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1.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809909

RESUMO

The prognosis of liver cancer was inferior among tumors. New medicine treatments are urgently needed. In this study, a novel exopolysaccharide EPS364 was purified from Vibrio alginolyticus 364, which was isolated from a deep-sea cold seep of the South China Sea. Further research showed that EPS364 consisted of mannose, glucosamine, gluconic acid, galactosamine and arabinose with a molar ratio of 5:9:3.4:0.5:0.8. The relative molecular weight of EPS364 was 14.8 kDa. Our results further revealed that EPS364 was a ß-linked and phosphorylated polysaccharide. Notably, EPS364 exhibited a significant antitumor activity, with inducing apoptosis, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Huh7.5 liver cancer cells. Proteomic and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that EPS364 inhibited cancer cell growth and adhesion via targeting the FGF19-FGFR4 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that EPS364 is a promising antitumor agent for pharmacotherapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death amongst American women. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, have adverse effects on human health. However, the association of BPA and phthalates with breast cancer remains conflicting. This study aims to investigate the association of BPA and phthalates with breast cancer. METHODS: Correlative studies were identified by systematically searching three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Sciences, and Embase, up to November 2020. All data were analyzed using Stata 15.0. RESULTS: A total of nine studies, consisting of 7820 breast cancer cases and controls, were included. The urinary phthalate metabolite mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were negatively associated with breast cancer (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90; OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98, respectively). However, the overall ORs for BPA, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.69-1.05), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.62-1.48), 1.12 (95% CI: 0.88-1.42), 1.13 (95% CI: 0.74-1.73), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.74-1.40), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.48-1.14), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.55-1.15), respectively, suggesting no significant association. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were relatively stable. CONCLUSION: Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MiBP were passively associated with breast cancer, whereas no associations were found between BPA, MEP, MEHHP, MEHP, MEOHP, MCPP, and MBP and breast cancer. More high-quality case-control studies or persuasive cohort studies are urgently needed to draw the best conclusions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914701

RESUMO

Objective We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks [standard deviation, 2.0]) and 13.2 weeks [1.0], respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR [homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance], HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment. Results Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 was strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles. Conclusions We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 27-37, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clinical trials have demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events with purified high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), independent of effects on lipids. We aimed to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acids reduce vascular inflammation, a critical mediator of atherosclerosis, and hypothesised that EPA is superior to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial and cell-culture study, 40 healthy volunteers were supplemented with 4 g daily of either EPA, DHA, fish oil (2:1 EPA:DHA), or placebo for 30 days. Serum was incubated with TNF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and markers of acute vascular inflammation (AVI) were measured. The effects of EPA, DHA (600 mg/kg/day), olive oil, or no treatment were also measured in preclinical models of [1] AVI using a periarterial collar (C57Bl/6J; n = 40 mice) and [2] atherosclerosis where ApoE-/- mice (n = 40) were fed a 16-week atherogenic diet. RESULTS: EPA supplementation reduced expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by 25% compared to placebo (p = 0.03). In the AVI model, EPA reduced vascular expression of VCAM1 by 43% (p = 0.02) and CCL2 by 41% (p = 0.03). Significant inverse correlations were observed between EPA levels and vascular expression of VCAM1 (r = -0.56, p = 0.001) and CCL2 (r = -0.56, p = 0.001). In ApoE-/- mice, EPA reduced aortic expression of Il1b by 44% (p = 0.04) and Tnf by 49% (p = 0.04), with similar inverse correlations between EPA levels and both Il1b (r = -0.63, p = 0.009) and Tnf (r = -0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with EPA, more so than DHA, ameliorates acute and chronic vascular inflammation, providing a rationale for the cardiovascular benefit observed with high dose omega-3 fatty acid administration.

