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1.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(2): 372-387, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the antifibrotic activities and potential mechanisms of costunolide (COS), a natural sesquiterpene compound. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats subjected to bile duct ligation and mice challenged with CCl4 were used to study the antifibrotic effects of COS in vivo. Mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (pHSCs) and human HSC line LX-2 also served as an in vitro liver fibrosis models. The expression of fibrogenic genes and signaling proteins in the neurogenic locus notch homologue protein 3 (Notch3)-hairy/enhancer of split-1 (HES1) pathway was examined using western blot and/or real-time PCR. Notch3 degradation was analysed using immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation. KEY RESULTS: In animals, COS administration attenuated hepatic histopathological injury and collagen accumulation and reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes. COS time- and dose-dependently suppressed the levels of fibrotic markers in LX-2 cells and mouse pHSCs. Mechanistic studies showed COS destabilized Notch3 and subsequently inhibited the Notch3-HES1 pathway, thus inhibiting HSC activation. Furthermore, COS blocked the WW domain-containing protein 2 (WWP2)/protein phosphatase 1G (PPM1G) interaction and enhanced the effect of WWP2 on Notch3 degradation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: COS exerted potent antifibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the WWP2/PPM1G complex, promoting Notch3 degradation and inhibiting the Notch3/HES1 pathway. This indicates that COS may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

2.
Waste Manag ; 102: 884-899, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837554

RESUMO

Large amounts of organic wastes, which pose a severe threat to the environment, can be thermally pyrolyzed to produce biochar. Biochar has many potential uses owing to its unique physicochemical properties and attracts increasing attentions. Therefore, this review focuses on the agronomic functions of biochar used as compost additives and soil amendments. As a compost additive, biochar provides multiple benefits including improving composting performance and humification process, enhancing microbial activities, reducing greenhouse gas and NH4 emissions, immobilizing heavy metals and organic pollutants. As a soil amendment, biochar shows a good performance in improving soil properties and plant growth, alleviating drought and salinity stresses, interacting with heavy metals and organic pollutants and changing their fate of being uptaken from soils to plants. Furthermore, combined application of biochar and compost shows a good performance and a high agricultural value when applied to soils. Objectively and undeniably, there are still negative or ineffective cases of biochar amendment on crop yield and heavy metal immobilization, which is worthy of further attention. The medium-long term field monitoring of biochar-specific agricultural functions, as well as the exploration of wider sources for biochar feedstocks, are still needed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Solo
3.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113736, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877467

RESUMO

The long-term and large-scale utilization of fertilizers and pesticides in facility agriculture leads to groundwater pollution. However, the coexistence and interactions between organic fertilizers (i.e., organic matter), toxic metals, and pesticides in shallow groundwater have seldom been studied. Thus, the study sought to characterize said interactions via fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and chemometric techniques. The results indicated that groundwater DOM was comprised of protein-, polysaccharide-, and lignin-like substances derived from organic fertilizers. Protein-like substances accounted for the binding of Co, Ni, and Fe, while polysaccharide- and lignin-like substances were mainly responsible for Cr and Mo complexation. Moreover, lignin- and polysaccharide-like substances played a key role in the binding of pesticides (i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], endosulfan, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane [γ-HCH], monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos, and chlorfenvinphos), rendering the conversion of γ-HCH to ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) and the degradation of DDT to dichlorobenzene dichloroethylene (DDE) ineffective. However, the presence of protein-like substances in groundwater benefited the degradation and conversion of γ-HCH and α-endosulfan. Redundancy analyses showed that lignin- and polysaccharide-like matter had the most impacts on the coexistence of DOM with toxic metals and pesticides.

