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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 53, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) non-response and coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) have experienced the increasing trends in China. In addition, the enhancement of pediatricians' awareness may also raise the diagnostic rate of incomplete KD and stimulate more aggressive initial therapy in the acute episode of KD. Given this background, we hypothesize that the time option of IVIG treatment should be in parallel with peak time of systemic inflammation; either earlier or later IVIG treatment may affect the clinical classification, therapeutic responsiveness and CAA occurrence in KD patients. Therefore, the major objective of the present study is to identify whether the time option of IVIG treatment could be associated with the clinical classification, therapeutic responsiveness and CAA occurrence in the acute episode of KD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153 children with KD were recruited between July 2015 and May 2018. All patients received the standard therapy of KD, including a single infusion of IVIG (2 g/kg) and aspirin (30-50 mg/kg/d). Blood samples were collected from all subjects within 24 h pre-IVIG treatment, respectively. Echocardiography was performed during the period from 2 days to 14 days after IVIG treatment. RESULTS: (1) The clinical classification presented no significant heterogenicity among different treatment time (x2 = 1.59, p > 0.05) (2) Eleven KD patients resisted to IVIG treatment and 7 of them (63.60%) received the initial IVIG dose on day 5 and 6. (3) The distribution of CAA onset was subjected to a significant difference according to timing option of IVIG treatment (x2 = 11.94, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The time option of IVIG treatment is associated with therapeutic responsiveness and CAA but not with clinical classification in the acute episode of KD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the specific etiology of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is still unknown, several kinds of infectious triggers have been proved to participate in its pathogenesis. The objectives of present study were to analyze the association of the infectious triggers with childhood HSP in Anhui province, China. METHODS: 1200 HSP children were recruited from January 2015 to December 2017. Serum antistreptolysin O titer, TORCH, Epstein-Barr virus, helicobacter pylori (HP), Mycoplasma antibodies (MP-Ab), tubercle bacillus antibody (TB-Ab), respiratory pathogens (legionella pneumophila, chlamydia pneumoniae, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, rickettsia, parainfluenza virus) were determined. Patients' histories were obtained by interviews and questionnaires. RESULTS: The annual incidence of HSP was 8.13-9.17 per 100,000. HSP occurred more commonly in spring and winter than in summer with an obvious west-to-east gradient. On admission, several potential infections were identified in 611 cases (50.92%). The infectious agents including streptococcus, HP, MP, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, TB and toxoplasma gondii were identified in 205 cases (17.08%), 71 cases (5.92%), 58 cases (4.83%), 6 cases (0.5%), 1 case (0.08%), 1 case (0.08%) and 1 case (0.08%) respectively. 123 cases (10.25%) relapsed or recurred more than one time; the mean number was 2.92, and the mean interval was 11.4 weeks. The infection was the most frequent trigger regardless of clinical phenotypes and relapse/recurrence. Symptomatic treatment plus adjunctive anti-infectious agents could significantly improve the remission rate of purpura in the infectious cases (x2=24.60, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus is the most frequent infectious agent in HSP children regardless of clinical phenotype or relapse/recurrence. The complete elimination of infectious triggers may help relieve cutaneous purpura.

3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 517(1): 8-14, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common progressive cardiac arrhythmia and is often associated with rapid contraction in both atria and ventricles. The role of atrial energy and metabolic homeostasis in AF progression is under-investigated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the remodeling of energy metabolism during persistent AF and the effect of eplerenone (EPL), an aldosterone inhibitor, on metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: A nonsustained atrial pacing sheep model was developed to simulate the progression of AF from paroxysmal to persistent. Metabolomic and proteomic analyses at termination of the experiment were used to analyze atrial tissues obtained from sheep in sham, sugar pill (SP) and EPL-treated groups. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis indicated that compared to the sham group, in SP group, fatty acid (FA) synthesis, FA oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle processes and amino acids (AAs) transport and metabolism were reduced, while glycolytic processes were increased. In metabolomic analysis, the levels of intermediate metabolites of the glycolytic pathways, including 2-phosphoglyceric acid (2 PG), 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3 PG), and pyruvate, HBP (uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, UDP-GlcNAc), TCA (citrate) and AAs were greater while the levels of the majority of lipid classes, including phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), glycerophosphoglycerophosphates (PGP), glycerophosphoinositols (PI) and glycerophosphoserines (PS), were decreased in the atria of SP group than in those of sham group. EPL-pretreatment decreased the expression of glut4 and increased the content of acylcarnitines and lipids, such as lyso phospholipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids. CONCLUSION: In the metabolic remodeling during AF, glucose and lipid metabolism were up- and down-regulated, respectively, to sustain TCA cycle anaplerosis. EPL partialy reversed the metabolic shifting.

