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1.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102583, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 is an important RNA-binding protein that affects the RNA processing, splicing, transport and stability of many genes. hnRNPA2/B1 is expressed during proliferation and metastasis of various cancer types and promotes such processes. However, the precise role and mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer remain unclear. METHODS: The association of hnRNPA2/B1 with breast cancer metastasis was assessed using tissue chips, mouse models and publicly available data. The role and mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer metastasis were studied in cell lines and mouse models. FINDINGS: In contrast to other cancer research findings, hnRNPA2/B1 expression was negatively correlated with breast cancer metastasis. hnRNPA2/B1 inhibited MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo. hnRNPA2/B1 knockout activated ERK-MAPK/Twist and GR-beta/TCF4 pathways but inhibited STAT3 and WNT/TCF4 signalling pathways. Profilin 2 (PFN2) promoted breast cancer cell migration and invasion, whereas hnRNPA2/B1 bound directly to the UAGGG locus in the 3'-untranslated region of PFN2 mRNA and reduced the stability of PFN2 mRNA. INTERPRETATION: Our data supported the role of hnRNPA2/B1 in tumour metastasis risk and survival prediction in patients with breast cancer. The inhibitory role of hnRNPA2/B1 in metastasis was a balance of downstream multiple genes and signalling pathways. PFN2 downregulation by hnRNPA2/B1 might partly explain the inhibitory mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, hnRNPA2/B1 might be used as a new prognostic biomarker and valuable molecular target for breast cancer treatments.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 72-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957382

RESUMO

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is a key environmental factor affecting the change of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) during the daytime. However, the coordinate system of PAR measured by horizontal radiometers over sloping terrain does not match that of NEE after tilt-corrected of the ultrasonic anemometer. Using the temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest at the Maoershan site with an average slope of 9° and a azimuth of 296° as a case, we investigated the diurnal variations in NEE and its driving factors in the growing season (May to September) of 2016. We assessed the differences in estimating light response parameters and the explanations of NEE by other environmental factors between the PAR measured by horizontal and slope-parallel radiometers. The results showed that the diurnal change of NEE in each month of the growing season presented a morning-afternoon asymmetrically unimodal curve: the value was negative (net carbon absorption) about 2.5 h after sunrise, reached the peak around 12:00, then approached zero again at two hours before sunset. The daily net uptake maximized in July and minimized in May. During the whole growing season, the time-lag and difference in the PAR measured by the horizontal versus slope-parallel radiometers led to that the PAR values measured by the horizontal radiometer increased photosynthetic quantum yield (α) and daytime respiration rate (Rd) by 13.3% and 11.5%, respectively, and decreased the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Amax) by 7.7%. The light response curves of NEE were asymmetrical in the morning and afternoon, with Rd and Amax in the afternoon being greater than that in the morning. Weather conditions affected light response parameters: on cloudy days, Amax was higher than that in sunny days, the α and Rd were lower versus those in sunny days for most conditions. However, the monthly Amax and Rd were generally higher for horizontally measured PAR than for slope-parallelly measured PAR, especially for Amax in the cloudy afternoon. The radiometer-orientation affected the explanation of daytime NEE by air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The correlation of NEE residual based on the slope-parallel radiometer with Ta and VPD (r ranged: 0.013 to 0.197, 0.098 to 0.224) was tighter than that based on the horizontal radiometer (r ranged: 0.082 to 0.219, 0.162 to 0.282) when the negative correlations with Ta for September was excluded. Our results indicated that the measurements of PAR on the inclined terrains could cause errors in the environmental interpretations of NEE. Such findings had implications for the radiometric measurement of mountain vegetation and the reasonable interpretation of carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystems.