4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 317-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631596

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) formation based on Keap1/Nfr2/ARE signaling pathway. Methods: The VILI model was established by excessive mechanical ventilation in SD rats. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes of lung tissue in the control group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and large VT group (VT 40 mL/kg). The wet weight of lung tissue was detected in each group. Dry weight (W/D) ratio change; BCA method was used to detect the changes of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of each group; ELISA was used to detect interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and leukocyte in BALF and serum of each group. The content of 8-OHdG in the lung tissue was detected by IL-8 and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the lung tissue was detected by TBA method. The NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 proteins in macrophages were detected by Western blot. The changes of Keap1 and Nrf2 proteins in lung tissues were detected by RT-PCR. The expressions of SOD mRNA and HO-1 mRNA in lung tissues of each group were detected by RT-PCR. Results: Excessive mechanical ventilation could damage lung tissue, leading to alveolar rupture, inflammatory cell infiltration and erythrocytosis. Compared with the control group and normal VT group, the W/D value, 8-OHdG and MDA content in the large VT group, and total BALF, the contents of IL-1ß and IL-18 in protein, IL-1ß, IL-18 in serum increased significantly ( P<0.05). Compared with the control group and normal VT group, NLRP3, ASC, in macrophage of large VT group, the content of Keap1 protein in caspase-1 protein and lung tissue increased significantly ( P<0.05). The expression of Nrf2 protein, SOD mRNA and HO-1 mRNA in lung tissue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Large VT ventilation can cause acute inflammatory injury in lung tissue and lead to the occurrence of VILI. Inflammatory bodies of NLRP3 in alveolar macrophages are involved in this process, and the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammatory bodies is caused by hyperventilation in addition to mechanical injury. Decreased Keap1/Nrf2-ARE pathway inhibition and ROS clearance may also cause macrophage production of NLRP3 inflammatory bodies.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Pulmão , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364407

RESUMO

The synergistic anti-tumor effect of schisandrin B (Sch.B) and apatinib was investigated in vitro. The CCK-8 assay revealed that Sch.B enhanced the inhibition of apatinib on cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Sch.B also potentiated the suppression of apatinib on cell migration and invasion, by means of wound-healing and transwell invasion assay. Flow cytometry results showed that Sch.B enhanced apoptosis induced by apatinib. The results were confirmed by western blot analysis of the proteins MMP-9, and Bax caspase-9, and -12. These results suggest that combining apatinib and Sch.B is an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing GC progression.

6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(3): 315-322, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282324

RESUMO

Objective To explore the expressions of Sry-related high mobility group box 9(SOX9)and gastrokine-1(GKN1) in gastric cancer tissues and their relationships with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of patients.Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of SOX9 and GKN1 in 70 cases of gastric cancer tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues including 27 cases of intestinal metaplasia and 43 cases of normal gastric mucosa. The relationships of SOX9 and GKN1 expressions with clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed in gastric cancer tissues.Results The high expression rates of SOX9 in gastric cancer tissues,intestinal metaplasia,and normal gastric mucosa were 92.9%(65/70),77.8%(21/27),and 55.8%(24/43),respectively(χ 2=21.722,P<0.001). Positive nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was observed. The high nuclear expression rate of SOX9 in gastric cancer tissues was 67.1%,which was significantly higher than those of intestinal metaplasia(37.0%,P=0.007)and normal gastric mucosa(23.3%,P<0.001). The high cytoplasmic expression rate of GKN1 in normal gastric mucosa was 76.7%,which was significantly higher than those of intestinal metaplasia(44.4%,P=0.006)and gastric cancer tissues(37.1%,P<0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the nuclear expression of SOX9 in gastric cancer was associated with the degree of tissue differentiation(P=0.007),while the cytoplasmic expression of GKN1 was associated with both the degree of tissue differentiation(P=0.002)and whether the pathological type was a signet-ring cell carcinoma(P=0.009). Furthermore,the nuclear expression of SOX9 was negatively correlated with the expression of GKN1 in gastric cancer(χ 2=15.424,P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of patients with high or low nuclear expression of SOX9 were 33.8% and 67.5%,respectively(P=0.016).The 5-year survival rates of patients with high or low expression of GKN1 were 60.0% and 35.6%,respectively(P=0.044). Further research indicated that 5-year survival rate of patients with high nuclear expression of SOX9 and low expression of GKN1 was 28.8%. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that TNM stage(stage Ⅱ:HR=7.435,95%CI:1.313-42.096,P=0.023;stage Ⅲ:HR=12.214,95%CI:2.677-55.721,P=0.001)and nuclear expression level of SOX9(HR=3.297,95%CI:1.199-9.065,P=0.021)were independent risk factors for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.Conclusions Changes in the expressions of SOX9 and GKN1 may be associated with the malignant biological behavior of gastric cancer. SOX9 may be a potential prognostic factor. The combined detection of SOX9 and GKN1 expression and the further study of their molecular mechanism may provide new clues for early diagnosis,targeted therapy,and prognostic prediction of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(6): 838-844, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337957

