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Sci Data ; 9(1): 11, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058462


Bacterial integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are highly modular mobile genetic elements critical to the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor genes. To better understand and analyze the ongoing increase of ICEs, we developed an Integrative and Conjugative Element Ontology (ICEO) to represent the gene components, functional modules, and other information of experimentally verified ICEs. ICEO is aligned with the upper-level Basic Formal Ontology and reuses existing reliable ontologies. There are 31,081 terms, including 26,814 classes from 14 ontologies and 4128 ICEO-specific classes, representing the information of 271 known experimentally verified ICEs from 235 bacterial strains in ICEO currently and 311 predicted ICEs of 272 completely sequenced Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Three ICEO use cases were illustrated to investigate complex joins of ICEs and their harboring antibiotic resistance or virulence factor genes by using SPARQL or DL query. ICEO has been approved as an Open Biomedical Ontology library ontology. It may be dedicated to facilitating systematical ICE knowledge representation, integration, and computer-assisted queries.

Ontologias Biológicas , Conjugação Genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Klebsiella pneumoniae
Genome Med ; 13(1): 119, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294113


BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae, as a global priority pathogen, is well known for its capability of acquiring mobile genetic elements that carry resistance and/or virulence genes. Its virulence plasmid, previously deemed nonconjugative and restricted within hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP), has disseminated into classic K. pneumoniae (cKP), particularly carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), which poses alarming challenges to public health. However, the mechanism underlying its transfer from hvKP to CRKP is unclear. METHODS: A total of 28 sequence type (ST) 11 bloodstream infection-causing CRKP strains were collected from Ruijin Hospital in Shanghai, China, and used as recipients in conjugation assays. Transconjugants obtained from conjugation assays were confirmed by XbaI and S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR detection and/or whole-genome sequencing. The plasmid stability of the transconjugants was evaluated by serial culture. Genetically modified strains and constructed mimic virulence plasmids were employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying mobilization. The level of extracellular polysaccharides was measured by mucoviscosity assays and uronic acid quantification. An in silico analysis of 2608 plasmids derived from 814 completely sequenced K. pneumoniae strains available in GenBank was performed to investigate the distribution of putative helper plasmids and mobilizable virulence plasmids. RESULTS: A nonconjugative virulence plasmid was mobilized by the conjugative plasmid belonging to incompatibility group F (IncF) from the hvKP strain into ST11 CRKP strains under low extracellular polysaccharide-producing conditions or by employing intermediate E. coli strains. The virulence plasmid was mobilized via four modes: transfer alone, cotransfer with the conjugative IncF plasmid, hybrid plasmid formation due to two rounds of single-strand exchanges at specific 28-bp fusion sites or homologous recombination. According to the in silico analysis, 31.8% (242) of the putative helper plasmids and 98.8% (84/85) of the virulence plasmids carry the 28-bp fusion site. All virulence plasmids carry the origin of the transfer site. CONCLUSIONS: The nonconjugative virulence plasmid in ST11 CRKP strains is putatively mobilized from hvKP or E. coli intermediates with the help of conjugative IncF plasmids. Our findings emphasize the importance of raising public awareness of the rapid dissemination of virulence plasmids and the consistent emergence of hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (hv-CRKP) strains.

Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conjugação Genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Resistência beta-Lactâmica