3.
Redox Biol ; 28: 101329, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550664

RESUMO

Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia cause increased fetal oxidative stress and fetal growth restriction, and associate with a higher incidence of adult metabolic syndrome. However, the pathophysiological contribution of oxidative stress per se is experimentally difficult to discern and has not been investigated. This study determined, if increased intrauterine oxidative stress (IUOx) affects adiposity, glucose and cholesterol metabolism in adult Ldlr-/-xSod2+/+ offspring from crossing male Ldlr-/-xSod2+/+ mice with Ldlr-/-xSod2 +/- dams (IUOx) or Ldlr-/-xSod2 +/- males with Ldlr-/-xSod2+/+ dams (control). At 12 weeks of age mice received Western diet for an additional 12 weeks. Adult male IUOx offspring displayed lower body weight and reduced adiposity associated with improved glucose tolerance compared to controls. Reduced weight gain in IUOx was conceivably due to increased energy dissipation in white adipose tissue conveyed by higher expression of Ucp1 and an accompanying decrease in DNA methylation in the Ucp1 enhancer region. Female offspring did not show comparable phenotypes. These results demonstrate that fetal oxidative stress protects against the obesogenic effects of Western diet in adulthood by programming energy dissipation in white adipose tissue at the level of Ucp1.

4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 15-23, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787179

RESUMO

To better understand the potential causes of visibility impairment in autumn and winter in Chengdu, relative humidity (RH), visibility, the concentrations of PM2.5 and its chemical components were on-line measured continuously in Chengdu from Nov. 2016 to Jan. 2017. Six obvious haze episodes occurred in Chengdu, with the total time of haze episodes accounted for more than 90% of the total observation period, and higher NO2 concentrations and RH were related to the high particle concentrations in haze episodes. The visibility decreased in a non-linear tendency under different RH conditions with the increase of PM2.5 concentrations, which was more sensitive to RH under lower PM2.5 concentrations. The threshold concentration of PM2.5 got more smaller with the increase of RH. During the entire observation period, organic matter (OM) was the largest contributor (31.12% to extinction coefficient (bext)), followed by NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 with 28.03% and 23.01%, respectively. However, with the visibility impairment from Type I (visibility > 10 km) to Type IV (visibility ≤2 km), the contribution of OM to bext decreased from 38.12% to 26.77%, while the contribution of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 to bext increased from 19.09% and 20.20% to 34.29% and 24.35%, respectively, and NH4NO3 became the largest contributor to bext at Type IV. The results showed that OM and NH4NO3 were the key components of PM2.5 for visibility impairment in Chengdu, indicating that the control of precursors emissions of carbonaceous species and NH4NO3 could effectively improve the visibility in Chengdu.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 123: 109766, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Modification of lysine 4 on histone H3 methylation by SET1 and MLL family methyltransferase complexes is tightly linked to cancer progression. DPY30 is an important subunit of SET1 and MLL complexes, however, its expression and roles in cancer progression was little known, especially in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Q-PCR and IHC were performed to detect the levels of DPY30 mRNA and protein in CCA tissues. Effect of DPY30 knockdown on the proliferation of CCA cells was detected by MTS and colony formation, and cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometer. The glucose uptake, lactate release and ATP production assays were performed to detect the glycolysis of CCA cells. RESULTS: The level of DPY30 mRNA and protein in CCA tissues were all significantly higher than that of pericancer tissues, and its upregulation was closely associated with pathological differentiation, tumor size, and TNM stage. In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival revealed that DPY30 upregulation was significantly associated with poor survival, and univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that it was an independently prognosis factor in CCA patients. Moreover, DPY30 knockdown inhibited in-vitro growth and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and decreased glycolysis in CCA cells. CONCLUSIONS: DPY30 upregulation may promote the development of CCA and was associated with the aggressive malignant behavior and poor survival outcome of CCA patients. DPY30 might serve as a potential novel target for treatment of CCA patients.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4249-4256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872706