5.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130210, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774257

RESUMO

Landscape urbanization broadly alter watersheds ecosystems, yet the impact of nonpoint source urban inputs on dissolved organic matter (DOM) amount, composition and source is poorly understood. To systematically examine how DOM optical index and composition varied with urbanization, a unique long term observation dataset (4 years) of fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) was collected from two types of waters: urban waters and non-urban waters. Two humic-like DOM fluorescent components (C1 and C2) and one protein-like component (C3) were identified by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and the results indicated that urbanization had an important influence on DOM concentration and composition, with urban waters having a high degree of DOM variation due to different land use surrounding each body of water. Urban waters presented higher DOM content, CDOM absorption and DOM fluorescence intensity (FI), a greater proportion of protein-like (26% > 21.3%), and less proportion of humic-like (51.9% < 57.6%) than non-urban waters, were dominated by allochthonous inputs. Moreover, the long-term observation of the urbanized DOM's dynamics was conducted on monthly, seasonal and yearly timescales. The results reflected the response of DOM to regional climate. Higher DOM amount and FI appeared in the summer due to autochthonous production comes from algae growth and allochthonous input comes from rainfall. It also revealed that continuous increase in impervious artificial surfaces caused by urban expansion, contributed to the increase in DOM quantity and drove DOM composition to be more protein-like. Consequently, these findings filled the knowledge gap of the mechanism of land-water interaction on DOM properties in freshwater ecosystems.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125630, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774360

RESUMO

The optical signature of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has been related to sources and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters, but the spatial scope of previous research has been limited to single cities with no studies exploring patterns across gradients of development/industrialization or latitude. Using EEM (excitation emission matrix) techniques, a study was conducted to examine optical properties of CDOM in urban waters along a gradient of urban development (developed and undeveloped cities) and industries (primary, secondary, tertiary). The optical properties of CDOM were measured in 436 water samples collected from urbanized waterbodies spanning 93 cities across China. Results showed marked differences of DOM composition for different level of urban development and for different types of dominant industries. The mean aCDOM(254) for developed cities (14.31 m-1) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of undeveloped cities (18.01 m-1). The intensity of the tryptophan-like component (Q2) of CDOM was significantly higher for developed cities (0.98 ×1010 nm) than for undeveloped cities (4.6 ×109 nm), whereas the humic-like component (Q5) intensity was significantly lower for undeveloped cities (19.80 ×1010 nm) than for developed cities (16.26 ×1010 nm). Regression analysis showed that the Q5 component was mainly (and positively) influenced by secondary industries, while Q2 was mainly affected by both tertiary and secondary industries. The proportion of allochthonous CDOM increased significantly with latitude from south to north with the minimum increased percentage of 67% for humification index (HIX) within different urban development degrees. These findings indicate that changes in urban development, human activities and industrial structure could alter DOM sources and composition in urbanized waterbodies. These findings are relevant to the management of urban water resources in regions experiencing rapid urban and industrial expansion, and add to our understanding of carbon cycling in urbanized freshwater ecosystems.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146271, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721636

RESUMO

Lake eutrophication has attracted the attention of the government and general public. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a key indicator of algal biomass and eutrophication. Many efforts have been devoted to establishing accurate algorithms for estimating Chl-a concentrations. In this study, a total of 273 samples were collected from 45 typical lakes across China during 2017-2019. Here, we proposed applicable machine learning algorithms (i.e., linear regression model (LR), support vector machine model (SVM) and Catboost model (CB)), which integrate a broad scale dataset of lake biogeochemical characteristics using Multispectral Imager (MSI) product to seamlessly retrieve the Chl-a concentration. A K-means clustering approach was used to cluster the 273 normalized water leaving reflectance spectra [Rrs (λ)] extracted from MSI imagery with Case 2 Regional Coast Colour (CR2CC) processor into three groups. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended matter (TSM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three clustering groups had significant differences (p < 0.05**), indicating that water quality parameters have an integrated impact on Rrs(λ)-spectra. The results of machine learning algorithms integrating demonstrated that SVM obtained a better degree of measured- and derived- fitting (calibration: slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.91; validation: slope = 1.21, R2 = 0.88). On the contrary, the documented nine Chl-a algorithms gave poor results (fitting 1:1 linear slope < 0.4 and R2 < 0.70) with synchronous train and test datasets. It demonstrated that machine learning provides a robust model for quantifying Chl-a concentration. Further, considering three Rrs(λ) clustering groups by k-means, Chl-a SVM model indicated that cluster 1 group gave a better retrieving performance (slope = 0.71, R2 = 0.78), followed by cluster 3 group (slope = 0.77, R2 = 0.64) and cluster 2 group (slope = 0.67, R2 = 0.50). These are related to the low TSM and high DOC levels for cluster-1 and cluster-3 Rrs(λ) spectra, which reduce the influence of particle in red bands for Rrs(λ) signal. Our results highlighted the quantification of lake Chl-a concentrations using MSI imagery and SVM, which can realize the large-scale monitoring and more appropriate for medium/low Chl-a level. The remote estimation of Chl-a based on artificial intelligence can provide an effective and robust way to monitor the lake eutrophication on a macro-scale; and offer a better approach to elucidate the response of lake ecosystems to global change.

