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1.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is positively associated with various cancers, but its relationship with tumors of the esophagus/esophagogastric junction remains unclear. METHODS: Data were harmonized across 13 studies in the International Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, comprising 2309 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cases, 1938 esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) cases, 1728 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases, and 16,354 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for self-reported diabetes in association with EA, EGJA, and BE. Adjusted ORs were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Diabetes was associated with a 34% increased risk of EA (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.80; I2  = 48.8% [where 0% indicates no heterogeneity, and larger values indicate increasing heterogeneity between studies]), 27% for EGJA (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.55; I2  = 0.0%), and 30% for EA/EGJA combined (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; I2  = 34.9%). Regurgitation symptoms modified the diabetes-EA/EGJA association (P for interaction = .04) with a 63% increased risk among participants with regurgitation (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), but not among those without regurgitation (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). No consistent association was found between diabetes and BE. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with increased EA and EGJA risk, which was confined to individuals with regurgitation symptoms. Lack of an association between diabetes and BE suggests that diabetes may influence progression of BE to cancer.

2.
Oncologist ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated improved outcomes with real-time patient-reported outcome questionnaires (PRO questionnaires) using questions adapted for patient use from the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Outside of the clinical trial setting, limited information exists on factors affecting the completion of PRO questionnaires in routine practice. The primary aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate patient willingness to complete PRO questionnaires on a regular basis and to better understand responder biases to improve patient feedback. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients performing PRO-CTCAE toxicity and symptom PRO questionnaires in oncology clinics at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre from 2013 to 2016 were assessed for their willingness to complete PRO questionnaires using a nine-item, tablet-based acceptability survey. Patient-reported characteristics (i.e., age, sex, language, marital status, education, occupation, etc.), cancer type, treatment modalities, and health metrics (i.e., Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) were also collected. Characteristics were evaluated by logistic regression (odds ratios [OR]) using the primary outcome with prespecified levels of significance for univariate (p ≤ .10), and additional multivariate (p ≤ .05) testing. RESULTS: A total of 1,792 patients (median age 60 years; range 18-97) with various cancer diagnoses were assessed. A greater proportion of female (56%) and white (74%) respondents with an annual household income of <$100,000 (69%) participated. More than half (58%) of respondents were willing to complete PRO questionnaires at every clinic visit, and a high proportion (77%) found utility in reporting physical and emotional feelings to clinicians using PRO questionnaires. In general, patients did not find that PRO questionnaires made clinic visits more difficult (93%). In uni- and multivariable testing, patients were more willing to complete sleep- and fatigue-related PRO questionnaires relative to chemotoxicity-based PRO questionnaires (OR 1.52; p = .012). Patients aged 40-65 versus 18-40 years were also more likely to report high PRO questionnaire acceptability (OR 1.49; p = .025). Additional patient characteristics such as white ethnicity (OR 1.76), Canada as country of birth (OR 1.66), and English language (OR 2.15) relative to other had higher acceptability on uni- (p < .001) and multivariable (p < .001) analyses. Patients reporting treatment intent as palliative (OR 0.69; p = .0013) or hematological (OR 0.73; p = .027) were less likely to report high PRO questionnaire acceptability on univariable analysis; however, only palliative patients (OR 0.72) maintained this effect on multivariable testing (p = .012). Patients reporting higher health utility scores (per change in .05) also had significantly increased PRO questionnaire acceptability in uni- (OR 1.06; p < .001) and multivariable (OR 1.05; p = .008) analyses. No significant differences in PRO questionnaire acceptability were seen between cancer types, education level, household income, employment status, or treatment modality. CONCLUSION: Routine assessment using PRO questionnaires is associated with moderate acceptability by patients with cancer. Specific patient characteristics are associated with higher completion willingness. Additional research is necessary to identify factors associated with low acceptability of PRO questionnaires and to develop site-, ethnicity-, and treatment-specific instruments to assess the value of PRO questionnaires for symptom monitoring in clinical practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study will help to identify the clinical, demographic, and survey characteristics associated with willingness to complete patient-reported outcome questionnaires regularly in the cancer outpatient setting.