RESUMO

In this study,liquiritigenin sulfonation was characterized using recombinant human sulfotransferases( SULTs). The chemical structure of liquiritigenin sulfate was determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Then model fitting and parameter estimation were performed using the Graphpad Prism V5 software. Various SULT enzymes( SULT1 A1,1 A2,1 A3,1 B1,1 C2,1 C4,1 E1 and 2 A1) were able to catalyze the formation of liquiritigenin-7-O-sulfate. Sulfonation of liquiritigenin-7-hydroxy( 7-OH) by these eight SULT enzymes consistently displayed the classical Michaelis-Menten profile. According to the intrinsic clearance( CLint) value,the sulfonation rates of liquiritigenin-7-OH by expressed SULT enzymes followed the following rank order: SULT1 C4 > SULT1 A3 > SULT1 E1 > SULT1 A1 > SULT1 A2 > SULT1 B1 >SULT1 C2>SULT2 A1. Further,liquiritigenin-7-O-sulfonation was significantly correlated with the SULT1 A3 protein levels( P<0. 05).Then,human embryonic kidney( HEK) 293 cells over expressing SULT1 A3( named as HEK-SULT1 A3 cells) were conducted. As a result,liquiritigenin-7-O-sulfate( L-7-S) was rapidly generated upon incubation of the cells with liquiritigenin. Consistent with SULT1 A3,sulfonation of liquiritigenin-7-OH in HEK-SULT1 A3 cells also followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The derived Vmaxvalues was( 0. 315±0. 009) µmol·min-1·g-1,Kmwas( 7. 04±0. 680) µmol·L-1,and CLintwas( 0. 045±0. 005) L·min-1·g-1. Moreover,the sulfonation characters of liquiritigenin( 7-OH) in SULT1 A3 were strongly correlated with that in HEK-SULT1 A3 cells( P<0. 001).The results indicated that HEK-SULT1 A3 cells have shown the catalytic function of SULT1 A3 enzymes. In conclusion,liquiritigenin was subjected to efficient sulfonation,and SULT1 A3 enzyme plays an important role in the sulfonation of liquiritigenin-7-OH. Significant sulfonation should be the main reason for the low bioavailability of liquiritigenin. In addition,HEK-SULT1 A3 cells were conducted and successfully used to evaluate liquiritigenin sulfonation,which will provide an appropriate tool to accurately depict the sulfonation disposition of liquiritigenin in vivo.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Arilsulfotransferase , Humanos
7.
Knee ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of combined medial and lateral patellar retinaculum plasty for skeletally immature patients with patellar dislocation and low-grade trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: From December 2014 to December 2016, we reviewed 19 skeletally immature patients who underwent medial and lateral patellar retinaculum plasty at our institution. Clinical evaluations were performed pre- and postoperatively, and included determination of the number of patellar re-dislocation patients, the Kujala and Tegner scores, the patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar shift, and congruence angle. The radiographic evaluation parameters were measured on computed tomography scans. RESULTS: No dislocation or subluxation occurred during the mean follow-up of 35.42 months (24-48 months). Postoperatively, the Kujala score improved from 57.6 ±â€¯4.2 to 86.9 ±â€¯8.1 (P < 0.05), and the Tegner activity score improved from 2.6 ±â€¯1.0 to 5.0 ±â€¯1.3 (P < 0.05). Radiographically, the patellar tilt angle decreased from 32.7 ±â€¯5.9° to 13.4 ±â€¯4.28° (P < 0.05), the lateral patellar shift decreased from 15.9 ±â€¯1.1 mm to 8.4 ±â€¯0.6 mm (P < 0.05), and the congruence angle decreased from 29.9 ±â€¯15.3° to -9.6 ±â€¯15.5° (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Medial and lateral patellar retinaculum plasty is a promising procedure that has the advantage of being a simple operation that induces little trauma. It is a good treatment option for skeletally immature patients with patellar dislocation who have low-grade trochlear dysplasia.

8.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712148

RESUMO

Poor solubility and stability are limitation factors of flavonoids application. Polysaccharides from herbs have been proven to be functional foods and potential promising natural supplements with large molecular weight and complex structures. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) are the main components of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) and novel synergistic pharmacological effects between Astragalus polysaccharides and flavonoids have been reported. However, the general effects of polysaccharides when co-administered with flavonoids are currently unknown. Herein, the influences of APS on aqueous solubilities and stabilities of fifteen flavonoids were systematically investigated, and the mechanism of effects of polysaccharides on flavonoids was further considered. The results showed that APS could significantly enhance the solubilities and stabilities of the flavonoids, with solubilization effect improved by 68.88-fold for quercetin and negatively correlated with the aqueous solubility of the flavonoid itself. A phase solubility study and Differential scanning calorimetry characterization indicated that APS could form complexes with flavonoids at 1:1 ratio with K values ranging from 1491 to 55,395 L·mol-1, a tendency to improved solubilization at higher association constant values was also observed. Those findings could provide the basis for a new approach to solving the problems of poor solubility and stability of flavonoids through the application of natural macromolecules.