8.
Pflugers Arch ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686477

RESUMO

Heart diseases are prevalent worldwide and account for the highest mortality than any other illness. Although investment in drug discovery and development has increased, the amount of drug approvals has seen a progressive decline. Moreover, adverse side effects to the heart have become the most common reasons for preclinical project cessation, partly due to the lack of suitable humanized preclinical models. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have emerged as a powerful non-animal platform to model heart disease, to screen for novel drugs, and to test drug cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Here, we review and discuss recent breakthroughs in the development of cardiovascular modeling and their current and future applications of hPSC-based drug discovery and testing.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(29): 3563-3566, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704281

RESUMO

The water oxidation reaction plays a major role in many alternative-energy systems because it provides the electrons and protons required for the use of renewable electricity. We report the tuning of the iron molybdate (FeMoO4) electron structure via a coupled interface between the catalytic centers and the substrate. Our developed FeMoO4 catalysts can provide a 50 mA cm-2 current density at 1.506 V vs. RHE with excellent stability in 1.0 M KOH. The improved performance can be ascribed to the synergy of the optimized electronic structures and hierarchical nanostructure.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality among patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is quite high; however, information on risk factors for short-term mortality in this population remains limited. The aim of the current study was to identify the risk factors for mortality in bedridden patients with HAP during a 3-month observation period. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted. In total, 1141 HAP cases from 25 hospitals were included in the analysis. Univariate and multilevel regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: During the 3-month observation period, there were 189 deaths among bedridden patients with HAP. The mortality rate in this study was 16.56%. Multilevel regression analysis showed that ventilator-associated pneumonia (OR = 2.034, 95%CI: 1.256, 3.296, p = 0.004), pressure injuries (OR = 2.202, 95%CI: 1.258, 3.852, p = 0.006), number of comorbidities (OR = 1.076, 95%CI: 1.016,1.140, p = 0.013) and adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR = 1.210, 95%CI: 1.090, 1.343, p<0.001) were associated with an increased risk of mortality, while undergoing surgery with general anaesthesia (OR = 0.582, 95%CI: 0.368, 0.920, p = 0.021) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of risk factors associated with mortality is an important step towards individualizing care plans. Our findings may help healthcare workers select high-risk patients for specific interventions. Further study is needed to explore whether appropriate interventions against modifiable risk factors, such as reduced immobility complications or ventilator-associated pneumonia, could improve the prognoses.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 217: 113382, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751980

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are originally developed for anti-infective treatments. Because of their membrane-lytic property, AMPs have been considered as candidates of antitumor agents for a long time. However, their antitumor applications are mainly hampered by fast renal clearance and high systemic toxicities. This study proposes a strategy aiming at addressing these two issues by conjugating AMPs with porphyrins, which bind to albumin increasing AMPs' resistance against renal clearance and thus enhancing their antitumor efficacies. Porphyrins' photodynamic properties can further augment AMPs' antitumor effects. In addition, circulating with albumin ameliorates AMPs' systemic toxicities, i.e. hemolysis and organ dysfunctions. As an example, we conjugated an AMP, K6L9, with pyropheophorbide-a (PPA) leading to a conjugate of PPA-K6L9. PPA-K6L9 bound to albumin with a KD value at the sub-micromolar range. Combining computational and experimental approaches, we characterized the molecular interaction of PPA-K6L9 with albumin. Furthermore, PPA-conjugation promoted K6L9' antitumor effects by prolonging its in vivo retention time, and reduced the hemolysis and hepatic injuries, which confirmed our design strategy.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112275, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684799