3.
Mol Carcinog ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355511

RESUMO

Brahma (BRM), of the SWI/SNF complex, has two 6 to 7 bp insertion promoter polymorphisms (BRM-741/BRM-1321) that cause epigenetic BRM suppression, and are associated with risk of multiple cancers. BRM polymorphisms were genotyped in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cases and asbestos-exposed controls. Multivariable logistic regression (risk) and Cox regression (prognosis) were performed, including stratified analyses by smoking status to investigate the effect of polymorphisms on MPM risk and prognosis. Although there was no significant association overall between BRM-741/BRM-1321 and risk in patients with MPM, a differential effect by smoking status was observed (P-interaction < .001), where homozygous variants were protective (aOR of 0.18-0.28) in ever smokers, while never smokers had increased risk when carrying homozygous variants (aOR of 2.7-4.4). While there was no association between BRM polymorphisms and OS in ever-smokers, the aHR of carrying homozygous-variants of BRM-741, BRM-1321 or both were 4.0 to 8.6 in never-smokers when compared to wild-type carriers. Mechanistically, lower mRNA expression of BRM was associated with poorer general cancer prognosis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP) revealed high BRM insertion variant homology to MEF2 regulatory binding sites. ChIP experimentation confirmed MEF2 binding only occurs in the presence of insertion variants. DNA-affinity purification assays revealed YWHA scaffold proteins as vital to BRM mRNA expression. Never-smokers who carry BRM homozygous variants have an increased chance of developing MPM, which results in worse prognosis. In contrast, in ever-smokers, there may be a protective effect, with no difference in overall survival. Mechanisms for the interaction between BRM and smoking require further study.

4.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 48(1): 34, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A number of in vitro and clinical studies have suggested potential antineoplastic effects of metformin. The impact of this medication on outcomes in head and neck cancer is less clear. Our aim was to determine the effect of metformin on outcomes within our large cohort of head and neck cancer patients with Type II Diabetes (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary Cancer Centre. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of individuals with head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) and T2DM between January 2005 and December 2011 at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre was conducted. Medication history was obtained from surveys at initial presentation and electronic medical record review. Using Cox regression analyses, the association between metformin use and local, regional and distant failures was explored. Subgroup analyses were conducted for oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. RESULTS: A total of 329 HNSCC patients with T2DM were identified, including 195 metformin users and 134 non-metformin users. Patients were well-matched in terms of clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors. No difference in local, regional, or distant failure was observed between diabetic metformin users and diabetic non-metformin users for the entire cohort or within subgroup analysis for subsite. No difference between the two groups was observed for overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and disease-specific survival at 5 years. CONCLUSION: No association between metformin use and oncologic outcomes were observed in this large cohort of HNSCC patients. Multicenter, prospective studies may be needed to verify previous studies identifying a potential anti-neoplastic effect of this medication.

5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260832

RESUMO

The accurate diagnosis of mesothelioma is critical for the appropriate clinical management of this cancer. Many issues complicate making the diagnosis of mesothelioma including the presence of reactive mesothelial cells in benign pleural effusions, the heterogeneity of mesothelioma histopathology, the relatively high incidence of other epithelial malignancies that metastasize to the pleura, and primary sarcomas that arise within the pleura. Given the rapidly evolving field of molecular profiling and the need for translational correlates in mesothelioma clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer-Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was convened in March 2017 to develop a consensus on standard pathology guidelines for future NCI-sponsored clinical trials in mesothelioma. This consensus statement covers recommendations for specimen handling, pathologic classification and diagnosis, biobanking, and tissue correlative studies.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269236

