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1.
Water Res ; 168: 115159, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614234

RESUMO

Worldwide, it is common that the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) may be subjected to changes of supply water quality due to the needs of upgrading the treatment processes or switching the source water. However, the potential impacts of quality changed supply water on the stabilized ecological niches within DWDSs and the associated water quality deterioration risks were poorly documented. In the present study, such transition effects caused by changing the supply water quality that resulted from destabilization of biofilm and loose deposits in DWDS were investigated by analyzing the physiochemical and microbiological characteristics of suspended particles before (T0), during (T3-weeks) and after upgrading the treatments (T6-months) in an unchlorinated DWDS in the Netherlands. Our results demonstrated that after 6 months' time the upgraded treatments significantly improved the water quality. Remarkably, water quality deterioration was observed at the initial stage when the quality-improved treated water distributed into the network at T3-weeks, observed as a spike of total suspended solids (TSS, 50-260%), active biomass (ATP, 95-230%) and inorganic elements (e.g. Mn, 130-250%). Furthermore, pyrosequencing results revealed sharp differences in microbial community composition and structure for the bacteria associated with suspended particles between T0 and T3-weeks, which re-stabilized after 6 months at T6-months. The successful capture of transition effects was especially confirmed by the domination of Nitrospira spp. and Polaromonas spp. in the distribution system at T3-weeks, which were detected at rather low relative abundance at treatment plant. Though the transitional effects were captured, this study shows that the introduction of softening and additional filtration did not have an effect on the water quality for the consumer which improved considerably after 6-months' period. The methodology of monitoring suspended particles with MuPFiSs and additional analysis is capable of detecting transitional effects by monitoring the dynamics of suspended particles and its physiochemical and microbiological composition.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Biofilmes , Países Baixos , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 29817-29828, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684238

RESUMO

Optical discrete multi-tone (DMT) is one type of direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM), and it is more suitable for cost-sensitive access networks and optical interconnections due to its simple structure. In DMT transmitter, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is an essential function for achieving OFDM modulation, and its input data are constrained to have Hermitian symmetry (HS). To support high-speed DMT signal generation, a fully-parallel implementation of IFFT is preferable. However, the hardware implementation of the conventional complex-valued IFFT (CC-IFFT) requires large area and has high power consumption. Based on the nature of HS, we design and implement a fully-parallel pipelined 128-point radix-2 decimation-in-time Hermitian-symmetric IFFT (HS-IFFT) by using a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. On-chip resource utilization is analyzed for both the proposed HS-IFFT and CC-IFFT. It exhibits that the HS-IFFT can save up to 35% multipliers, 49% registers and 43% look-up tables (LUTs) compared to the CC-IFFT. Also, by using the HS-IFFT and CC-IFFT, two FPGA-based real-time baseband DMT transmitters are implemented and power consumption is estimated. More than 32% of on-chip power is saved by using the HS-IFFT. Moreover, the two DMT transmitters are also experimentally demonstrated in a short-reach directly-modulated laser (DML)-based optical DMT system. The experimental results show that the HS-IFFT-DMT has the same bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) performances as the CC-IFFT-DMT in both electrical/optical back-to-back cases (EB2B/OB2B) and post 20-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission.

3.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 29297-29308, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684666

RESUMO

We investigate theoretically the generation and enhancement of sum sideband in a quadratically coupled optomechanical system with parametric interactions. It is shown that the generation of frequency components at the sum sideband stems from the nonlinear optomechanical interactions via two-phonon processes in the quadratically coupled optomechanical system, while an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) inside the system can considerably improve the sum sideband generation (SSG). The dependence of SSG on the system parameters, including the power of the control field, the frequency detuning of the probe fields and the nonlinear gain of OPA are analyzed in detail. Our analytic calculation indicates that the SSG can be obtained even under weak driven fields and greatly enhanced via meeting the matching conditions. The effect of SSG may have potential applications for achieving measurement of electric charge (or other weak forces) with higher precision and on-chip manipulation of light propagation.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689974

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by plants are closely associated with plant metabolism and can serve as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening or yellow shoot disease, is a lethal threat to the multi-billion-dollar citrus industry. Early detection of HLB is vital for removal of susceptible citrus trees and containment of the disease. Gas sensors are applied to monitor the air quality or toxic gases owing to their low-cost fabrication, smooth operation, and possible miniaturization. Here, we report on the development, characterization, and application of electrical biosensor arrays based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for the detection of four VOCs-ethylhexanol, linalool, tetradecene, and phenylacetaldehyde-that serve as secondary biomarkers for detection of infected citrus trees during the asymptomatic stage. SWNTs were noncovalently functionalized with ssDNA using π-π interaction between the nucleotide and sidewall of SWNTs. The resulting ssDNA-SWNT hybrid structure and device properties were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. To monitor changes in the four VOCs, gas biosensor arrays consisting of bare SWNTs before and after being decorated with different ssDNA were employed to determine the different concentrations of the four VOCs. The data was processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and neural net fitting (NNF).