10.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777864

RESUMO

Although chemotherapy is the most common method in clinical therapeutics with a straightforward mechanism, conventional anti-tumor drugs are still almost incapable of preventing the occurrence of tumor metastasis. In this study, we developed a multi-functional drug delivery system EINP@DOX consisting of a tea-derived polyphenol EGCG, iron ions and DOX. The system integrated the functions of tumor inhibition, diagnosis and metastasis prevention to achieve a systematic tumor treatment. The nanoscale size of EINP@DOX facilitated its accumulation in tumor tissues by means of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and it was then transferred to endosomes. The weakly acidic microenvironment in the endosomes of the tumor cells could destroy the coordination structure of EINP@DOX to realize the release of DOX for tumor therapy. Furthermore, the dissociative EGCG played the role of an adjuvant to restrain EMT and down-regulate the MMP levels, which could prevent the occurrence of tumor metastasis. Meanwhile, iron ions as superior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents provided visual evidence for the accurate location of EINP@DOX. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that EINP@DOX showed a remarkable performance in tumor diagnosis and excellent therapeutic efficacy, inhibiting the metastasis of tumor cells effectively at the same time.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a licensed inactivated EV71 vaccine is needed in a phase IV study with a large population to identify its effectiveness and safety for further application. METHODS: An open-label and controlled trial involving a large population of 155,995 children aged 6-71 months is performed; 40,724 were enrolled in the vaccine group and received 2 doses of inactivated EV71 vaccine at an interval of 1 month, and the remaining children were used as the control group. The EV71-infected hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases were monitored in the vaccine and control groups during a follow-up period of 14 months since the 28th days post inoculation through the local database of Notifiable Infectious Diseases Network. The effectiveness of the vaccine was estimated by comparing the incidence density in the vaccine group versus that in the control group based upon EV71 infected patients identified via laboratory testing. In parallel, the active and passive surveillance for safety of the vaccine was conducted by home or telephone visits and by using the Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) system, respectively. RESULTS: An overall level of 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.0 to 98.6) vaccine effectiveness (VE) against EV71 infection and a 4.58% rate of reported AEs were observed. Passive surveillance demonstrated a 0.31% rate of reported common minor reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical protection and safety of the EV71 vaccine were demonstrated in the immunization of a large population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03001986.

12.
ACS Omega ; 4(20): 18609-18615, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737820

RESUMO

Following the development of organic mechanoluminescence (ML) materials, molecular packing was proved as the key point to the emission process under an external force. In this text, with the introduction of spiro-(fluorene-9-9'-xanthene) (SFX) unit as the building block, the molecular packing of the resultant compound (BSFXA) was optimized with the interlaced mode, directly leading to the efficient ML effect. The key role of SFX with a spiro-structure can be further confirmed by the ML inactivity of reference compound BFA with the replacement of SFX unit by dimethyl fluorene (MeF), which provided a novel strategy to construct organic ML luminogens.

13.
J Environ Sci Health B ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694450

RESUMO

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a plant growth regulator (PGR) widely used in fruit and vegetable cultivation. However, due to the severe toxicity of PBZ, a sub-ppm level maximum residue limit (MRL) was established worldwide. Therefore, it is significant to propose a rapid, sensitive and high throughput screening method for monitoring the PBZ residues in foods. In this study, a simple and sensitive indirect competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established for PBZ detection in fruits basing polyclonal antibody. For both economy and pollution prevention, a microwave-solvent-free method was used to synthesize the PBZ hapten with high efficiency. The detection conditions, such as coating antigen concentration, antibody concentration, organic reagent concentration, ionic strength and pH, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed high sensitivity and specificity. The detection range is 1.27-138.23 ng/mL, half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50) is 13.26 ng/mL, and the IC20 was lower than the reported ELISAs for PBZ. Additionally, this method had high accuracy and precision. The recoveries were ranged from 88.78% to 96.80% in PBZ spiked apple samples with RSD below 4%. All the results showed that the polyclonal antibody based icELISA could be useful for PBZ screening in fruit samples.