4.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 50(2): 206-211, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Replacement of a sole computed tomography (CT) simulator at a Regional Cancer Centre risks interruption of patient access to radiation therapy clinical services. This study reports a collaboration model between two cancer centres to maintain patient access to radiation therapy during the replacement period. METHODS: Representatives from each cancer centre collaborated to plan and facilitate offsite CT simulation. Activities required were identified and included process coordination, patient consent, patient registration, requisitions, appointment bookings, immobilization equipment, staffing strategy, clinical practice protocols, data transfer, and cost recovery. The logistics of each activity were planned and mapped, with roles identified to perform each activity. During the 2-week replacement duration, from April 30 to May 11, 2018, patients consulted for radiotherapy were offered offsite CT simulation. RESULTS: A detailed process was developed to outline the flow of activities for successful coordination of offsite CT simulations. A total of 14 patients consented to radiation treatment during the CT simulator replacement downtime, of which 8 patients agreed to offsite CT simulation. A total of 11 body regions were simulated for the 8 patients. CT images acquired offsite were electronically transferred to the primary cancer centre to proceed with treatment planning and delivery. DISCUSSION: A collaboration model between two cancer centres was successfully developed and implemented to maintain patient access to radiation therapy during the replacement of a sole CT simulator at a regional cancer centre. CONCLUSION: This strategy and process developed could be valuable for future major equipment upgrades/replacements at other centres.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1106-1114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146316

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) has been demonstrated to be key component for diverse applications. However, their potential environmental reactivity, fate and risk have not been fully evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the photochemical reactivity of four types of GO with different oxidation degrees in aqueous environment, and their related toxicity to two bacterial models Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was further compared. After UV-irradiation, a large amount of oxygen functional groups on GO were reduced and the electronic conjugations within GO were restored as indicated by UV-visible absorption spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy analysis. Moreover, the higher the oxidation degree of the pristine GO was, the more obvious of the photo-transformation changes were. In order to further reveal the photochemical reactivity mechanisms, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of GO was monitored. The quantity of ROS including singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide anions (O2·-), and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) increased with increasing oxidation degree of GO, which was in accordance with the previous characterization results. Scanning electron microscopy and cell growth analyses of E. coli and S. aureus showed that the photochemical transformation enhanced the toxicity of GO, which might be due to an increase in functional group density. The higher conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was responsible for its stronger toxicity than GO through membrane damage and oxidative stress to bacteria. This study revealed that the oxidation degrees play important roles in photochemical transformation and the resulting toxicity of GO, which is helpful for understanding the environmental behaviors and risks of GO in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grafite/efeitos da radiação , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
6.
Anal Chem ; 91(7): 4413-4420, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816698

RESUMO

In this work, we developed a simple electrochemical method for ultrasensitive and label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) based on direct plasmon-enhanced electrochemistry (DPEE). After plasmonic gold nanostars (AuNSs) were modified on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode, the aptamer probe was immobilized on the AuNSs surface, which can selectively capture the CTCs in samples. Upon localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation, the electrochemical current response can be enhanced remarkably due to efficient hot electrons transport from AuNSs to the external circuit. The captured cells on the AuNSs surface will influence the hot electrons transport efficiency, leading to a decreased current response. Using ascorbic acid (AA) as the electroactive probe, it was found that the current responses of the AuNSs/GC electrode upon light irradiation decrease with the cell concentration. Due to the special molecular recognition of the aptamer and enhanced electrochemical performance of the plasmon, the proposed method enables an ultrasensitive and label-free detection of CTCs with excellent selectivity. The experimental results show that CCRF-CEM cell concentrations as low as 5 cells/mL can be successfully detected, which is superior to most reported work up to now. Using the present method, MCF-7 cells as low as 10 cells/mL can be also successfully detected, indicating the universality of the proposed method for CTCs detection. Furthermore, the cytosensor can successfully distinguish CTCs from normal cells in blood samples. The as-proposed strategy provides a promising application of DPEE in the development of novel biosensors for nondestructive analysis of biological samples.