5.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692338

RESUMO

Dynamic tracking of the spatiotemporal coordination among various organelles to in-depth understanding of the mechanism of autophagy have attracted considerable attentions. However, the monitor of nucleoli participation in autophagy was somehow neglected. Herein, we report a RNA-targeted bio-probe (ADAP) with high selective permeability into nuclear pore complexes, which induced two-photon (TP) fluorescence "off-on" response by groove combination with RNA, dynamically monitoring the autophagy process among multi-organelles (nucleoli, mitochondria and mitochondria-containing lysosomes). This work provides a simple and convenient way to observe the dynamic behavior of multi-organelles during the autophagy process, which benefits for the understanding of cellular metabolism.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aminosalicylic acids are recognized to be the first-line treatment options for ulcerative colitis. Currently, the effectiveness of curcumin as an adjuvant treatment in ulcerative colitis has been investigated, which was still controversial. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety of curcumin as an adjuvant treatment in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from original to July 2019, and relevant randomized controlled clinical trials were enrolled and analyzed. The primary outcomes were clinical and endoscopic remission; meanwhile, the secondary outcomes were clinical and endoscopic improvement. Subgroup analyses of doses, delivery way, form, and intervention time of curcumin were also conducted. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 349 patients were included. Eligible trials suggested that adjuvant curcumin treatment in ulcerative colitis was effective in inducing clinical remission (odds ratio [OR] = 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-14.56, P = 0.002), endoscopic remission (OR = 5.69, 95% CI: 1.28-25.27, P = 0.02), and endoscopic improvement (OR = 17.05, 95% CI: 1.30-233.00, P = 0.03), but not in clinical improvement (OR = 4.79, 95% CI: 1.02-22.43, P = 0.05). We can see the potential advantages in large dosage, topical enema, special drug form, and longer duration from the enrolled studies. There were no severe side effects reported. CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin, as an adjuvant treatment of mesalamine, was proved to be effective and safe in ulcerative colitis. Better efficacy can be achieved with suitable dose, delivery way, formation, and intervention time, which needs further study to verify.

7.
Nanotoxicology ; : 1-19, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703536

RESUMO

Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) are central microdomains of the ER that interact with mitochondria. MAMs provide an essential platform for crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria and play a critical role in the local transfer of calcium (Ca2+) to maintain cellular functions. Despite the potential uses of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO-NPs) in biomedical applications, the hepatotoxicity of these nanoparticles (NPs) is not well characterized and little is known about the involvement of MAMs in ER-mitochondria crosstalk. We studied SPIO-NPs-associated hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, human normal hepatic L02 cells were exposed to SPIO-NPs (2.5, 7.5, and 12.5 µg/mL) for 6 h and SPIO-NPs (12.5 µg/mL) was found to induce apoptosis. In vivo, SPIO-NPs induced liver injury when mice were intravenously injected with 20 mg/kg body weight SPIO-NPs for 24 h. Based on both in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that the structure and Ca2+ transport function of MAMs were perturbated and an accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in MAMs fractions was increased upon treatment of SPIO-NPs. The interaction between COX-2 and the components of MAMs, in terms of IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex, was also revealed. Furthermore, the role of COX-2 in SPIO-NPs-associated hepatotoxicity was investigated by modifying the expression of COX-2. We demonstrated that COX-2 increases the structural and functional ER-mitochondria coupling and enhances the efficacy of ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAMs, thus sensitizing hepatocytes to a mitochondrial Ca2+ overload-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, our findings link SPIO-NPs-triggered hepatotoxicity with ER-mitochondria Ca2+ crosstalk which is mediated by COX-2 and provide mechanistic insight into the impact of interorganelle ER-mitochondria communication on hepatic nanotoxicity.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670334

RESUMO

A Cp*CoIII-catalyzed arene C-H bond amidation/annulation of benzamides was developed to afford quinazolinone derivatives in one-pot with high yields and broad substrate scope. This method could be applied to the synthesis of quinazolinone drugs and late-stage modification of natural products.