RESUMO

In cancer epidemiological studies, determination of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) typically depends on the availability of tumor tissue testing, and/or tumor tissue access. Identifying alternative methods for estimating HPV status can improve the quality of such studies when tissue is unavailable. We developed multiple predictive models for tumor HPV status and prognosis by combining both clinico-epidemiological variables and either serological multiplex assays of HPV or multiple imputation of HPV status (HPVmi ). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of these methods compared to either p16 immunostaining (p16 IHC) or survival were assessed. When compared to a reference of tumor tissue p16 IHC in 783 OPSCC patients, the clinic-HPVsero model incorporating a composite of 20 HPV serological antibodies (HPVsero ) and 4 clinical factors (c-index: 0.96) performed better than using HPVsero (c-index: 0.92) or HPVmi (c-index: 0.76) alone. However, the model that contained a single HPV16 E6 antibody combined with four clinical variables, performed extremely well (clinic-s1-16E6; c-index: 0.95). When defining HPV status by HPVsero , s1-16E6, HPVmi or through p16 IHC, each of these definitions demonstrated improved overall and disease-free survival in HPV-positive OPSCC patients, when compared to HPV-negative patients (adjusted hazard ratios between 0.25 and 0.63). Our study demonstrates that when blood samples are available, a model that utilizes a single s1-16E6 antibody combined with several clinical features has excellent test performance characteristics to estimate HPV status and prognosis. When neither blood nor tumor tissue is available, multiple imputation, calibrated on local population characteristics, remains a viable, but suboptimal option.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1228-1237, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality with relatively few prognostic biomarkers. We investigated associations with overall survival for telomere length (TL) and genetic variation in chromosome 5p15.33, an established telomere maintenance locus. METHODS: Leukocyte TL was measured after diagnosis in 807 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto and assessed prospectively in 767 NSCLC cases from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. Associations with all-cause mortality were tested for 723 variants in 5p15.33, genotyped in 4,672 NSCLC cases. RESULTS: Short telomeres (≤10th percentile) were associated with poor prognosis for adenocarcinoma in both populations: TL measured 6 months after diagnosis [HR = 1.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.04-2.64] and for those diagnosed within 5 years after blood sampling (HR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.37-4.28). Short TL was associated with mortality in never smokers with NSCLC (HR = 10.29; 95% CI, 1.86-56.86) and adenocarcinoma (HR = 11.31; 95% CI, 1.96-65.24). Analyses in 5p15.33 identified statistically significant prognostic associations for rs56266421-G in LPCAT1 (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.38-2.52; P = 4.5 × 10-5) in stage I-IIIA NSCLC, and for the SLC6A3 gene with OS in females with NSCLC (P = 1.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the potential clinical utility of TL, particularly for adenocarcinoma patients, while associations in chromosome 5p15.33 warrant further exploration. IMPACT: This is the largest lung cancer study of leukocyte TL and OS, and the first to examine the impact of the timing of TL measurement. Our findings suggest that extremely short telomeres are indicative of poor prognosis in NSCLC.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.

9.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119706

RESUMO

Continued smoking at the time of a cancer diagnosis can severely impact the efficacy of cancer patient treatment and survival. The time of diagnosis can serve as a "teachable moment" for smoking cessation education, since patients may be receptive to discussions about quitting. Caregivers may have a pivotal role in supporting patients with their cessation efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify the smoking cessation informational needs of cancer patients and their caregivers. A needs assessment survey was administered to both patients and caregivers that assessed information needs across five domains: (1) General Information and Support; (2) Smoking, Health and Disease; (3) Relationships; (4) Testimonials; (5) Interventions. Mean importance scores were determined based on the proportion of respondents who ranked how important individual items were within the broader domains. Forty patients and twenty-two caregivers completed the survey. Among patients, the mean age was 61 years, with 35% diagnosed with a head and neck malignancy and 62% reporting as current smokers. Among caregivers, the mean age was 58 years, with 81% reporting to be the patient's immediate family member and 50% as current smokers. The General Information and Support domain was rated as the most important domain for both cancer patients and caregivers. The top preferred modality for receiving smoking cessation education across all domains was pamphlets for both groups. This study identifies the key informational elements that should be considered in the development of smoking cessation resources to meet the informational needs of cancer patients and caregivers.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083486