14.
Metabolism ; 101: 153998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (aCP) is significantly higher than in other sellar region tumors, but the possible mechanism is still elusive. A high level of inflammatory responses is another feature of aCP. We investigated the internal connection between interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and GHD, while focusing on its biological activities in pituitary fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To diagnosis of GHD, the Body Mass Index (BMI), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1(IGF-1) and peak growth hormone (GH) values after insulin stimulation test of 15 aCP patients were recorded. Histological staining was performed on the aCP samples. Levels of 9 proinflammatory cytokines in tumor tissue and cell supernatant were detected using Millipore bead arrays. The effect of IL-1α on GH secretion was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Western blot, qRT-PCR and cell functional assays were used to explore the potential mechanism through which IL-1α acts on GH secretion. The stereotactic ALZET osmotic pump technique was used to simulate aCP secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in rats. Recombinant IL-1α (rrIL-1α) and conditioned media (CM) prepared from the supernatant of aCP cells was infused directly into the intra-sellar at a rate of 1 µl/h over 28 days, and then the effects of IL-1α treatment on pathological changes of pituitary gland and GH secretion were measured. To further confirm whether IL-1α affects GH secretion through IL-1R1, an IL-1R1 blocker (IL-1R1a, 10 mg/kg body weight, once daily) was administered subcutaneously from the first day until day 28. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between pituitary fibrosis and GHD (rS = 0.756, P = 0.001). A number of cytokines, in particular IL-1α, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), were elevated in tumor tissue and cell supernatant. Only IL-1α showed a significant difference between the GHD group and the No-GHD group (P < 0.001, F = 6.251 in tumor tissue; P = 0.003, F = 1.529 in cell supernatant). IL-1α significantly reduced GH secretion in coculture of GH3 and pericytes. The activation of pericytes induced by IL-1α was mediated by the IL-1R1 signaling pathway. In vivo, IL-1α induces pituitary fibrosis, further leading to a decreased level of GH. This pathological change was antagonized by IL-1R1a. CONCLUSION: This study found that the cross talk between aCP cells and stroma cells in the pituitary, i.e. pericytes, is an essential factor in the formation of GHD, and we propose that neutralization of IL-1α signaling might be a potential therapy for GHD in aCP.

15.
Commun Biol ; 2: 390, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667364

RESUMO

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal disorder in adolescents with a prevalence of 0.5-5.2% worldwide. The traditional methods for scoliosis screening are easily accessible but require unnecessary referrals and radiography exposure due to their low positive predictive values. The application of deep learning algorithms has the potential to reduce unnecessary referrals and costs in scoliosis screening. Here, we developed and validated deep learning algorithms for automated scoliosis screening using unclothed back images. The accuracies of the algorithms were superior to those of human specialists in detecting scoliosis, detecting cases with a curve ≥20°, and severity grading for both binary classifications and the four-class classification. Our approach can be potentially applied in routine scoliosis screening and periodic follow-ups of pretreatment cases without radiation exposure.

16.
Environ Pollut ; : 113462, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706772

RESUMO

Natural birnessite-like minerals are commonly enriched in various transitional metals (TMs), which greatly modify the mineral structure and properties. However few studies are yet conducted systematically on the effects of TM doping on birnessite reactivity towards Cr(III) oxidation. In the present study, the transformation behaviors of Cr(III) on Co-, Ni-, V-containing birnessites were investigated. Co and Ni doping generally decrease the mineral crystalline sizes and hydrodynamic sizes (DH) while V-doping greatly decreases the crystalline sizes but not the DH, owing to particle aggregation. Co and Ni firstly decrease and then increase the mineral zeta potentials (ζ) at pH4 while V decreases ζ. Electrochemical specific capacitances for Co-containing birnessites are gradually reduced, while those for Ni-doped birnessites are slightly reduced and for V-doped birnessites increased, which have a positively linear relationship with the amounts of Cr(III) oxidized by these samples. Cr(III) removal efficiencies from solution by these Co-, Ni- and V-containing birnessites are 26-51%, ∼62-72% and ∼96-100%, respectively, compared to ∼92% by pure birnessite. Cr(III) oxidation kinetics analysis demonstrates the gradual decrease of Mn(IV) and concurrent increase of Mn(III) and the adsorption of mainly Cr(III) on mineral surfaces. A negatively linear relationship exists between birnessite lateral sizes and the proportions of Mn(IV/III) consumed to oxidize Cr(III). Apparent initial Cr(III) oxidation rate (kobs) for Co-containing birnessites are greatly reduced, while those for Ni-doped samples moderately decreased and for V-doped samples first increased and then decreased. A positively or negatively linear relationship exists between kobs or the amount of Mn(II) released and the mineral Mn(IV) content respectively. Cr(III) oxidation probably initiates from layer edge sites of Ni-doped birnessites but the vacancies of Co- and V-containing birnessites. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms of Cr(III) with natural birnessite-like minerals.