9.
Appl Opt ; 58(27): 7367-7374, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674382

RESUMO

Division of focal plane (DoFP) polarization imaging sensors have the distinct advantage of acquiring temporally synchronized Stokes vector in one scene. The sensors' spatially modulated arrangement of a micropolarization array results in loss of spatial resolution and instantaneous field-of-overview errors. Polarization demosaicking (PDM) methods are often utilized to address these drawbacks and achieve the goal of recovering missing polarization information. In this paper, we propose minimized Laplacian polarization residual interpolation for PDM. The Laplacian energy is introduced to improve the interpolation accuracy. We employ interchannel correlation and a guided filter to generate precise tentative estimates and the interpolation performed in the residual domain, where the residuals are the differences between observed values and tentative estimates. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides superior performance in terms of mean average error and peak signal-to-noise ratio.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105964, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669889

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by gram-positive bacteria threatens human life because effective treatments and medicines is unavailable. Protostemonine (PSN), an active alkaloid mainly isolated from the roots of Stemona sesslifolia, has anti-inflammatory effects on asthma and gram-negative bacteria-induced ALI. Here, we found that PSN exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and alleviates heat-killed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HKMRSA)-induced pneumonia. PSN treatment significantly attenuated HKMRSA-induced pathological injury, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, tissue permeability and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) in murine ALI model. In addition, PSN decreased the content of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and the expression of iNOS, as well as the production of NO in HKMRSA-induced bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Furthermore, treatment with PSN suppressed the activation of MAPKs (e.g. p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK) and NF-κB. Collectively, our results suggest that PSN ameliorates gram-positive bacteria-induced ALI in mice by inhibition of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and our studies suggest that PSN might be a novel candidate for treating ALI/ARDS.

11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 227: 117581, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670044

RESUMO

A novel multifunctional diarylethene fluorescence sensor 1O containing pyrene unit was designed and synthesized. The photochromism and fluorescence photoswitching properties of this diarylethene were studied in detail by irradiation of UV/Vis lights and response of metal ions in acetonitrile solution. Diarylethene fluorescence sensor 1O has high selectivity and sensitivity for the detections of Cd2+ and Zn2+. The limit of detections (LODs) for Cd2+ and Zn2+ were determined to be 1.85 × 10-9 mol L-1 and 7.68 × 10-9 mol L-1, respectively. The binding constants (Ka) of 1O with Cd2+ and Zn2+ in acetonitrile solution were calculated to be 5.8 × 104 mol-1 L and 6.0 × 104 mol-1 L, respectively. The compound 1O responded to the metal ions (Cd2+/Zn2+) to form complexations with 1 : 1 stoichiometry which were verified by Job's plot and MS analysis, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence sensor 1O has been successfully applied to the detection of Cd2+ and Zn2+ in real water samples and processed into test strips for on-site analysis and testing.

12.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101589, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689594