RESUMO

Although previous research identified candidate genetic polymorphisms associated with cisplatin nephrotoxicity, varying outcome definitions potentially contributed to the variability in the effect size and direction of this relationship. We selected genetic variants that have been significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in more than one published study (SLC22A2 rs316019; ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986; ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181) and performed a replication analysis to confirm associations between these genetic polymorphisms and cisplatin nephrotoxicity using various outcome definitions. We included 282 germ cell testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin from 2009-2014, aged >17 years recruited by the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety. Nephrotoxicity was defined using four grading tools: (1) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.03 for acute kidney injury (AKI) or CTCAE-AKI; (2) adjusted cisplatin-induced AKI; (3) elevation of serum creatinine; and (4) reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Significant associations were only found when using the CTCAE v4.03 definition: genotype CA of the ERCC1 rs3212986 was associated with decreased risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 0.24; 95% CI:0.08-0.70; p = 0.009) compared to genotype CC. In contrast, addition of allele A at SLC22A2 rs316019 was associated with increased risk (ORadj = 4.41; 95% CI:1.96-9.88; p < 0.001) while genotype AC was associated with a higher risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 5.06; 95% CI:1.69-15.16; p = 0.004) compared to genotype CC. Our study showed that different case definitions led to variability in the genetic risk ascertainment of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Therefore, consensus on a set of clinically relevant outcome definitions that all such studies should follow is needed.

11.
Lung Cancer ; 131: 86-89, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood sampling for detection of EGFR T790M in cell-free circulating tumour (ct) DNA in TKI-resistant EGFR mutant (EGFRm) lung cancer is now standard. The value of more comprehensive sequencing is unknown. METHODS: Prospective ctDNA analysis in patients with EGFRm NSCLC was performed using a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel of regions of 11 genes detecting single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions at ≥0.1% variant allele frequency (VAF) was performed. Patients were grouped according to treatment phase, including: (A) pre EGFR-TKI, (B) stable or responding to EGFR-TKI, (C) radiographic progression during EGFR-TKI, and (D) during chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients with stage IV EGFRm NSCLC were enrolled and first blood samples were analysed. Primary sensitizing mutations in del19 or L858R were present in 66 (92%) and uncommon EGFRm in 6 (8%). Mutations in ctDNA were found in 53 samples (74%). T790M was detected in 3 of 4 patients with T790M-negative tissue. Other co-occurring EGFRm were found in 10 patients (7%) including K745R during first-line osimertinib. TP53 (n = 10), KRAS (n = 1), PI3KCA (n = 1) and ALK (n = 3) gene mutations also were detected. The presence of an EGFRm (excluding T790M) was associated with untreated or progressive disease, p = 0.04. In TKI-treated patients without radiologic progression, median progression free survival (PFS) was 10 months versus 2.1 months (HR 2.22, 95% CI: 0.89-5.54, p = 0.08) if an EGFRm in ctDNA was detected. If T790M was present in ctDNA, median PFS was 3.0 months versus 9.7 months (HR 4.59, 95% CI: 1.43-14.73, p = 0.005). High % VAF of both EGFRm and T790M correlated with inferior PFS (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03 respectively). CONCLUSION: In addition to the emergence of resistance mutations, the presence of the primary or co-occurring EGFRm in patients receiving EGFR-TKIs may associate with shorter PFS and may be useful in longitudinal analyses of ctDNA to direct therapy.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(4): e11735, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continued smoking in cancer patients undergoing treatment results in significantly higher rates of treatment toxicities and persistent effects, increased risk of recurrence and second malignancy, and increased all-cause mortality. Despite this, routine tobacco use screening and the provision of smoking cessation treatment has yet to be implemented widely in the cancer setting. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the adoption and impact of an innovative Smoking Cessation e-referral System (CEASE) to promote referrals to smoking cessation programs in cancer patients. METHODS: A patient-directed electronic smoking cessation platform (CEASE) was developed to promote smoking screening and referral and implemented at 1 of Canada's largest cancer centers. The implementation and evaluation were guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of CEASE on screening rates, referrals offered, and referrals accepted compared with a previous paper-based screening program. A subsample of smokers or recent quitters was also assessed and compared pre- and postimplementation to examine the effect of CEASE on subsequent contact with smoking cessation programs and quit attempts. RESULTS: A total of 17,842 new patients attended clinics over the 20-month study period. The CEASE platform was successfully implemented across all disease sites. Screening rates increased from 44.28% (2366/5343) using the paper-based approach to 65.72% (3538/5383) using CEASE (P<.01), and referrals offered to smokers who indicated interest in quitting increased from 18.6% (58/311) to 98.8% (421/426; P<.01). Accepted referrals decreased from 41% (24/58) to 20.4% (86/421), though the overall proportion of referrals generated from total current/recent tobacco users willing to quit increased from 5.8% (24/414) to 20.2% (86/426) due to the increase in referrals offered. At 1-month postscreening, there was no significant difference in the proportion that was currently using tobacco and had not changed use in the past 4 weeks (pre: 28.9% [24/83] and post: 28.8% [83/288]). However, contact with the referral program increased from 0% to 78% in the postCEASE cohort (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: CEASE is an innovative tool to improve smoking screening and can be implemented in both a time- and cost-effective manner which promotes sustainability. CEASE was successfully implemented across all clinics and resulted in improvements in overall screening and referral rates and engagement with referral services.

