X-ray crystallographic studies. The lead cyanamide-based inhibitors demonstrated excellent kinome selectivity and rat pharmacokinetic properties.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(32): 6593-6604, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024168

RESUMO

Gas-liquid scattering experiments reveal that charge-separated but neutral (zwitterionic) surfactants catalyze the oxidation of dissolved Br- to Br2 by gaseous Cl2 at the surface of a 0.3 M NaBr/glycerol solution. Solutions of NaBr dissolved in glycerol with no surfactant were compared with solutions coated with zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic surfactants at dilute surface concentrations of 1.1 to 1.5 × 1014 cm-2 (less than 65% of maximum chain packing). The zwitterionic phospholipid enhances Cl2 conversion of Br- to Br2 by a factor of 1.61 ± 0.15, in comparison with a 14-fold enhancement by a cationic surfactant (tetrahexylammonium) and a five-fold suppression by an anionic surfactant (dodecyl sulfate). Further studies indicate that even an uncharged surfactant, monododecanoylglycerol, enhances Cl2 → Br2 production. Similar behavior is observed for the oxidation of Br- to Br2 by N2O5; it is just slightly suppressed by the phospholipid and strongly enhanced by the cationic surfactant. Collectively, these results suggest that attractions and repulsions between the negative Br- ions and the positive and negative charges of the surfactant headgroups draw Br- ions to the surface or repel them away. At low coverages, ion-induced dipole and dispersion interactions between the CH2 groups and Br- or Cl2 may also enhance reactivity. These results demonstrate that the hydrocarbon chains of loosely packed surfactants do not necessarily block gas-liquid reactions but that positively charged, and even uncharged, groups can instead facilitate reactions by bringing gas-phase and solution-phase reagents together in the interfacial region.

7.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 6: 48-51, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260056

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe three cases of keratitis following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT). Observations: Three females with a history of glaucoma presented with corneal edema, keratitis (endothelial, epithelial) and decreased visual acuity shortly after SLT. There was variable resolution of symptoms after starting treatment with oral antiherpetics and topical steroids. Conclusions and importance: With the increase in usage of SLT as a treatment for glaucoma and subsequent reports of keratitis, it is imperative for ophthalmic surgeons to be aware of herpes simplex as a possible risk factor. Prompt treatment with antivirals and steroids can potentially prevent scarring and permanent damage to the cornea.

8.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 33(4): e85-e86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636241

RESUMO

Lichen nitidus is a rare, idiopathic inflammatory condition that typically presents as small, flat-topped papules on the chest, abdomen, and upper extremities. The lesions are benign and often asymptomatic and self-resolve. The pediatric population is most often affected. The authors report a case of lichen nitidus presenting as isolated bilateral eyelid lesions increasing in number for several years. Eventual excision and antibiotic/steroid ointment prompted regression.


Assuntos
Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Pálpebras/patologia , Líquen Nítido/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 42(12): 1838-1840, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28007118

RESUMO

We report 6 patients who developed rapidly progressive hypermature cataracts after starting treatment with rociletinib, a non-small-cell lung cancer therapy with known side effects of hyperglycemia, fatigue, and prolonged QT. Early cataract detection and surgery may prevent complications during future cataract removal. Although rociletinib development has been suspended, there are patients who have been treated and will continue to be treated with this medication based on their physician's judgment. These physicians should know about the potential for rapid vision loss due to cataracts as a manageable side effect. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Catarata/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Extração de Catarata , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
10.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 41(7): 1490-502, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287887

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the behavior of a new double-C-loop quadripod symmetrical intraocular lens (IOL) platform combined with a hydrophilic lens material and a new hydrophobic glistening-free acrylic lens material, Ankoris and Podeye, respectively, in silico (computer simulation), in vitro (laboratory investigation), and in vivo (rabbit model). SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, and Physiol S.A., Liege, Belgium. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: An in silico simulation investigation was performed using finite elements software, an in vitro investigation according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO11979-3:2012), and an in vivo implantation in a rabbit model with 4 weeks of follow-up. Postmortem data were collected by Miyake-Apple gross examination and histopathologic analyses. Biocompatibility and IOL centration were tested. RESULTS: Both IOLs demonstrated statistically insignificant variations in posterior and anterior capsule opacification and Soemmerring ring formation. They were well biotolerated with no signs of toxicity, inflammation, or neovascularization. Axial and centration stability were noted in vitro and in vivo as a result of significant contact between surrounding tissues and haptics and the posterior portion of the optic. CONCLUSION: The results suggest suitability of the double-C loop IOL platform for the manufacturing of premium (ie, multifocal, toric, and multifocal toric) IOLs. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Drs. Bozukova, Gobin, and Pagnoulle are employees of Physiol S.A., Liege, Belgium. Dr. Pagnoulle has a proprietary interest in the tested intraocular lenses. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares , Desenho de Prótese , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Animais , Coelhos
11.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 41(5): 929-35, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935341