RESUMO

A 62-year old sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) male patient with APOE3 (ε3/ε3) genotype donated his peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was established by episomal vector system with the four factors OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC and KLF4. EB differentiation in vitro showed that iPSC line had a potential to differentiate into three germ layers. More than 90% cells expressed NANOG, OCT4 and SSEA4 detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the iPSC line was karyotypically normal. The iPSC line may provide new valuable tools for studying pathogenesis of sAD and screening candidate drugs for the disease.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation acts as a contributor to neurologic deficits after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study postulates that cold-inducible RNA-binding protein can promote deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): sham group, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group, and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest + Cirp-/- group (Cirp-/- group). Murine microglial BV2 cells were administered by adeno-associated viral vectors containing cold-inducible RNA-binding protein small interference RNA or negative control small interference RNA at 2 days before 4-hour oxygen-glucose deprivation at 18°C. Microglial activation, cell death, neuroinflammation, and related protein expression were assessed in tissue samples and cell cultures. RESULTS: Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein was elevated along with evident neuroinflammation and neuronal damage in rats exposed to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. In Cirp-/- rats, histologic injury (3.00 [interquartile range, 2.00-3.00] vs 1.00 [interquartile range, 1.00-1.50] neuropathological score, P < .001) and microglial activation (40 ± 4 vs 13 ± 7 CA1 area, P < .001) were alleviated after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. With RNA-sequencing analysis, this associated with reduction of key proinflammatory cytokines induced by inhibiting Brd2-NF-κB signals. In BV2 cells treated with small interference RNA-cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, similar protective effects were observed, including decreased proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity. Brd2-NF-κB signals were confirmed by the addition of Brd2 inhibitor JQ1. Notably, the conditioned medium from BV2 cells transfected with small interference RNA cold-inducible RNA-binding protein significantly reduced apoptosis in neural SH-SY5Y cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation, which was similar to that after JQ1 administration. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced cold-inducible RNA-binding protein in microglia aggravates neuronal injury by promoting the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which might be mediated through Brd2-NF-κB signals during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(19): 2300-2307, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the rehabilitation of aphasia has been extensively studied, the prediction of language outcome still has not received sufficient attention. The aim of this study was to predict the language outcome using mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with large left-hemispheric infarction. METHODS: MMN was elicited by an oddball paradigm in which a standard tone (1000 Hz) and deviant tone (1500 Hz) were presented at 90% and 10% of the number of tones, respectively. The mean amplitudes and laterality indexes (LIs) of MMN were measured over the prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and perisylvian electrodes and both hemispheres during the first 7 days (session 1) and 10 to 20 days (session 2) post-onset. Mixed three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences in these factors between two aphasia groups (the good recovery group and poor recovery group). The predictive value of the most significant LI was also compared with the score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and low-density volume on computed tomography. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were enrolled in this study. Mixed three-way ANOVA showed no interaction effect of session × region of interest (ROI) × group (F [3.59, 57.38] = 1.301, P = 0.282) and no interaction effect of ROI × group (F [1.81, 29.01] = 0.71, P = 0.487) and session × group (F [1.00, 16.00] = 0.084, P = 0.776) for MMN amplitude. No interaction effect of session × ROI × group (F [1.79, 28.58] = 0.62, P = 0.530), but an interaction effect of session × group (F [1.00, 16.00] = 5.21, P = 0.036) was found for LIs. In the poor recovery group, the LIs of MMN over all the ROIs, except the parietal area, became more negative at session 2 than those at session 1 (P < 0.05), but this effect was not observed in the good recovery group. Additionally, significant differences were observed in the LIs at session 2 between the two groups (P < 0.05). The LI over the perisylvian area at session 2 had the highest predictive value with an area under the curve of 0.963 (95% confidence interval: 0.884-1.000). An LI score >-0.36 over the perisylvian area suggested good recovery, but a score <-0.36 suggested poor recovery. The LI cut-off value of -0.36 had the highest sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (87.5%) for predicting a good language outcome at 3 months post-stroke. CONCLUSION: LIs of MMN amplitudes at approximately 2 weeks post left-hemisphere stroke serve as more sensitive predictors of language outcome, among which the LI over the perisylvian area exhibits the best predictive value.

15.
J BUON ; 24(4): 1476-1481, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the role and therapeutic potential of miR-24 in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The CRC cell lines HCT116, RKO, SW480, SW48, and the non-cancer cell line CCD-18Co were used in the present study. The miR-24 expression was determined by qRT-PCR analysis. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Transfection was performed by Lipofectamine 2000. Protein levels were examined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: miR-24 was significantly downregulated in CRC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-24 caused significant decrease in the cell viability by initiating apoptotic cell death of colorectal SW48 cancer cells, indicative of its tumor suppressive role. Moreover, miR-24 overexpression also enhanced the chemosensitivity of SW48 cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In silico analysis together with dual luciferase reporter assay indicated the RNA binding protein DND1 was the potential target of miR-24 in SW48 cells. Investigation of DND1 expression in CRC cell lines showed up to 5.3-fold upregulation of DND1. Nonetheless, ectopic expression of miR-24 in SW48 cells resulted in the downregulation of DND1 expression. Additionally, silencing of DND1 in the SW48 cells also caused inhibition of SW48 cell proliferation. Moreover, overexpression of DND1 could rescue the tumor suppressive effects of miR-24, indicating direct involvement of DND1 in the miR-24 mediated inhibitory effects on SW48 cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: The miR-24 acts as a tumor suppressor and may prove essential in the treatment of CRC.