13.
Oncologist ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worst-case, typical, and best-case scenarios for survival, based on simple multiples of an individual's expected survival time (EST), estimated by their oncologist, are a useful way of formulating and explaining prognosis. We aimed to determine the accuracy and prognostic significance of oncologists' estimates of EST, and the accuracy of the resulting scenarios for survival time, in advanced gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six oncologists estimated the EST at baseline for each of the 152 participants they enrolled in the INTEGRATE trial. We hypothesized that oncologists' estimates of EST would be unbiased (∼50% would be longer or shorter than the observed survival time [OST]); imprecise (<33% within 0.67-1.33 times the OST); independently predictive of overall survival (OS); and accurate at deriving scenarios for survival time with approximately 10% of patients dying within a quarter of their EST (worst-case scenario), 50% living within half to double their EST (typical scenario), and 10% living three or more times their EST (best-case scenario). RESULTS: Oncologists' estimates of EST were unbiased (45% were shorter than the OST, 55% were longer); imprecise (29% were within 0.67-1.33 times observed); moderately discriminative (Harrell's C-statistic 0.62, p = .001); and an independently significant predictor of OS (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.95; p = .001) in a Cox model including performance status, number of metastatic sites, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥3, treatment group, age, and health-related quality of life (EORTC-QLQC30 physical function score). Scenarios for survival time derived from oncologists' estimates were remarkably accurate: 9% of patients died within a quarter of their EST, 57% lived within half to double their EST, and 12% lived three times their EST or longer. CONCLUSION: Oncologists' estimates of EST were unbiased, imprecise, moderately discriminative, and independently significant predictors of OS. Simple multiples of the EST accurately estimated worst-case, typical, and best-case scenarios for survival time in advanced gastric cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Results of this study demonstrate that oncologists' estimates of expected survival time for their patients with advanced gastric cancer were unbiased, imprecise, moderately discriminative, and independently significant predictors of overall survival. Simple multiples of the expected survival time accurately estimated worst-case, typical, and best-case scenarios for survival time in advanced gastric cancer.

