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1.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 10, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the dual energy CT measured iodine concentration and total iodine content with blood measured thyroid parameters. METHODS: Forty-three patients with normal thyroid function at our hospital from August 2017 to October 2019 were included in this retrospective study. Dual energy CT was used to scan the neck of thyroid patients. The mean iodine concentration and thyroid tissue volume were measured to calculate the total iodine content of the thyroid. Relevant tests of triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid hormone (TSH) were conducted. The correlation of the thyroid mean iodine concentration and total iodine content with blood-measured thyroid function was analysed. RESULT: The total iodine content in the thyroid was positively correlated with FT3 but negatively correlated with TSH. The mean iodine concentration of the thyroid was positively correlated with both FT3 and TT3. CONCLUSION: The thyroid iodine content measured by dual energy CT can be used to determine the human iodine nutritional status and evaluate thyroid function, which will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

2.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031480

RESUMO

Aim: To research the influence and mechanism of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different size for HK-2 cells (kidney normal cells) and 786-0 cells (kidney cancer cells). Materials & methods: HK-2 cells and 786-0 cells were treated with 5 and 200 nm AuNPs at 1 and 10 µg/ml. The cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, cell apoptosis, cell autophagy, and related cell signaling pathways were analyzed. Results: In HK-2 cells, AuNPs reduced the activity of Akt and mTOR and upregulated the expression of LC3 II. In 786-0 cells, the activity of p38 was upregulated, which leaded to the increase of caspase 3 and initiated apoptosis. Conclusion: AuNPs of 5 and 200 nm at 10 µg/ml exerted antitumor effect by prompting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, while autophagy was activated to protect HK-2 cells from AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity.

3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 508-514, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004613

RESUMO

At present, several reports have indicated that the C-terminal peptides of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) were active antibacterial peptides. However, the functions of TFPI-1 C-terminal peptides in teleost are still very limited. In this study, a C-terminal peptide, TC26 (with 26 amino acids), derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TFPI-1, was synthesized and investigated for its antibacterial spectrum, action mechanism, as well as the in vivo effects on bacterial invasion. Our results showed that TC26 was active against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus. TC26 treatment facilitated the bactericidal process of erythromycin by enhancing the out-membrane permeability of V. vulnificus. During the bactericidal process, TC26 killed the target bacterial cells Vibrio vulnificus, by destroying cell membrane integrity, penetrating into the cytoplasm and inducing degradation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In vivo study showed that administration of turbot with TC26 before bacterial infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. These results indicated that TC26 is a novel and active antibacterial peptide and may play a vital role in fighting pathogenic infection in aquaculture.

4.
RNA Biol ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036747

RESUMO

The previous report shows the minimal promoter (P1) contributes to the Xist RNA activation in cells, while the role of the Xist P1 has not yet been investigated in animal individuals. Here, female Xist P1 knockout rabbits (Xist P1-/-) were generated for the studies. The results showed that there is no significant difference in transmission ratio, Xist and X-linked genes expression, and Xist RNA localization between the female wild type (WT) and Xist P1-/- rabbits, suggesting that P1 is non-essential for Xist expression and XCI in rabbits. Our study has explored the function of Xist P1 in animal level for the first time, and the results provide new ideas for future studies of XCI mechanisms.

5.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 132: 107432, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918056