16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656014

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to investigate the absorption, distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of selenite in rats after intragastric administration, and thus illustrate the efficiency of selenium (Se) supplementation. After a single gavage of sodium selenite, a concentration of Se in plasma and tissues was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at different time points. Through fitting the data with the metabolic kinetic model, the corresponding kinetic parameters were determined for plasma and tissues, including kidney, liver, heart, muscle, and gonad. While the metabolic kinetics of sodium selenite in plasma, liver, and kidney of rats was well reflected by a two-compartment open model, that in heart and gonad was fitted to a one-compartment open model, and that in muscle was fitted to a one-compartment open model with a lag time. The results indicate that sodium selenite was absorbed by plasma and tissues quickly and was eliminated slowly after intragastric administration. Based on the results, we propose that multi-supplementation of Se with low dosage is superior to single supplementation with high dosage, in terms of avoiding selenosis.

17.
J Int Med Res ; : 300060519879594, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640445
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15534, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664137

RESUMO

The pre-weaned weight gain is an important performance trait of pigs in intensive pig production. The bacterial microbiome inside the host is vital to host health and growth performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible associations of the intestinal microbiome with the pre-weaned weight gain in intensive pig production. In this study, several anatomical sites (jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) were examined for bacterial microbiome structure using 16S rRNA V4-V5 region sequencing with Illumina Miseq. The results showed that the microbial richness (estimated by Chao1 index) in jejunum was positively correlated with the pre-weaned weight gain. This study also revealed that the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in colon were the weight gaining-related phyla; while the Selenomonas and Moraxella in ileum and the Lactobacillus in both cecum and colon were the weight gaining-related genera for the pre-weaned piglets in intensive pig prodution. Several intra-microbial interactions within commensal microbiome correlated with the pre-weaned weight gain were excavated, as well. Overall, this study provides an expanded view of the commensal bacterial community inside four anatomical intestinal sites of the commercial piglets and the associations of the intestinal microbiome with the pre-weaned weight gaining performance in intensive pig production.

19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 864: 172720, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586635

RESUMO

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is one of the most common disorders in gastroenterology. The aim of this work was to investigate the protection of isorhamnetin against esophageal mucosal injury in rats with chronic reflux esophagitis (RE). Chronic RE model was established through fundus ligation and partial obstruction of the pylorus in rats. Then, the rats were treated with isorhamnetin (5 mg/kg) daily for a period of 14 days. Through histological and gross assessment, it was found that administration of isorhamnetin alleviated esophageal mucosal injury in RE rats. Treatment of RE rats with isorhamnetin improved esophageal barrier function, through upregulating proteins expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and downregulating proteins expression of matrix matalloproteinases-3 (MMP3) and -9. Administration of isorhamnetin decreased CD68-positive cells and mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the esophagus of RE rats. Administration of isorhamnetin downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression and decreased production of nitric oxide (NO) and 3-nitrotyrosin in the esophagus of RE rats. Administration of isorhamnetin enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activities and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in esophagus of RE rats. Additionally, treatment with isorhamnetin inhibited p38 MAPK and NFκB activation in RE esophagus. In conclusion, isorhamnetin attenuated esophageal mucosal injury in rats with chronic RE, possibly by suppressing formation of cytokines and infiltration of inflammatory cells, inhibiting p38 and NFκB pathways, and enhancing HO-1 activity.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644278

RESUMO

ß-Cyclodextrin (ß-CD) was modified using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to introduce amphiphilic groups (hydrophilic carboxyl and lipophilic octenyl chains) by esterification under alkaline conditions. The FT-IR results indicated that the OSA-modified ß-CD (OCD) showed new absorption peaks of an ester bond and a carboxylate (RCOO-) at 1724 and 1570 cm-1, respectively, confirming the successful preparation of OCD. Then the embedding effects of ß-CD and OCD on ß-carotene and the emulsifying and antioxidant properties of their inclusion complexes were evaluated. The results of XRD showed that the ß-CD (or OCD)/ß-carotene inclusion complexes were converted from a cage-type structure to a channel-type structure. AFM and SEM showed that the crystal characteristics and surface morphologies of the inclusion complexes were different from those of the physical mixture. The emulsion stabilized by OCD exhibited smaller droplet sizes and larger zeta-potentials than that stabilized by ß-CD. In addition, the inclusion complexes-prepared emulsion exhibited lower POV values and TBARS contents than did the physical mixture. OCD/ß-carotene inclusion complexes can improve the physical and oxidative stability of the emulsion, which is of great significance to the food industry.

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