17.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2489-2504.e4, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747615

RESUMO

Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and subsequent generations of matrix progeny make lineage choices by responding to spatiotemporal signals; however, the cues driving that specification are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dynamics of microRNA (miR)-29 expression are inversely proportional to HFSC lineage progression. Furthermore, we show that sustained miR-29a/b1 overexpression in anagen or telogen in mice causes a short-hair phenotype and eventual hair loss by inhibiting the proliferation of HFSCs and matrix cells and likely preventing their differentiation. Conversely, in a loss-of-function in vivo model, miR-29a/b1 deficiency accelerates HFSC lineage progression in telogen. Mechanistically, miR-29a/b1 blocks HFSC lineage specification by spatiotemporally targeting Ctnnb1, Lrp6, Bmpr1a, and Ccna2. We further show that skin-specific Lrp6 or Bmpr1a ablation partially accounts for the short-hair phenotype. Overall, these synergistic targets reveal miR-29a/b1 as a high-fidelity antagonist of HFSC lineage progression and a potential therapeutic target for hair loss.

18.
EMBO Rep ; : e48833, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721420

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome encodes for thirteen core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These proteins assemble with imported proteins in a modular manner into stoichiometric enzyme complexes. Assembly factors assist in these biogenesis processes by providing co-factors or stabilizing transient assembly stages. However, how expression of the mitochondrial-encoded subunits is regulated to match the availability of nuclear-encoded subunits is still unresolved. Here, we address the function of MITRAC15/COA1, a protein that participates in complex I biogenesis and complex IV biogenesis. Our analyses of a MITRAC15 knockout mutant reveal that MITRAC15 is required for translation of the mitochondrial-encoded complex I subunit ND2. We find that MITRAC15 is a constituent of a ribosome-nascent chain complex during ND2 translation. Chemical crosslinking analyses demonstrate that binding of the ND2-specific assembly factor ACAD9 to the ND2 polypeptide occurs at the C-terminus and thus downstream of MITRAC15. Our analyses demonstrate that expression of the founder subunit ND2 of complex I undergoes regulation. Moreover, a ribosome-nascent chain complex with MITRAC15 is at the heart of this process.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623380

RESUMO

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micro-angular vibration sensor is a significant component of the MHD Inertial Reference Unit (MIRU) and measures micro-amplitude and wide frequency angular vibration. The MHD micro-angular vibration sensor must be calibrated in orbit since the ground calibration parameters may change after lift-off. An on-orbit dynamic calibration method for the MHD micro-angular vibration sensor is proposed to calibrate the complex sensitivity of the sensor in high frequency. An absolute calibration method that combines a homodyne laser interferometer and an angular retroreflector was developed. The sinusoidal approximation method was applied, and the calibration system was established and tested using a manufactured MHD sensor. Furthermore, the measurement principle and installation errors were analyzed, including the eccentric installation error of the retroreflector, the tilt installation error of the retroreflector, and the optical path tilt error. This method can be realized within a rotation range of ± 3 ∘ and effectively avoid the installation error caused by mechanical errors. The results indicate that the calibratable angular vibration frequency range is 25-800 Hz, and the angular velocity range is 0.076 -7590 mrad/s. The expanded uncertainties of the sensitivity amplitude and phase shift of the calibration system for the MHD micro-angular sensor are 0.04 % and 1.2 ∘ ( k = 2 ) .

20.
Cutis ; 104(2): 103-105, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603962

RESUMO

Dermatology hospitalists (DHs) provide consultative care to inpatients with skin conditions. In this study, we surveyed current members of the Society for Dermatology Hospitalists (SDH) regarding barriers to care, current and ideal compensation models, and overall job satisfaction to evaluate the overall job satisfaction of DHs and further describe potential barriers to inpatient dermatology consultations.

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