RESUMO

The increased use of novel and powerful immunosuppressive drugs in kidney diseases may concomitantly expose the patients to higher risk of opportunistic infections, some of which still remain underdiagnosed thus mishandled. As such, we recently had a less prepared encounter of pulmonary nocardial infection in an ANCA-associated renal vasculitis patient under steroid therapy. Despite the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials including micafungin, the infection was still unbridled and eventually culminated in lethal brain abscess. We thus chose to renew the knowledge of the clinical features, imaging manifestations, differential diagnosis, specific laboratory tests and unique treatment about this rare infection in kidney diseases patients under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition, CT images of easily confused pulmonary lesions superimposed on kidney diseases were also retrieved from our depository. Moreover, impaired renal function as a risk factor for infection and pharmacological options for the treatment were also focused. By sharing our hard-learnt experience and reviewing the literatures, our report may contribute to the awareness among the clinicians in general and nephrologists in particular of this rare disease in susceptible patients and facilitate a swift thus life-saving treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nocardiose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/microbiologia , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico , Nocardiose/etiologia , Nocardia asteroides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Plasmaferese , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Waste Manag ; 95: 450-457, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351631

RESUMO

To observe the effect of aeration strategies on the dissipation of fluoroquinolones (FQs) during aerobic composting and explore their dissipation pathways, 60-L composting and 0.5-L incubation experiments were carried out in this study. Three aeration strategies (windrow, static aeration, feedback aeration) were applied to remove two typical FQs (Norfloxacin (NOR) and Ofloxacin (OFL)) during the 60-L composting of sewage sludge with 5 mg kg-1 of FQs added. Then, three 0.5 L-sample groups were taken during the three phases of the 60-L composting matrixes without FQs under static aeration, and were inoculated separately at 35 °C, 55 °C and 40 °C after being added with 5 mg kg-1 of FQs. In each group, incubation was carried out for three treatments (sterilization + no aeration, sterilization + aeration, and no sterilization + aeration). The FQs in the sewage sludge were mainly removed in the mesophilic and thermophilic phases in all the aeration strategies. The removal efficiencies were high for the whole process: 89.6-95.4% for NOR and 87.2-95.4% for OFL. The order of removal efficiency of FQs was static aeration > feedback aeration > windrow. The combination of composting phases facilitated to the rapid dissipation of FQs, which reduced the half-life to about 1/6 to 1/5 of the values in each phase. In the mesophilic and thermophilic compost, biodegradation was the main pathway for the dissipation of FQs followed by irreversible adsorption. Irreversible adsorption and biodegradation provided similar removal efficiencies for the curing compost. The volatilization of FQs was non-negligible in all phases.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluoroquinolonas , Esgotos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 501-510, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695750