RESUMO

The decrease in killing sensitivity of the cell membrane to microsecond pulse electric fields (µs-PEFs) is ascribed mainly to the aberrant morphology of cancer cells, with clear statistical correlations observed between cell size and shape defects and the worsening of the electrical response to the PEF. In this paper, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (ns-PEFs) inducing the nucleus effect and µs-PEFs targeting the cell membrane were combined to enhance destruction of irregular cells. The fluorescence dissipation levels of the nuclear membrane and cell membrane exposed to the µs, ns, and ns + µs pulse protocols were measured and compared, and a dynamic electroporation model of irregular cells was established by the finite element software COMSOL. The results suggest that the cell membrane disruption induced by µs-PEFs is worse for extremely irregular cells and depends strongly on cellular morphology. However, the nuclear membrane disruption induced by ns-PEFs does not scale with irregularity, suggesting the use of a combination of ns-PEFs with µs-PEFs to target the nuclear and cell membranes. We demonstrate that ns + µs pulses can significantly enhance the fluorescence dissipation of the cell and nuclear membranes. Overall, our findings indicate that ns + µs pulses may be useful in the effective killing of irregular cells.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 11, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever outbreaks tend to spread northward in China, and Jining is the northernmost region where local dengue fever cases have been detected. Therefore, it is important to investigate the density of Aedes albopictus and its resistance to deltamethrin. METHODS: The Breteau index (BI) and container index (CI) were calculated to assess the larval density of Ae. albopictus and human-baited double net trap (HDN) surveillance was performed in six subordinate counties (Rencheng, Yanzhou, Sishui, Liangshan, Zoucheng and Jiaxiang) of Jining City in 2017 and 2018. The resistance of Ae. albopictus adults to deltamethrin was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard resistance bioassay. The mutations at Vgsc codons 1532 and 1534 were also analysed to determine the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance in adult mosquitoes. RESULTS: The average BI, CI and biting rate at Jining were 45.30, 16.02 and 1.97 (female /man/hour) in 2017 and 15.95, 7.86 and 0.59 f/m/h in 2018, respectively. In August 26, 2017, when the first dengue fever case was diagnosed, the BI at Qianli village in Jiaxiang County was 107.27. The application of prevention and control measures by the government sharply decreased the BI to a value of 4.95 in September 3, 2017. The mortality of field-collected Ae. albopictus females from Jiaxiang was 41.98%. I1532T, F1534L and F1534S mutations were found in domain III of the Vgsc gene. This study provides the first demonstration that both I1532T and F1534S mutations are positively correlated with the deltamethrin-resistant phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Mosquito density surveillance, resistance monitoring and risk assessment should be strengthened in areas at risk for dengue to ensure the sustainable control of Ae. albopictus and thus the prevention and control of dengue transmission.

7.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1389-1396, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913383

RESUMO

Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death when accumulated in cancer cells, while rendering anti-oxidation and cancer prevention in healthy tissues at low doses. Although they are promising anticancer agents with fewer side effects, their application is limited by their relative low toxicity to cancer cells. Therefore, we propose a mitochondrion-targeting strategy to improve their cancer cell killing efficiency. Such mitochondrion-targeted SeNPs could efficiently increase ROS production and mitochondrion damage in cancer cells; however, only a slightly increased toxicity to normal cells was observed, indicating a potentially better therapeutic window for anticancer treatments.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 122: 109760, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918287

RESUMO

AIMS: Siglec-E, the mouse ortholog of human Siglec-9, is an immunosuppressive cell surface receptor. Both Siglec-E and Siglec-9 are primarily found on neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes. When Siglec-E binds to sialoglycan ligands in its extracellular environment, it halts the immune cells' inflammatory responses. In the present study, we aimed to investigate expression, mechanisms of action and regulation of Siglec-E ligands during vascular inflammation induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in mouse aorta. METHODS: The distribution, molecular size and glycoprotein class of Siglec-E ligands on mouse aorta were determined, and the protein carrier of the ligands was identified. In vivo, the expression of Siglec-E ligands was detected after LPS treatment, with or without NF-κB inhibitor administration. In vitro, cultured primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were used to study changes in expression of Siglec-E ligands induced by LPS with or without NF-κB inhibitors. MAECs induced by LPS were co-cultured with macrophages and the effect of increased expression of Siglec-E ligands analyzed. RESULTS: Siglec-E ligands are O-linked sialoglycoproteins with molecular weights of 70-300 kDa and are distributed broadly on mouse aorta as well as on MAECs in vitro. In vivo, the expression of Siglec-E ligands was increased in mice aortas in response to LPS treatment in an NF-κB signaling pathway dependent manner. In MAECs, the expression of Siglec-E ligands was also increased by LPS via an NF-κB signaling pathway. Deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 was identified to be one of multiple protein carriers of Siglec-E ligands, and glycans of ligands involved in MAECs induced by LPS. Notably, co-incubation of macrophages with LPS-treated MAECs induced macrophage apoptosis and decreased macrophage phagocytosis, effects that were completely reversed by blocking Siglec-E binding to Siglec-E ligands. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that Siglec-E ligands were highly expressed in response to LPS-induced vascular inflammation and inhibited the immune response of macrophages, which may be a therapeutic strategy to interfere with vascular inflammation.