RESUMO

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (DOM) is called as CDOM which could affect the optical properties of surface waters, and is a useful parameter for monitoring complex inland aquatic systems. Large-scale monitoring of CDOM using remote-sensing has been a challenge due to the poor transferability of CDOM retrieval models across regions. To overcome these difficulties, a study is conducted using Sentinel-2 images, in situ reflectance spectral data, and water chemical parameters at 93 water reservoirs across China classified by trophic state. Empirical algorithms are established between CDOM absorption coefficient aCDOM(355) and reflectance band ratio (B5/B2,vegetation Red Edge/Blue) acquired in situ and via Sentinel-2 MSI sensors. Relationships are stronger (r2 > 0.7, p < 0.05) when analysis is conducted separately by trophic states. Validation models show that, by accounting for trophic state of reservoirs and using B5/B2 band ratios, it is possible to expand the geographical range of remote sensing-based models to determine CDOM. However, the accuracy of model validation decreased from oligotrophic (r2: 0.86) to eutrophic reservoirs (r2: 0.82), likely due to increased complexity of CDOM sources in nutrient-rich systems. This study provides a strategy for using local and remote-sensing data to monitor the spatial variations of CDOM in reservoirs based on different trophic states, and will contribute to water resources management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , China
13.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112231, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706125

RESUMO

As important components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in an aquatic environment, colored DOM (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) play an essential role in the carbon cycle of an inland aquatic system. Traditionally, CDOM and DOC in inland waters have been primarily determined using in situ observations and laboratory measurements. Most of past lake investigations on CDOM and DOC focused on easily accessible regions and covered a small fraction of lakes worldwide. To our knowledge, little is known about lakes in less accessible areas like the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). To address this challenge, optical satellite remote sensing might be useful for capturing a synoptic view of CDOM and DOC with high frequency at large scales, complementing in situ sampling methods for inland waters. In this study, 216 samples collected from 36 lakes across the QTP (2014-2017) were examined to determine the relationships between CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm (a350) and Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) imagery reflectance data. A strong positive linear correlation with a350 was observed with B4/B2 (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.01) and with B4/B3 (R2 = 0.62). A multi-step regression model was established for estimating a350 with B4/B2 and B4/B3 as input variables (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.01). A scattered CDOM-DOC relationship was revealed (R2 = 0.34, p < 0.05) using a pooled dataset. By dividing the inland waters into four separate groups in accordance with their salinity gradients, we were able to develop much stronger relationships (R2 > 0.8, p < 0.01) for CDOM-DOC. Significant differences between fresh and saline waters were demonstrated using satellite-derived CDOM and DOC, where high CDOM (0.86 ± 0.67 m-1) and low DOC (3.76 ± 4.92 mg L-1) concentrations were observed for freshwaters, while inverse trends of CDOM (0.53 ± 0.72 m-1) and DOC (15.76 ± 17.07 mg L-1) were demonstrated for saline lakes in the Tibetan Plateau. This study confirmed that satellite optical imagery can be used for the monitoring of CDOM and DOC of the lakes of the Tibetan Plateau, which are sensitive to a changing climate and are infrequently investigated due to the harsh environment and poor accessibility. Moreover, it highlighted the importance of combining salinity and remote sensing data in the process of estimating lake DOC.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lagos , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Tibet
14.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21326, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710666

RESUMO

Histone modifications play critical roles in DNA damage repair to safeguard genome integrity. However, how different histone modifiers coordinate to build appropriate chromatin context for DNA damage repair is largely unknown. Here, we report a novel interplay between the histone methyltransferase KMT5A and two E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168 in establishing the histone modification status for DNA damage repair. KMT5A is a newly identified substrate of RNF8 in vitro and in vivo. In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), RNF8 promotes KMT5A recruitment onto damaged chromatin in a ubiquitination-dependent manner. RNF8-induced KMT5A ubiquitination increases the binding capacity of KMT5A to RNF168. Interestingly, KMT5A not only drives a local increase in H4K20 monomethylation at DSBs, but also promotes RNF168's activity in catalyzing H2A ubiquitination. We proved that the interaction between the H2A acidic patch and KMT5A R188/R189 residues is critical for KMT5A-mediated regulation of H2A ubiquitination. Taken together, our results highlight a new role for KMT5A in linking H4K20 methylation and H2A ubiquitination and provide insight into the histone modification network during DNA damage repair.