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is a typical biochemical process of stabilization and harmlessness of organic wastes during which organic matter degrades, and then aggregates, to produce humic substances (HSs). HSs are a core product of-and a crucial indicator of-the maturation of compost that can be used in soil amendments. The formation of HSs is affected by the characteristics of the raw materials involved, the presence of compost additives, microbial activity, temperature, pH, the C/N ratio, moisture content, oxygen content and particle size, all of which can interact with each other. The formation of HSs is therefore complex. Moreover, it is difficult to identify definitive structures of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs), which are the two major components of HSs. However, HSs represent the same functional groups and structural arrangements, which helps to predict their structures. Functional groups represented by phenol and carboxylic acid groups of HAs and FAs can provide various agronomic functions, such as plant growth enhancement, water and nutrient retention, and disease suppression capacity. Overall, HSs can act as a soil amendment, fertilizer, and plant growth regulator. These functions of HSs enhance the reuse potential of organic waste compost products; however, this requires scientific control of various composting parameters and appropriate application of final products.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fertilizantes/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Agricultura , Resíduos de Alimentos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 661: 48-54, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665131

RESUMO

Recycling of sludge compost to soil as conditioner is generally regarded as the best means of disposal. However, concerns regarding heavy metal residues and sludge toxicity have recently received increasing public attention. Cadmium (Cd) is a mobile metal commonly found in sludge; therefore, the risk posed by Cd contaminated sludge should be carefully assessed. In this report, the effects of addition of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with sludge compost amendment on potential Cd risk were investigated. The results of consecutive two years showed that exchangeable Cd content in treatment of sludge compost with 1.5% HAP decreased by 6.0% compared with single sludge compost treatment, and residual Cd increased by 7.6%. Compared with single sludge compost, the incremental rate of exchangeable Cd dropped by 38.3% and the reductive rate of residual Cd increased by 37.7% in response to 1.5% HAP addition, indicating that HAP played a role of decreasing Cd phytoavailability. The HAP reduced the amount of Cd uptaken by turf-grass in both root and leaf. Moreover, HAP remarkably improved the quality of turf grass grown in amended soil, including leaf greenness, green maintainable period and root strength. However, HAP did not attenuate the downward mobility of Cd. Taken these together, these findings indicated that HAP can be used as a potential candidate to control surface Cd risk of sludge compost amended soil rather than that from leachate.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Durapatita/administração & dosagem , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostagem , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(7): 895-907, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573812

RESUMO

The manipulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis by blocking the ileal apical Na+-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT/SLC10A2) may have therapeutic effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We developed a novel ASBT inhibitor, an N-(3,4-o-dichlorophenyl)-2-(3-trifluoromethoxy) benzamide derivative referred to as IMB17-15, and investigated its therapeutic effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects. Syrian golden hamsters were challenged with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce NAFLD and were subsequently administered 400 mg/kg IMB17-15 by gavage daily for 21 days. Serum, liver, and fecal samples were collected for further analysis. Plasma concentration-time profiles of IMB17-15 were also constructed. The human hepatocyte cell line HL-7702 was treated with Oleic acid (OA) with or without IMB17-15. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to study the molecular mechanisms of IMB17-15. We found that IMB17-15 inhibited ASBT and subsequently suppressed ileal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and FXR-activated fibroblast growth factor15/19 (FGF15/19) expression, which reduced the hepatic phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) levels and upregulated the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity. Additionally, IMB17-15 stimulated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) phosphorylation and enhanced peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expression and thus promoted triglyceride (TG) oxidation and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) metabolism through an ASBT-independent mechanism. In conclusion, a novel ASBT inhibitor known as IMB17-15 protected hamsters against HFD-induced NFALD by manipulating BA and lipid homeostasis. IMB17-15 also reduced lipid deposition in human hepatic cell lines, indicating that it may be useful as a therapy for NAFLD patients.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade
12.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(10): 796-806, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269447