10.
Biomaterials ; 232: 119701, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901505

RESUMO

Various design and fabrication strategies of carrier-based drug delivery systems have been quickly established and applied for cancer therapy in recent years. These systems contribute greatly to current cancer treatments but further development needs to be made to eliminate obstacles such as low drug loading capacity and severe side effects. To achieve better drug delivery, we propose an innovative strategy for the construction of easy manufactured drug self-delivery systems based on molecular structures, which can be used for the co-delivery of curcuminoids and all the nitrogen-containing derivatives of camptothecin for better targeted cancer therapy with minimized side effects. The formation mechanism investigation demonstrates that the rigid planar structures of camptothecin derivatives and curcuminoids with relevant leaving hydrogens make it possible for them to be assembled into nanoparticles under suitable conditions. These nanoparticles show stabilized particle sizes (100 nm) under various conditions and tunable surface charges which increase from around -10 mV in a normal physiological condition (pH 7.4) to +40 mV under acidic tumor environments. In addition, in vivo mice experiments have demonstrated that, compared to irinotecan (a derivative of camptothecin) itself, the co-delivered irinotecan curcumin nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced lung and gallbladder targeting, improved macrophage-clearance escape and ameliorated colorectal cancer treatment with an eradication of life-threatening diarrhea, bringing hope for better targeted chemotherapy and clinical translation. Lastly, the strategy of structure based design of drug self-delivery systems may inspire more research and discoveries of similar self-delivered nano systems for wider pharmaceutical applications.

11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(4): 895-904, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900533

RESUMO

We have developed an aptamer affinity column (AAC) for the purification and enrichment of trace aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) in genuine agro-products through the covalent conjugation of amino modified aptamer and NHS-activated Sepharose. The coupling and working conditions found to be suitable for this AFB-AAC were examined in regard to coupling time (2 min), loading volume (30 mL), and the methanol concentration (< 10%) used in the loading step. The performance of AFB-AAC was then further evaluated in terms of capacity (329.1 ± 13.7 ng for AFB1 and 162.5 ± 8.9 ng for AFB2), selectivity (excellent), reusability (twenty-three times for AFB1 and twelve times for AFB2), and repeatability (92.7% ± 2.9% for AFB1 and 71.5% ± 3.4% for AFB2). Furthermore, the AAC clean-up combined with HPLC-FLD demonstrated excellent linearity over a wide range, good sensitivity with an LOD of 50 pg mL-1 for AFB1 and 15 pg mL-1 for AFB2, and acceptable recovery with different spiking levels in different matrices. Finally, the AAC was successfully applied to analyte AFB1 and AFB2 in four types of agro-products as well as a maize flour reference material, and the results were found to be in accordance with those of commercial IACs. This study provides a reference for the analysis of other trace analytes by merely changing the corresponding aptamer and represents a strong contender for immune affinity columns. Graphical abstract An aptamer affinity column for purification and enrichment of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 in agro-products with the aid of HPLC-FLD and a post-column photochemical derivatization reactor.

12.
Org Lett ; 22(3): 1193-1198, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944774

RESUMO

An efficient cobalt-catalyzed Z to E isomerization of ß-substituted styrenes using the amido-diphosphine ligand was developed, delivering the (E)-isomers with good functional tolerance and high stereoselectivity. The reaction could be scaled up to gram-scale with a catalyst loading of 0.1 mol %, using a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-alkene as the starting material. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that cobalt(I)-hydride and a benzylic-cobalt species were probably involved in the reaction, as supported by experiments and DFT calculations.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986004

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) therapy has shown to have great promise for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) due to the low efficiency of hormonal therapy. However, instability of RNA and inefficiency of RNA therapy limit the use of miRNAs in the treatment of AIPC. Here, we report a pH/ATP-activated nanocomplexes for increasing cytosolic delivery of miR146a which can effectively inhibit the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in AIPC. The nanocomplexes show identical suppressing effect in invasion, colony formation, migration ability, and growth of DU145 cells compared with Lipofectamine 2000 (lipo). But for in vivo experiments, the nanocomplexes vigorously suppress the growth of tumor volumes comparing to lipo group after five weeks' treatment. These results demonstrate the potential of the pH/ATP-activated nanocarriers for AIPC gene therapy.