14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

15.
Oncologist ; 24(7): e501-e509, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In lung cancer, brain metastases (BM) and their treatment are associated with high economic burden and inferior health-related quality of life. In the era of targeted therapy, real world evidence through health utility scores (HUS) is critical for economic analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study (2014-2016), outpatients with stage IV lung cancer completed demographic and EQ-5D-3L surveys (to derive HUS). Health states and clinicopathologic variables were obtained from chart abstraction. Patients were categorized by the presence or absence of BM; regression analyses identified factors that were associated with HUS. A subset of patients prospectively completed neurocognitive function (NCF) tests and/or the FACT-brain (FACT-Br) questionnaire, which were then correlated with HUS (Spearman coefficients; regression analyses). RESULTS: Of 519 patients with 1,686 EQ-5D-3L-derived HUS, 94 (18%) completed NCF tests and 107 (21%) completed FACT-Br; 301 (58%) never developed BM, 24 (5%) developed first BM during study period, and 194 (37%) had BM at study entry. The sample was enriched (46%) for EGFR mutations (EGFRm) and ALK-rearrangements (ALKr). There were no HUS differences by BM status overall and in subsets by demographics. In multivariable analyses, superior HUS was associated with having EGFRm/ALKr (p < .0001), no prior radiation for extracranial disease (p < .001), and both intracranial (p = .002) and extracranial disease control (p < .01). HUS correlated with multiple elements of the FACT-Br and tests of NCF. CONCLUSION: Having BM in lung cancer is not associated with inferior HUS in a population enriched for EGFRm and ALKr. Patients exhibiting disease control and those with oncogene-addicted tumors have superior HUS. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In the setting of EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangement non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a diagnosis of brain metastases no longer consigns the patient to an inferior health state suggesting that new economic analyses in NSCLC are needed in the era of targeted therapies. Additionally, the EQ-5D questionnaire is associated with measures of health-related quality of life and neurocognitive scores suggesting this tool should be further explored in prospective clinical studies.

16.
Anal Chem ; 91(6): 4186-4194, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829484

RESUMO

Robust and accurate analysis of cell-population heterogeneity is challenging but required in many areas of biology and medicine. In particular, it is pivotal to the development of reliable cancer biomarkers. Here, we prove that cytometry of reaction rate constant (CRRC) can facilitate such analysis when the kinetic mechanism of a reaction associated with the heterogeneity is known. In CRRC, the cells are loaded with a reaction substrate, and its conversion into a product is followed by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy at the single-cell level. A reaction rate constant is determined for every cell, and a kinetic histogram "number of cells versus the rate constant" is used to determine quantitative parameters of reaction-based cell-population heterogeneity. Such parameters include, for example, the number and sizes of subpopulations. In this work, we applied CRRC to a reaction of substrate extrusion from cells by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This reaction is viewed as a potential basis for predictive biomarkers of chemoresistance in cancer. CRRC proved to be robust (insensitive to variations in experimental settings) and accurate for finding quantitative parameters of cell-population heterogeneity. In contrast, a typical nonkinetic analysis, performed on the same data sets, proved to be both nonrobust and inaccurate. Our results suggest that CRRC can potentially facilitate the development of reliable cancer biomarkers on the basis of quantitative parameters of cell-population heterogeneity. A plausible implementation scenario of CRRC-based development, validation, and clinical use of a predictor of ovarian cancer chemoresistance to its frontline therapy is presented.

17.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1584-1593, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cost of new anticancer drugs is rising. We aimed to assess the clinical benefit and price of anti-cancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for advanced gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Drugs approved between 2006 and 2017 for advanced GI malignancies were identified from FDA.gov, and their updated supporting trial data were searched. Incremental clinical benefit was quantified by using ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale version 1.1 (grade 0-5) and ASCO Value Framework version 2 (score range -20 to 180). Higher scores indicate larger net benefit, and substantial benefit was defined as score 4 or 5 by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). The Micromedex REDBOOK was used to estimate the monthly average wholesale price (AWP) and total drug price (TDP) over the median treatment duration per patient. Clinical benefit, AWP and TDP of each drug class were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 16 GI cancer drugs received FDA approval for 24 indications, including five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), five oral targeted therapies (TT), two immunotherapeutics (IO), three cytotoxic chemotherapies (CT), and one recombinant fusion protein (aflibercept). Most supporting trials (82%) reported overall survival benefit of less than 3 months and no significant improvement in quality of life. Only five agents (including one TT and one IO) with 21% the of approved indications met the ESMO's threshold of substantial clinical benefit. Median incremental benefit scores of TT and IO were comparable to other drug classes. However their median TDP was much higher at $153 402 and $98 208, respectively, compared to $30 330 USD per patient for CT. The estimated TDP did not correlate with clinical benefit scores. CONCLUSION: Most FDA-approved gastrointestinal cancer drugs do not meet the ESMO threshold of substantial clinical benefit. TT and IO are estimated to carry significant drug costs, and further cost analysis of these drugs is urgently needed.