7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(5): 1133-1146, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been applied in a variety of therapies recently. However, the role of MSCs in tumor progression remains largely elusive. Some studies demonstrated that MSCs can promote tumor growth, while others had opposite results. Therefore, the lack of evidence about the effect of MSCs on tumor cells impedes its further use. METHODS: In the current study, hMSCs from amniotic membrane (hAMSCs) and umbilical cord (hUCMSCs) were used to evaluate the effects of MSCs on tumor development in vitro and in vivo. Two different animal models based on subcutaneous xenograft bearing nude mice and a murine experimental metastatic model were established for in vivo study. Moreover, cytokines regulated by MSCs co-cultured with cancer cells SPC-A-1 were also analyzed by cytokine array. RESULTS: Our results indicated that hUCMSCs not only did not promote proliferation in cancer cells, but also inhibited migration. In addition, they inhibited tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Although hAMSCs also showed inhibitory effects on cancer cell motility, the proliferation of cancer cells was indeed enhanced. The in vivo data revealed that hUCMSCs did not promote tumor progression in lung adenocarcinoma and gastric carcinoma xenografts. Nevertheless, hAMSCs could do. The results from murine experimental metastatic model also demonstrated that neither hUCMSCs nor hAMSCs significantly enhanced the lung metastasis. The data from cytokine array showed that 11 inflammatory factors, 8 growth factors and 11 chemokines were remarkably secreted and changed. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the data from in vitro and in vivo studies, the exploitation of hUCMSCs in new therapeutic strategies should be safe compared to hAMSCs under malignant conditions. Moreover, this is the first report to systematically elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms involved in UCMSC- and AMSC-affected tumor growth and metastasis.


Assuntos
Âmnio/citologia , Comunicação Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica
8.
Opt Lett ; 44(3): 675-678, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702708

RESUMO

Early cancer non-invasive diagnosis is a leading medical topic worldwide due to the threat to human life and the high death rate of this disease. Light-absorption-based thermophotonic diagnostic imaging is well positioned for this challenge thanks to its speed, safety, and high molecular contrast advantages. In this Letter, an enhanced truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT) imaging modality is presented for early in vivo tumor detection and tested using a nude mouse thigh. Compared with conventional TC-PCT, the enhanced imaging modality was found to exhibit higher contrast that contributed to the precise measurement of the size and shape of the detected tumor. The experimental results were validated following histological analysis from hematoxylin and eosin staining. This increased contrast advantage gives rise to possible clinical applications in early tumor detection and treatment and in monitoring the effects of anti-tumor drugs.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Tomografia/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Anal Chem ; 91(5): 3582-3589, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758184

RESUMO

A biomimetic nanochannel-ionchannel hybrid coupled with electrochemical detector was developed for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of microRNA (miRNA) in cells. Probe single stranded DNA (ssDNA) was first immobilized on the outer surface of the nanochannel-ionchannel hybrid membrane, which can hybridize with the target miRNA in cells. Due to the unique mass transfer property of the hybrid, the DNA-miRNA hybridization kinetics can be sensitively monitored in real-time using the electrochemical technique. More importantly, due to the super small size of the ionchannels, the DNA probe immobilization and hybridization process can be carried out on the outer surface of the ionchannel side, which can effectively avoid the blockage and damage of channels and thus considerably enhance the reproducibility and accuracy of the method. Using this strategy, the miRNA ranging from 0.1 fM to 0.1 µM can be facilely detected with a low detection limit of 15.4 aM, which is much lower than most reported work. The present strategy provides a sensitive and label-free miRNA detection platform, which will be of great significance in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