14.
J Proteomics ; 215: 103653, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958640

RESUMO

Selenoprotein F (Selenof) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein. It may be functionally linked to glycoprotein folding in the ER but the detail function is not fully understood. To study the function of Selenof, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate Selenof knockout mice and performed proteomic analysis of hepatic proteins by iTRAQ. Collectively, 83 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the liver of Selenof knockout mice. The changes of mRNA and protein levels of 6 selected DEPs, Fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate synthase, Glutathione S-transferase P 1, Transformer-2 protein homolog beta, Pyruvate kinase, Metallothionein-2, were further verified by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot. The roles of 83 DEPs are mainly related to metabolism and cancer. Consistently, the levels of NADPH and ATP, two molecules closely related to energy metabolism, are significantly changed in the livers of Selenof knockout mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified potential biological pathways and proteins related to Selenof deletion. These findings will provide possible proteins/pathways related to Selenof and help to understand the function of Selenof as well as the relationship between Selenof and certain diseases.

15.
Plant Physiol ; 182(1): 658-668, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659126

RESUMO

Gibberellin (GA) is known to play an important role in low red/far-red (R:FR) light ratio-mediated hypocotyl and petiole elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the regulatory relationship between low R:FR and GAs remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. To increase our understanding of the molecular basis of low R:FR-mediated shoot elongation in pines and to determine whether there is an association between low R:FR and GAs action, we explored the morphological and transcriptomic changes triggered by low R:FR, GAs, and paclobutrazol (PAC), a GAs biosynthesis inhibitor, in Pinus tabuliformis seedlings. Transcriptome profiles revealed that low R:FR conditions and GAs have a common set of transcriptional targets in P. tabuliformis We provide evidence that the effect of low R:FR on shoot elongation in P. tabuliformis is at least partially modulated by GAs accumulation, which can be largely attenuated by PAC. GAs are also involved in the cross talk between different phytohormones in the low R:FR response. A GA biosynthesis gene, encoding ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), was strongly stimulated by low R:FR without being affected by GAs feedback regulation or the photoperiod. We show that GA signaling is required for low R:FR-induced shoot elongation in P tabuliformis seedlings, and that there are different regulatory targets for low R:FR-mediated GA biosynthesis between conifers and angiosperms.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research was designed to investigate patient-reported and doctor-reported reasons for the discontinuation of pharmacological treatment in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which was part of the National Survey on Symptomatology of Depression (NSSD) from 2014 to 2015. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 649 patients who had discontinued antidepressant medications and 711 patients who had remained on them, selected from a group of 3516 candidates who have had at least one depressive episode. Differences in the two groups' sociodemographic factors, clinical characteristics, medication use, and self-reported reasons for drug discontinuation were compared via Student's t-test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was then used to determine the association of all non-subjective dichotomous and ordinal categorical variables, including the additional 63 items of our physician-evaluated symptomatic assessment, with drug compliance. RESULTS: Compared to the spontaneous drug discontinuation (SDD) group, the drug adherence (DA) group had significantly lower rates of the following: family history of mental disease (9.0% vs 13.6%), highest level of education achieved being post-graduate or above (1.6% vs 4.7%), smoking (5.8% vs 9.7%), and other health problems (33.9% vs 42.4%) (p's < 0.05). On the other hand, first-episode depression (48.5% vs 21.9%) and taking of mood stabilizer(s) (8.3% vs 5.6%) were higher in the former group than in the latter (p's < 0.05). Logistic Regression Analysis showed that five symptoms, such as depressed mood, were correlated positively with SDD, while another six symptoms, such as psychomotor retardation, were correlated negatively with it. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of this model yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.701 (95% CI, 0.673-0.729). Notably, there were three main reasons given by patients in the DA group as to why they discontinued their medication(s): (1) concern about long-term side effects (36.1%), (2) no perceived need for taking said medication(s) long-term (34.2%), and (3) believing oneself to have been cured completely (30.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The aforementioned factors may affect patient compliance and elicit maladaptive thinking even from patients with good educational backgrounds, increasing the risk of drug discontinuation. Compliance of pharmacological treatment might be improved by increasing clarification and elucidation of different symptom clusters to the patient and combating the main reasons for drug discontinuation.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 3068-3079, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869196