15.
ISME J ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746205

RESUMO

Candidatus Izemoplasma, an intermediate in the reductive evolution from Firmicutes to Mollicutes, was proposed to represent a novel class of free-living wall-less bacteria within the phylum Tenericutes. Unfortunately, the paucity of pure cultures has limited further insights into their physiological and metabolic features as well as ecological roles. Here, we report the first successful isolation of an Izemoplasma representative from the deep-sea methane seep, strain zrk13, using a DNA degradation-driven method given Izemoplasma's prominent DNA-degradation potentials. We further present a detailed description of the physiological, genomic and metabolic traits of the novel strain, which allows for the first time the reconstruction of the metabolic potential and lifestyle of a member of the tentatively defined Candidatus Izemoplasma. On the basis of the description of strain zrk13, the novel species and genus Xianfuyuplasma coldseepsis is proposed. Using a combined biochemical and transcriptomic method, we further show the supplement of organic matter, thiosulfate or bacterial genomic DNA could evidently promote the growth of strain zrk13. In particular, strain zrk13 could degrade and utilize the extracellular DNA for growth in both laboraterial and deep-sea conditions. Moreover, the predicted genes determining DNA-degradation broadly distribute in the genomes of other Izemoplasma members. Given that extracellular DNA is a particularly crucial phosphorus as well as nitrogen and carbon source for microorganisms in the seafloor, Izemoplasma bacteria are thought to be important contributors to the biogeochemical cycling in the deep ocean.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 331: 289-295, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the value of 3D computed tomography (CT) and CT-integrating fluoroscopy for procedural guidance during WATCHMAN implantation. METHODS: This observational study compared the clinical and procedural parameters for LAAO with and without fusion imaging. Forty-one pairs of patients-matched by procedure month and with or without the use of the image fusion system-were enrolled. Using the image fusion Advanced Workstation 4.6 software (GE Healthcare), we identified the 3D cardiac anatomy and safe zones for septal punch. The LAA orifice anatomy outlines were then projected onto the real-time fluoroscopy image during the procedure to guide all the steps of LAAO. RESULTS: The use of image fusion significantly reduced the procedural time, compared to the time required for the control group (44.73 ± 20.03 min vs. 63.73 ± 26.10 min, respectively; P < 0.001). When compared to the standard procedure, the use of image fusion significantly reduced both the total radiation dose (448.80 ± 556.35 mGy vs. 798.42 ± 616.34 mGy; P = 0.004) and dose area product (DAP) (38.03 ± 47.15 Gy∙cm2 vs. 67.66 ± 52.23 Gy∙cm2, P = 0.004). Corresponding to the radiation dose, the contrast volume was also reduced (67.32 ± 18.65 vs. 90.98 ± 25.03 ml; P = 0.0004). During short-term follow-up at 6 months, there was only one femoral hematoma and incomplete LAA sealing (>3 mm) in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Automated real-time integration of cardiac CT and fluoroscopy is feasible, safe, and applicable in LAAO. It may significantly reduce the radiation exposure, procedure duration, and volume of contrast media. Following these results, the potential of merging reconstructed 3D CT scans with real-time coronary angiography should be fully exploited in LAAO.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 2929-2938, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595308

RESUMO

The proliferation of algal blooms (ABs) in lakes and reservoirs (L&Rs) poses a threat to water quality and the ecological health of aquatic communities. With global climate change, there is a concern that the frequency and geographical expansion of ABs in L&Rs could increase. China has experienced rapid economic growth and major land-use changes over the last several decades and therefore provides an excellent context for such an analysis. About 289,600 Landsat images were used to examine the spatiotemporal distribution of ABs in L&Rs (>1 km2) across China (1983-2017). Results showed significant changes in the temporal slope of the sum of normalized area (0.26), frequency (2.28), duration (6.14), and early outbreak (-3.48) of AB events in L&Rs across China. Specifically, AB-impacted water bodies expanded longitudinally, and the time range of AB observation has expanded starting in the 2000s. Spearman correlation and random forest regression analyses further indicated that, among climatic factors, wind speed and temperature contributed the most to AB expansion. Overall, anthropogenic forces have overridden the imprints of climatic factors on the temporal evolution of ABs in China's L&Rs and therefore could inform policy decisions for the management of these resources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , China , Eutrofização , Qualidade da Água
18.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 114: 103825, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis represents a threat to public health and a heavy economic burden to society, and often occurs as a complication or cause of death in bedridden patients. How to prevent deep vein thrombosis is a general concern in clinical practice. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors for deep vein thrombosis would be affected by different bed-rest durations. Solving this issue will be invaluable for the provision of more rational medical care to prevent deep vein thrombosis. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether risk factors for deep vein thrombosis are affected by bed-rest durations and to identify different risk factors in groups with different bed-rest durations. DESIGN: A retrospective multicenter case-control study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter study was conducted in wards with high rates of bed rest in 25 general hospitals in China. Participants were bedridden patients from these wards. METHODS: Bedridden patients were identified from the research database of bedridden patients' major immobility complications. These data were collected from prospective descriptive studies by a standardized web-based online case report form. Cases were defined as bedridden patients who suffered deep vein thrombosis during hospitalization (n=186). Each case was matched with three controls, bedridden patients who did not suffer deep vein thrombosis in the same center with the same bed-rest duration (n=558). Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed. RESULTS: Among 23,985 patients, the overall incidence of deep vein thrombosis during hospitalization was 1.0%. Multivariate analysis showed that for patients with bed-rest duration of 4 weeks or less, older age (odds ratio [OR] =1.027, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.013-1.041) and being in a surgical department (OR=2.527, 95% CI 1.541-4.144) were significantly associated with increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Female sex (OR=4.270, 95% CI 1.227-14.862), smoking (OR=10.860, 95% CI 2.130-55.370), and special treatment (OR=3.455, 95% CI 1.006-11.869) were independent factors predicting deep vein thrombosis for patients with bed-rest durations from 5 to 8 weeks. For those with bed-rest durations from 9 to 13 weeks, Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR=1.612, 95% CI 1.090-2.385) was the only independent risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis varied among patients with different bed-rest durations. This finding is helpful for nurses to increase their awareness of prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients with different bed-rest durations, and lays a more solid foundation for clinical decision making.