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that diet can affect the body's immunity. Roughage of dairy cows consists of a variety of plant materials which make different contributions to health. This study investigated the effect of different roughages on the immunity of dairy cows. Serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and milk samples were collected from 20 multiparous mid-lactation cows fed mixed forage (MF)- or corn straw (CS)-based diets. Expression profile analysis was used to detect the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from PBMCs. The results showed that milk protein in the MF group increased to 3.22 g/100 ml, while that of the CS group milk was 2.96 g/100 ml; by RNA sequencing, it was found that 1615 genes were differentially expressed between the CS group and the MF group among the 24 027 analyzed probes. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of DEGs suggested that these genes (especially genes coding cytokines, chemokine and its receptors) are involved in the immune response. Results were confirmed at the protein level via detecting the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, leptin (LEP), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay analysis. Our data supported the conclusions that the protein content in milk of the MF group was higher than that of the CS group, the CS-based diets induced more release of cytokines than the MF-based diets in dairy cows' PBMCs, and milk protein content may be affected by cytokines.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Zea mays , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Leite/química , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia
13.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 34(1): 1-3, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving on tissue inflammatory cytokines in rabbits. METHODS: Eight New Zealand rabbits were performed a simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving program which was established according to the Haldane theory. The expression levels of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), myeloperoxidase(MPO) and matrix metallo proteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rabbits lung and brain tissues were detected by Elisa after diving decompression. The tissue wet/dry ratio was calculated. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione(GSH), catalase(CAT), malondiadehyde(MDA) and lipid peroxide(LPO) were detected by Elisa method in rabbits before and after diving. RESULTS: The expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MPO and MMP-9 in simulated diving group rabbits were significantly increased compared with the intact group(P<0.05, P<0.01); the simulated diving rabbits tissues wet/dry ratio had no significant changes compared with the intact group. After diving, the activities of SOD and GSH were decreased significantly (P<0.01), while the contents of CAT, MDA and LPO were increased significantly (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving had significant impact on oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in rabbits, the results of wet/dry ratio showed that the diving rabbits had no tissue edema after decompression.


Assuntos
Mergulho/fisiologia , Hélio , Inflamação , Nitrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio , Animais , Catalase , Glutationa , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Malondialdeído , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Peroxidase , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 260: 141-149, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625286

RESUMO

To enable the development of microbial agents and identify suitable candidate used for biodrying, the existence and function of Bacillus thermoamylovorans during sewage sludge biodrying merits investigation. This study isolated a strain of B. thermoamylovorans during sludge biodrying, submitted it for complete genome sequencing and analyzed its potential microbial functions. After biodrying, the moisture content of the biodrying material decreased from 66.33% to 50.18%, and B. thermoamylovorans was the ecologically dominant Bacillus, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (9.53%) and carbohydrate transport and metabolism (8.14%). It contains 96 carbohydrate-active- enzyme-encoding gene counts, mainly distributed in glycoside hydrolases (33.3%) and glycosyl transferases (27.1%). The virulence factors are mainly associated with biosynthesis of capsule and polysaccharide capsule. This work indicates that among the biodrying microorganisms, B. thermoamylovorans has good potential for degrading recalcitrant and readily degradable components, thus being a potential microbial agent used to improve biodrying.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Esgotos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Nat Commun ; 9: 16200, 2018 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595195

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3223.

16.
Chemosphere ; 201: 127-136, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522953

RESUMO

Sewage sludge biodrying is a waste treatment method that uses bio-heat generated from organic degradation to remove moisture from sewage sludge. Lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition is important when assessing biodrying performance. This study investigated lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition, and the potential microbial functions during biodrying. We determined the lignocellulose and carbohydrate contents, assayed related enzyme activity, performed a complete metagenomic study on sewage sludge biodrying material during the thermophilic phase, annotated potential genetic function involved in the decomposition, and summarized the key metabolic pathways. The results indicated that lignocellulose, readily degradable carbohydrates, and starch, significantly decomposed after biodrying. During the thermophilic phase, the majority of lignocellulose and carbohydrate-related enzymes showed significantly higher activity, and glycoside hydrolases and glycosyl transferases showed higher gene counts and reads. Moreover, the top five microorganisms enriched with carbohydrate-active enzyme genes, i.e., Bacillus, Intrasporangium, Tetrasphaera, Rhodobacter, and Streptomyces, were also among the top ten ecologically dominant genera. These findings highlight the crucial phases for biodrying process, reveal the ecologically functional diversity of biodrying-originated microbial consortia, and suggest potential candidates for optimizing biodrying decomposition.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Lignina/análise , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Temperatura Alta , Metagenômica , Esgotos/microbiologia
17.
Environ Technol ; 38(6): 737-743, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27400644