19.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2623-2635, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health behaviors including smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), and alcohol moderation are key aspects of cancer survivorship. Immigrants may have unique survivorship needs. We evaluated whether immigrant cancer survivors had health behaviors and perceptions that were distinct from native-born cancer survivors. METHODS: Adult cancer patients from Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were surveyed on their smoking, PA, and alcohol habits and perceptions of the effects of these behaviors on quality of life (QoL), 5-year survival, and fatigue. Multivariable models evaluated the association of immigration status and region-of-origin on behaviors and perceptions. RESULTS: Of the 784 patients, 39% self-identified as immigrants. Median time of survey was 24 months after histological diagnosis. At baseline, immigrants had trends toward not meeting Canadian PA guidelines or being ever-drinkers; patients from non-Western countries were less likely to smoke (aORcurrent  = 0.46, aORex-smoker  = 0.47, P = 0.02), drink alcohol (aORcurrent  = 0.22, aORex-drinker  = 0.52, P < 0.001), or meet PA guidelines (aOR = 0.44, P = 0.006). Among immigrants, remote immigrants (migrated ≥40 years ago) were more likely to be consuming alcohol at diagnosis (aOR = 5.70, P < 0.001) compared to recent immigrants. Compared to nonimmigrants, immigrants were less likely to perceive smoking as harmful on QoL (aOR = 0.58, P = 0.008) and survival (aOR = 0.56, P = 0.002), and less likely to perceive that PA improved fatigue (aOR = 0.62, P = 0.04) and survival (aOR = 0.64, P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants had different patterns of health behaviors than nonimmigrants. Immigrants were less likely to perceive continued smoking as harmful and were less likely to be aware of PA benefits. Culturally tailored counselling may be required for immigrants who smoke or are physically sedentary at diagnosis.

20.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(3): e338-e345, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: KRAS and TP53 are common mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation Biological Program group found adjuvant chemotherapy to be deleterious in patients with coexisting KRAS/TP53 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To validate these results, patients with NSCLC tested for KRAS and TP53 mutations and receiving chemotherapy for any stage NSCLC were selected. Mutation status was analyzed using next generation sequencing (Illumina) or multiplex recurrent mutation detection (MassARRAY, Agena Biosciences) assays, and was correlated with clinical and demographic data. Disease-free (DFS) or progression-free survival (PFS) was the main endpoint, and overall survival (OS) was the secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Among 218 patients, 28 had coexisting KRAS/TP53 mutations, 77 TP53, 37 KRAS, 76 had neither KRAS nor TP53 mutation (WT/WT). There was no DFS/PFS difference for the KRAS/TP53 group versus all others among 99 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-2.44; P = .57), 27 stage III patients who received chemo-radiation (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.32-2.38; P = .8), and 63 patients who received palliative chemotherapy (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.31-1.48; P = .33). OS was longer in the WT/WT group compared with any other group (KRAS: HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .043; TP53: HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.3-3.61; P = .0028; KRAS/TP53: HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.09-3.88; P = .026). No OS difference was seen for KRAS/TP53 compared with the other groups (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.75-2.13; P = .38). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in DFS/PFS between the 4 groups. However, OS was longer for patients with TP53 and KRAS wild-type NSCLC who received chemotherapy for any stage compared with patients with KRAS, TP53 mutation, or double mutant tumors.

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