19.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(5-6): 773-782, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a severe preventable complication among orthopaedic surgical patients. Integrating therapeutic guidelines into clinical practice can help improve patient safety and reduce the burden of this pathology. Improving the quality of patient care is important for bridging the gap between the prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and therapeutic guidelines. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis practices of Chinese orthopaedic nurses to guide quality care improvements. METHODS: The data used in this study are secondary data obtained from a multicentric survey. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the attitude and knowledge of venous thromboembolic prophylaxis among orthopaedic nurses. VTE prophylactic practices were extracted from medical records within the electronic case report form immediately after the nurses' investigations. The STROBE statement for observational studies was applied. RESULTS: Results indicated that although 94.0% of the responding nurses had attended training courses in their wards, a majority of them (68.9%) achieved a median knowledge score of 7 points or below (range 0-9). Knowledge regarding the proper use of prophylaxis, identification of risk factors, signs and symptoms for pulmonary embolism was limited. Self-reported attitudes underestimate the relationships between venous thromboembolism and low-quality nursing care. Pharmacological prophylaxis was highly used (90.9%), while the utilisation of mechanical prophylaxis and its proper use was relatively low. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese orthopaedic nurses demonstrated enthusiasm for venous thromboembolism and prophylaxis. Their knowledge needs to be improved, including the proper use of prophylaxis, identification of risk factors, signs and symptoms. Mechanical prophylaxis practice for VTE prevention after THA and TKA surgical procedures is not optimistic. Further studies should analyse the causes from multiple perspectives, including the availability of resources, the knowledge and attitude of doctors, nurses and patients. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings from this study can be used to develop and implement interventions for venous thromboembolism after orthopaedic surgery.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116288, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352484

RESUMO

The particle size distribution (PSD) slope (ξ) can indicate the predominant particle size, material composition, and inherent optical properties (IOPs) of inland waters. However, few semi-analytical methods have been proposed for deriving ξ from the surface remote sensing reflectance due to the variable optical state of inland waters. A semi-analytical algorithm was developed for inland waters having a wide range of turbidity and ξ in this study. Application of the proposed model to Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) imagery of the water body resulted in several important observations: (1) the proposed algorithm (754 nm and 779 nm combination) was capable of retrieving ξ with R2 being 0.72 (p < 0.01, n = 60), and MAPE and RMSE being 4.37% and 0.22 (n = 30) respectively; (2) the ξ in HZL was lower in summer than other seasons during the period considered, this variation was driven by the phenological cycle of algae and the runoff caused by rainfall; (3) the band optimization proposed in this study is important for calculating the particle backscattering slope (η) and deriving ξ because it is feasible for both algae dominant and sediment governed turbid inland lakes. These observations help improve our understanding of the relationship between IOPs and ξ, which are affected by different bio-optic processes and algal phenology in the lake environment.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Lagos , Algoritmos , Clorofila/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/análise
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