10.
Head Neck ; 41(7): 2271-2276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distant metastases (DM) are a leading cause of death for patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC). The objective of this study was to compare the rates of DM after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and radiotherapy alone (RT) in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC. METHOD: In a retrospective population-based study of 525 patients across Ontario, Canada, in 1998/99/03/04, we compared treatment effectiveness using cumulative incidence function curves and cause-specific Cox regression models. RESULTS: Sixty of 525 patients developed DM. There was no difference in rates (overall 10%-15%) between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients or between CRT- and RT-treated patients. CRT reduced the risk of DM for the 15% of all HPV-positive patients with higher risk (T4 and/or N3) and not for HPV-negative patients (hazard ratio, 1.82 [0.65-5.07]). CONCLUSION: The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to conventional RT did not decrease the rates of DM in the majority of patients with HPV-positive or in HPV-negative OPSSC.

11.
Mycologia ; 111(1): 78-102, 2019 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657437

RESUMO

Vietnam and Indonesia have rapidly growing and extensive plantation forestry programs, especially of Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. As these plantations expand, the threat from pests and diseases also increases. Calonectria species are among those pathogens causing diseases of trees in plantations and nurseries in these countries. Extensive surveys were conducted across plantations and nurseries of Vietnam and parts of Indonesia, where a large number of Calonectria isolates were retrieved from diseased leaves and soils associated with symptomatic trees. The aim of this study was to identify and resolve the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates using DNA sequence comparisons of four gene regions as well as morphological characters. From a collection of 165 isolates, the study revealed five known and 10 undescribed species. The relatively high diversity of Calonectria species found in this study supports the view that many more species in this genus remain to be discovered in other areas of Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hypocreales/classificação , Hypocreales/genética , Filogenia , Acacia/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Eucalyptus/microbiologia , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Indonésia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Vietnã
12.
Clin Exp Med ; 19(2): 173-181, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617865

RESUMO

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, systemic vasculitis and occurs mainly in childhood. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine synthesized predominantly by neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and plays an important role in systemic inflammatory disease. However, a little information is currently available on the relationship of serum IL-6 with conventional inflammatory mediators, clinical classification, IVIG response and coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). 165 Chinese children with KD were enrolled and divided into six subgroups, including complete KD, incomplete KD, IVIG-responsive KD, IVIG-nonresponsive KD, coronary artery noninvolvement KD and coronary artery involvement KD. Blood samples were collected from all subjects within 24-h pre- and 48-h post-IVIG therapy, respectively. Serum IL-6 and conventional inflammatory mediators were detected. (1) Serum IL-6 markedly increased in the acute phase of KD, whereas declined to normal after IVIG therapy; it was positively correlated with C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. (2) Serum IL-6 was significantly elevated in patients with incomplete KD when compared with their complete counterparts. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value for serum IL-6 in prediction of incomplete KD was 0.596, and the estimated sensitivity and specificity were 77.80% and 54.40% with a cutoff of IL-6 > 13.25 pg/ml, respectively. (3) Serum IL-6 was significantly elevated in patients with IVIG-nonresponsive KD when compared with their IVIG-responsive counterparts; the AUC value for serum IL-6 in prediction of IVIG-nonresponsive KD was 0.580, and the estimated sensitivity and specificity were 60.00% and 66.30% with a cutoff of IL-6 > 26.40 pg/ml, respectively. (4) No significant differences in IL-6 were found between KD patients with and without CAA. IL-6 is prone to be a candidate biomarker for predicting incomplete and IVIG nonresponsive KD rather than CAA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aneurisma Coronário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/patologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Falha de Tratamento
13.
Fitoterapia ; 133: 96-101, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605781

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on the twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa (Euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation of flueggenoids A - E (1-5), five new 13-methyl-ent-podocarpanes, together with eleven known compounds (6-16). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of extensive MS and NMR data analysis, and/or single-crystal X-ray diffraction, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)-based electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and chemical transformation. All isolates were evaluated for anti-HCV activity, the results showed that terpenoids of F. virosa had nonnegligible contribution for the anti-HCV activity.