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide complete histopathologic evaluation of explanted capsular bags that spontaneously dislocated in the late postoperative period, with the main objective being to assess the presence of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) material. SETTING: Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, and John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Standard gross and light microscopy and complete histopathology were performed on explanted subluxated and dislocated capsular bags containing an intraocular lens (IOL) or a capsular tension ring (CTR) and an IOL. Questionnaires were sent to explanting surgeons, and a patient chart review was performed, when available. RESULTS: The specimens were represented by capsular bags containing an IOL (n = 37) or an IOL-CTR (n = 3). The IOLs included 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic (n = 13), 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic (n = 7), 3-piece silicone (n = 6), 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic (n = 6), 3-piece hydrophilic acrylic (n = 2), and 1-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (n = 6) designs; all CTRs were PMMA. Soemmering ring formation was mild in 8 specimens, moderate in 18 specimens, and severe in 14 specimens. Excessive contraction of the capsular bag with capsulorhexis phimosis was observed in 24 specimens. Twenty-six specimens had histopathologic evidence of PXF; 13 had a clinical history or evidence of PXF. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudoexfoliation might be implicated in a larger proportion of late in-the-bag IOL subluxations and dislocations than previously thought as a result of significant clinical underdiagnosis. This might indicate a need for new considerations during the preoperative and postoperative cataract surgery assessments and follow-up.


Assuntos
Migração do Implante de Lente Intraocular/patologia , Síndrome de Exfoliação/diagnóstico , Cápsula do Cristalino/patologia , Lentes Intraoculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Migração do Implante de Lente Intraocular/cirurgia , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 40(1): 114-20, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24269140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). RESULTS: Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). CONCLUSIONS: Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Óptica e Fotônica , Espalhamento de Radiação , Resinas Acrílicas , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Cadáver , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz
13.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 40(1): 129-37, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24355724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate light scattering and light transmittance in cadaver eye-explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs) manufactured from different materials. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Forty-nine pseudophakic cadaver eyes were selected according to IOL material/type and implantation duration, and the IOLs were explanted. Hydrophobic acrylic, hydrophilic acrylic, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and silicone IOLs were included. Gross and light microscopy was performed for all IOLs. Light scattering was measured with an EAS 1000 Scheimpflug camera, and light transmittance was assessed using a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration with an RSA PE-20 integrating sphere). Analyses were performed at room temperature in the hydrated state and compared with analyses of controls. RESULTS: The highest levels of surface light scattering were measured for 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic, which was also the IOL type with the longest implantation duration among the Acrysof hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. Hydrophilic acrylic, PMMA, and silicone IOLs exhibited relatively low light-scattering levels. The lowest light-scattering levels were observed with PMMA IOLs (1-piece looped and 3-piece) and plate silicone IOLs, which represent the IOL types with the longest implantation duration in this series. Light transmittance values measured for all IOL types appeared to be similar to the values of the corresponding control IOLs. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of surface light scattering (nanoglistenings) is more particularly related to hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and increases with implantation time. No significant effect of surface light scattering on IOL light transmittance was found.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas , Lentes Intraoculares , Óptica e Fotônica , Polimetil Metacrilato , Espalhamento de Radiação , Elastômeros de Silicone , Cadáver , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Luz , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
14.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 40(1): 148-52, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24355727

RESUMO

We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of an accommodating hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) that exhibited capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL luxation leading to explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex 10 years after implantation. Constriction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis caused significant anterior flexing of the haptic elements of the IOL. Histopathological analysis revealed dense anterior subcapsular fibrosis and fibrous metaplasia of the anterior lens epithelial cells. No signs suggestive of pseudoexfoliation were found. This case raises concerns related to the continuously evolving indications for implantation of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs (eg, microincision IOLs), particularly in patients with no clear predisposition to zonular weakness and, accordingly, excessive capsular bag contraction.