RESUMO

Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L-1. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L-1, while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L-1 did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L-1 and a power of 0.19 kWh t-1 water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d-1 during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Aerobiose , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos
18.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 67(2): 212-218, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629354

RESUMO

Sludge is an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, both in the form of direct process emissions and as a result of indirect carbon-derived energy consumption during processing. In this study, the carbon budgets of two sludge disposal processes at two well-known sludge disposal sites in China (for biodrying and heat-drying pretreatments, both followed by mono-incineration) were quantified and compared. Total GHG emissions from heat drying combined with mono-incineration was 0.1731 tCO2e t-1, while 0.0882 tCO2e t-1 was emitted from biodrying combined with mono-incineration. Based on these findings, a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in total GHG emissions was obtained by biodrying instead of heat drying prior to sludge incineration. IMPLICATIONS: Sludge treatment results in direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moisture reduction followed by incineration is commonly used to dispose of sludge in China; however, few studies have compared the effects of different drying pretreatment options on GHG emissions during such processes. Therefore, in this study, the carbon budgets of sludge incineration were analyzed and compared following different pretreatment drying technologies (biodrying and heat drying). The results indicate that biodrying combined with incineration generated approximately half of the GHG emissions compared to heat drying followed by incineration. Accordingly, biodrying may represent a more environment-friendly sludge pretreatment prior to incineration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Esgotos/análise , China , Dessecação , Temperatura Alta , Incineração
19.
Mycology ; 8(4): 327-334, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123653

RESUMO

Isaria cicadae is an entomogenous fungus that has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal materials to treat different diseases, including cancer. However, Isaria cicadae conidia for inhibitory activity against breast cancer cells growth are still not systematically studied. The present aim was to elucidate the phytochemical composition of Isaria cicadae conidia and to explore relevant anti-cancer potential in gynaecological carcinoma MCF-7 and Hela cells. Isaria cicadae conidia were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS: high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray/quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry technology. Eight main compounds were identified which are nucleosides, cordycepic acid, cordycepin, beauvericin and myriocin by MS fragmentation ions. The nuclear morphology indicated the typical characteristics of apoptosis by Hoechst staining. Annexin V/PI staining revealed that the number of apoptotic cells was increased by Isaria cicadae conidia treatment. Furthermore, Isaria cicadae conidia also induced the caspase-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The findings suggest that the full-scale active ingredients highlight the significance of Isaria cicadae conidia as potential anti-cancer agent in China.

20.
Cancer Med ; 5(12): 3512-3519, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27794184

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the third most common causes of death from cancer in men. Our previous study demonstrated that lncRNA PVT1 was overexpressed and played an oncogenic role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of modulating the prostate cancer tumorigenesis was still unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the interaction between PVT1 and miR-146a in prostate cancer and reveal the potential mechanism in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. The expression level of miR-146a was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The correlation analysis and methylation status analysis was made to confirm the interaction between PVT1 and miR-146a. Biological function analysis was performed through gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies. Our results showed that miR-146a was downregulated and negatively correlated with PVT1 level in prostate cancer. PVT1 mediated miR-146a expression by inducing the methylation of CpG Island in its promoter. miR-146a overexpression eliminated the effects of PVT1 knockdown on prostate cancer cells. PVT1 regulated prostate cancer cell viability and apoptosis depending on miR-146a. Our study suggested a regulatory relationship between lncRNA PVT1 and miR-146a during the process of the prostate cancer tumorigenesis. PVT1 regulated prostate cancer cell viability and apoptosis depending on miR-146a. It would contribute to the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
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