Assuntos
Malpighiales/química , Terpenos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e023893, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the first global health bachelor curriculum in China. DESIGN: The Delphi methodology was used to determine expert consensus on which courses should be included in the global health bachelor curriculum. A literature review and a workshop proceeding were performed to generate courses. Then a two-round Delphi process was conducted with 28 invited experts from universities, health administrative departments and non-governmental organisations to rate courses using a 5-point Likert scale. Additionally, the experts could alter, add or delete courses as appropriate. Consensus was predefined as a mean score of 4 or above and the percent agreement (proportion of panel members scoring 'very important' or 'important') no less than 75%. RESULTS: The responses in the two-round Delphi process were 85.7% and 70.8%, respectively. In the first round, 12 courses did not meet the inclusion criteria and were removed. Based on the participants' comments, 32 courses were included in round 2. In the second round, the consensus was reached on 31 courses which were selected as the final curriculum. These courses were categorised into five modules, including General Knowledge, Methodology, Global Health Issues, Intercultural Communication, and Health Policy and Programme Management. CONCLUSION: This study established the first global health bachelor curriculum in China. It will provide guidance for other educational institutions to develop similar programmes or curricula in the future.

15.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(5): 979-986, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684662

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the pathways and gateways to leadership and challenges faced by individuals in such roles can inform efforts to promote diversity and equity. We sought to describe the professional experiences and personal characteristics of academic radiation oncology (RO) chairs and to evaluate whether differences exist by gender. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Anonymous surveys were distributed to 95 chairs of RO departments during the 2016 annual meeting of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs. The surveys included 28 closed-ended questions and the Leadership Practices Inventory. Results were analyzed by gender using χ2 tests, rank-sum, and t tests (significance P < .05). RESULTS: A total of 72 chairs responded (61 male, 10 female, 1 declined to identify gender) for a response rate of 76%. There were no significant gender differences in age, academic rank, publications, or prior leadership positions held at the time of the first chair appointment, but female respondents held significantly greater total direct funding from extramural grants than their male counterparts (median, $1.89 million [interquartile range, $0.5-$5 million] vs $0.25 million [interquartile range, $0-$1.0 million]; P = .006). Women were more likely to have spouses employed outside the home at time of their first chair appointment than men were, with a trend toward women experiencing greater difficulty relocating. Men and women identified budgeting and resource allocation as their greatest professional challenges. There were no gender differences in the Leadership Practices Inventory-identified leadership domains or professional goals. CONCLUSIONS: Female RO chairs are as equally qualified as men in terms of productivity or leadership skills, but they face distinct challenges in the context of a gender-structured society. The observation of higher grant funding among women at the time of chair appointment suggests a possible need for interventions such as unconscious bias training to ensure that selection processes do not unnecessarily hold women to a higher standard.

16.
Chemosphere ; 214: 688-694, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292051

RESUMO

Microplastics have become a major concern in recent years as they can be recognized as the transport vectors for pollutants in environment. In this study, the sorption behavior of two phthalate esters (PAEs), including diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), onto three types of microplastics (PVC: polyvinyl chloride, PE: polyethylene, and PS: polystyrene) was investigated. The sorption isotherms of both DEP and DBP on microplastics were highly linear, suggesting that the partition was the main sorption mechanism. The Kd values of DBP were much higher than those of DEP, demonstrating that hydrophobic interaction governed the partition mechanism. Sorption of the two PAEs on the three microplastics followed the order of PS > PE > PVC, indicating that chemical properties of microplastics played an important roles in their sorption behaviors. Solution pH and natural organic matter had no significant impact on PAEs sorption by microplastics. However, the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 enhanced the sorption of both DEP and DBP because of the salting-out effect. The findings of the present study may have significant implications for the fate and transport assessment of both PAEs and microplastics.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Polietileno/química , Poliestirenos/química , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Polietileno/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Cloreto de Polivinila/metabolismo
17.
J Investig Med ; 67(4): 771-778, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530785