RESUMO

With growing interest in flexible and wearable devices, the demand for nature-inspired soft smart materials, especially intelligent hydrogels with multiple perceptions toward external strain and temperatures to mimic the human skin, is on the rise. However, simultaneous achievement of intelligent hydrogels with skin-compatible performances, including good transparency, appropriate mechanical properties, autonomous self-healing ability, multiple mechanical/thermoresponsiveness, and retaining flexibility at subzero temperatures, is still challenging and thus limits their application as skinlike devices. Here, conductive nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) were delicately designed and prepared via gelation of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA)-based monomers in a glycerol-water cosolvent, where inorganic clay served as the physical cross-linker and provided conductive ions. The resultant NC gels exhibited good conductivity (∼3.32 × 10-4 S cm-1, akin to biological muscle tissue) and an autonomously self-healing capacity (healing efficiency reached 84.8%). Additionally, such NC gels displayed excellent flexibility and responded well to multiple strain/temperature external stimuli and subtle human motions in a wide temperature range (from -20 to 45 °C). These distinguished properties would endow such NC gels significant applications in fields of biosensors, human-machine interfaces, and soft robotics.

18.
Metallomics ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793592

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases represent the greatest threats to human health worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic activity of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results demonstrated that animals either treated with SeNPs (50 µg Se per kg per day) or with atorvastatin (10 mg per kg per day) alone showed significant relief of vascular injury after 8 weeks of treatment. SeNPs could obviously decrease the level of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. At the same time, SeNPs regulated the expression levels of key genes associated with cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Furthermore, SeNPs significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level, but increased the NO level and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the serum and liver. SeNPs also increased the expression levels of antioxidant selenoenzymes or selenoproteins in the liver. In addition, SeNPs could alleviate H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by upregulating the activities of SOD and GPx in endothelial cells cultured in vitro. These results suggested that SeNPs could significantly alleviate hyperlipidemia and vascular injury in ApoE-/- mice, possibly by regulating cholesterol metabolism and reducing oxidative stress through antioxidant selenoenzymes/selenoproteins. SeNPs might be a potential candidate for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

19.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-29, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809574

RESUMO

As a transcriptional regulator of the classical binary regulatory system, PhoP plays an important role in the life activities of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). In previous experiments, we found that the absence of phoP affects APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity. To further explore the molecular mechanism of phoP regulation of these phenomena, the differentially expressed gene tolC was screened based on phoP-derived transcriptional data, and the specific sequence identity of the PhoP binding sequence was predicted by bioinformatics and verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The results showed that PhoP can directly bind to the tolC promoter. On this basis, tolC deletion and complementary strains were constructed. Biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining and rdar morphology change was observed in these strains. Loss of tolC reduced biofilm formation. We also examined pathological changes in organ paraffin sections by challenging chicks with the strains. After loss of tolC, the chick symptoms of pericarditis and liver and spleen enlargement were alleviated, and pathogenicity to the host cells was decreased. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that tolC deletion downregulated secA/secB/secE/secY transcript levels, which are part of the T2SS secreting virulence effector element. These results indicate that tolC contributes to the phoP-mediated effect on APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity.

20.
Avian Dis ; 63(4): 731-736, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865690

RESUMO

Goose astrovirus is a novel and distinct astrovirus that causes fatal visceral gout in 4- to 21-day-old goslings. Goose parvovirus is the etiologic agent of Derzsy disease, an acute, contagious, and fatal disease that affects mainly young goslings. This paper describes the clinical signs and gross and histopathologic features of co-infection with astrovirus and goose parvovirus. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, depression, anorexia, enteritis, joint swelling, and paralysis. Postmortem examination showed a considerable amount of urate covering the internal organs, especially the heart, liver, and kidney. Some goslings had swollen duodenum and ileum. Histologic lesions in the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, proventriculus, and brain included hemorrhage, congestion, edema, cell necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and an eosinophilic protein-like substance in renal tubules. The extensive infiltration of heterophil myelocytes into the kidney, spleen, liver, lung, bursa of Fabricius, and pancreas is a new finding.

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