Assuntos
Cápsula Anterior do Cristalino/patologia , Migração do Implante de Lente Intraocular/etiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Falha de Prótese , Idoso , Migração do Implante de Lente Intraocular/cirurgia , Capsulorrexe , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Metaplasia , Desenho de Prótese
15.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 39(9): 1415-20, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23831157

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. RESULTS: At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. CONCLUSIONS: The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Opacificação da Cápsula/prevenção & controle , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Animais , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Animais , Desenho de Prótese , Coelhos
16.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 39(5): 799-803, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541897

RESUMO

We describe the case of an 83-year-old woman who had uneventful phacoemulsification with implantation of a tripod hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). Because of postoperative corneal decompensation, 2 Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) procedures were performed within 2 years. After the second procedure, the graft was not well attached, requiring an intracameral injection of air on day 3. Approximately 9 months later, opacification was observed on the anterior surface of the IOL, with a significant decrease in visual acuity. The IOL was explanted within the capsular bag. Laboratory analyses revealed granular deposits densely distributed in a round pattern within the margins of the capsulorhexis. Granules were located at the anterior surface/subsurface of the IOL and stained positive for calcium (alizarin red and von Kossa method). Scheimpflug photography revealed high levels of light scattering from the opacified area. Surgeons should be aware of possible localized calcification following DSEK procedures in pseudophakic patients with hydrophilic acrylic IOLs.


Assuntos
Calcinose/etiologia , Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior/efeitos adversos , Lentes Intraoculares , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Resinas Acrílicas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcinose/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Luz , Facoemulsificação , Reoperação , Espalhamento de Radiação , Acuidade Visual
18.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 1(4): 193-7, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26107471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variations in retinal vessel caliber have been associated with risk of ocular and systemic vascular diseases in adults. In this study, we examined the relationships between childhood vascular risk factors and retinal vessel caliber in young healthy adolescents. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1225 adolescents recruited from 3 community-based schools in Singapore. METHODS: Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were obtained through standardized examinations. Birth weight was ascertained from health records completed by medical personnel soon after birth. Retinal vessel caliber was measured from retinal photographs using a semiautomated computer-based program following a validated standardized protocol. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, and other relevant factors, each SD increase in blood pressure levels (systolic or diastolic) was associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (1.61 µm; P < 0.001); each SD increase in body mass index was associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (1.49 µm; P < 0.001) and wider venular caliber (2.68 µm; P < 0.001), and each SD decrease in birth weight was associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (1.31 µm; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Young adolescents with elevated blood pressure, obesity, or low birth weight have changes in retinal vessel caliber that are associated with ocular and systemic vascular diseases in adulthood. These findings provide evidence of possible adverse effects of childhood vascular risk factors on the retinal microvasculature early in life.

19.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 27(5): 327-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21629139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hydrogel implants have been used in hypoplastic orbital expansion. Advantages include insertion through a small incision and expansion without manipulation. The rapid rate of expansion, however, may lead to undesirable outcomes, including implant migration. The authors evaluate the effect of tissue wrapping on expansion of hydrogel implants. METHODS: Three identical hydrogel implants were subjected to one of 3 in vitro interventions: unwrapped control, porcine scleral-wrapped, and porcine fascia-wrapped. Each implant was submerged in normal saline solution. Diameter and volume were measured hourly for 24 hours and then every 4 hours until a plateau or maximal weight was achieved. Measurements were plotted with time as the independent variable and the above measurements as dependent variables. In addition, the best exponential function was graphed and the area under the curve was calculated. RESULTS: Linear plots of data showed a reduction in the rate of diameter and volume expansion for wrapped implants. The areas under the curve of the best-fit exponential function were less for both scleral- and fascia-wrapped implants. Fascia wrapping slowed the rate of volume expansion more than sclera. Also, fascia wrapping seemed to significantly reduce the final implant diameter and volume. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue wrapping slows the rate of expansion of hydrogel spheres in vitro. Fascia wrapping may also reduce the final implant size.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/administração & dosagem , Implantes Orbitários , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Fáscia , Implantes Orbitários/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Esclera , Suínos
20.
Stroke ; 42(3): 812-4, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21257821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial large artery disease (ICLAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Retinal microvascular changes are associated with stroke, including small vessel cerebral disease and extracranial carotid disease. We examined the relationship between ICLAD and retinal microvascular changes. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort of 802 acute ischemic stroke patients. Retinal changes were assessed from photographs by graders masked to clinical data. ICLAD was evaluated using prespecified criteria. RESULTS: ICLAD was not associated with ipsilateral retinal arteriolar/venular caliber, focal arteriolar narrowing, or arteriovenous nicking. Severe enhanced arteriolar light reflex was independently associated with any ICLAD (P=0.006) and severe ICLAD (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced arteriolar light reflex, but not retinal vessel caliber, was related to ICLAD. These data suggest that retinal microvascular signs have specific associations with large cerebral vessel disease.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Retinianas/complicações , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia
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