RESUMO

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common autoimmune vasculitis in childhood. The detailed pathogenesis of HSP is still unclear, whereas several types of predisposing factors have been proved to be the initial step. The objectives of present study were to analyze the distribution of predisposing factors, association of the predisposing factors with clinical manifestations and HSP relapse/recurrence. 1200 children with HSP were recruited between January 2015 and December 2017. We reviewed their laboratory tests and medical histories associated with HSP onset. The annual incidence of HSP was 8.13-9.17 per 100 000 in Anhui province. HSP occurred more commonly in spring and winter than in summer with an obvious west-to-east gradient. Cutaneous purpura was the most prevalent manifestation (100%), followed by arthritis/arthralgias (43.67%), abdominal pain (40.17%) and renal involvement (18.17%). On admission, series of potential infections were identified in 611 patients (50.92%). The histories of allergy, injury, surgery, vaccination and tick bite were declared by 231 patients (19.25%), 15 patients (1.25%), 12 patients (1.00%), 4 patients (0.33%) and 3 patients (0.25%), respectively. However, predisposing factors could not be identified in 521 children with HSP (43.42%) yet. 123 cases (10.25%) relapsed or recurred more than one time; the mean number was 2.92, and the mean interval was 11.4 weeks. The infection is the most frequent predisposing factor regardless of clinical phenotypes and relapse/recurrence, whereas the clinical manifestations exhibit an obvious heterogenicity according to different predisposing factors.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 509-517, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583159

RESUMO

Toxicity of single microplastics on organisms has been reported widely, however, their joint toxicity with other contaminants on phytoplankton is rarely investigated. Here, we studied the toxicity of triclosan (TCS) with four kinds of microplastics namely polyethylene (PE, 74 µm), polystyrene (PS, 74 µm), polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 74 µm), and PVC800 (1 µm) on microalgae Skeletonema costatum. Both growth inhibition and oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. We found that TCS had obvious inhibition effect on microalgae growth within the test concentrations, and single microplastics also had significant inhibition effect which followed the order of PVC800 > PVC > PS > PE. However, the joint toxicity of PVC and PVC800 in combination with TCS decreased more than that of PE and PS. The higher adsorption capacity of TCS on PVC and PVC800 was one possible reason for the greater reduction of their toxicity. The joint toxicity of PVC800 was still most significant (PE < PVC < PS < PVC800) because of the minimum particle size. According to the independent action model, the joint toxicity systems were all antagonism. Moreover, the reduction of SOD was higher than MDA which revealed that the physical damage was more serious than intracellular damage. SEM images revealed that the aggregation of microplastics and physical damage on algae was obvious. Collectively, the present research provides evidences that the existence of organic pollutants is capable of influencing the effects of microplastics, and the further research on the joint toxicity of microplastics with different pollutants is urgent.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Polietileno/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Cloreto de Polivinila/toxicidade , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adsorção , Malondialdeído/análise , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5116, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504805

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) promote cancer metastasis in preclinical models following massive exogenous inflammatory stimuli. It remains unknown whether cancer hosts under physiologic conditions experience NETosis and consequent metastasis. Here we show that plasma redox imbalance caused by albumin oxidation promotes inflammation-independent NETosis. Albumin is the major source of free thiol that maintains redox balance. Oxidation of albumin-derived free thiol is sufficient to trigger NETosis via accumulation of reactive oxygen species within neutrophils. The resultant NETs are found predominantly within lungs where they contribute to the colonization of circulating tumor cells leading to pulmonary metastases. These effects are abrogated by pharmacologic inhibition of NET formation. Moreover, albumin oxidation is associated with pulmonary metastasis in a cohort of head and neck cancer patients. These results implicate plasma redox balance as an endogenous and physiologic regulator of NETosis and pulmonary cancer metastasis, providing new therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities for combatting cancer progression.

20.
Cell Rep ; 25(5): 1318-1331.e4, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380421

RESUMO

Overall survival remains very poor for patients diagnosed as having head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identification of additional biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies are important for improving patient outcomes. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), generated by implanting fresh tumor tissue directly from patients into immunodeficient mice, recapitulate many of the features of their corresponding clinical cancers, including histopathological and molecular profiles. Using a large collection of PDX models of HNSCC, we demonstrate that rapid engraftment into immunocompromised mice is highly prognostic and show that genomic deregulation of the G1/S checkpoint pathway correlates with engraftment. Furthermore, CCND1 and CDKN2A genomic alterations are predictive of response to the CDK4and CDK6 inhibitor abemaciclib. Overall, our study supports the pursuit of CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for a substantial proportion of HNSCC patients and demonstrates the potential of using PDX models to identify targeted therapies that will benefit patients who have the poorest outcomes.

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