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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700053

RESUMO

Resistance to regeneration of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells is a fundamental challenge for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Recently, small molecule inhibitors of the kinase DYRK1A have proven effective in inducing adult human beta cells to proliferate, but their detailed mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We interrogated our human insulinoma and beta cell transcriptomic databases seeking to understand why beta cells in insulinomas proliferate, while normal beta cells do not. This search suggested the DREAM complex as a central regulator of quiescence in human beta cells. DREAM complex consists of a module of transcriptionally repressive proteins that assemble in response to DYRK1A kinase activity, thereby inducing and maintaining cellular quiescence. In the absence of DYRK1A, DREAM subunits reassemble into the pro-proliferative MMB complex. Here we demonstrate that small molecule DYRK1A inhibitors induce human beta cells to replicate by converting the repressive DREAM complex to its pro-proliferative MMB conformation.

2.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 904098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720126

RESUMO

Background: This study was designed to explore the implications of ferroptosis-related alterations in glioblastoma patients. Method: After obtaining the data sets CGGA325, CGGA623, TCGA-GBM, and GSE83300 online, extensive analysis and mutual verification were performed using R language-based analytic technology, followed by further immunohistochemistry staining verification utilizing clinical pathological tissues. Results: The analysis revealed a substantial difference in the expression of ferroptosis-related genes between malignant and paracancerous samples, which was compatible with immunohistochemistry staining results from clinicopathological samples. Three distinct clustering studies were run sequentially on these data. All of the findings were consistent and had a high prediction value for glioblastoma. Then, the risk score predicting model containing 23 genes (CP, EMP1, AKR1C1, FMOD, MYBPH, IFI30, SRPX2, PDLIM1, MMP19, SPOCD1, FCGBP, NAMPT, SLC11A1, S100A10, TNC, CSMD3, ATP1A2, CUX2, GALNT9, TNFAIP6, C15orf48, WSCD2, and CBLN1) on the basis of "Ferroptosis.gene.cluster" was constructed. In the subsequent correlation analysis of clinical characteristics, tumor mutation burden, HRD, neoantigen burden and chromosomal instability, mRNAsi, TIDE, and GDSC, all the results indicated that the risk score model might have a better predictive efficiency. Conclusion: In glioblastoma, there were a large number of abnormal ferroptosis-related alterations, which were significant for the prognosis of patients. The risk score-predicting model integrating 23 genes would have a higher predictive value.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; : 127489, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724908

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in manure aerobic composting are a potential environmental pollutant. Therefore, reducing the abundance of ARGs is crucial. The effects of adding three-dimensional printed bulking agents (3DBAs) on ARGs in aerobic composting of swine manure were investigated in this study. Compared with the control group, 3DBAs with different addition dosages can greatest reduce the total ARGs by 5.98%, tetracycline resistance genes by 14.02%, macrolide resistance genes by 9.65%, and sulfonamide resistance genes by 20.59%. By further combining physicochemical parameters, host microorganisms, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) for analysis, it was found that oxygen concentration was vital for ARGs reduction, and 3DBAs with regular porosity and uniform size indirectly regulate the activity of host microorganisms and MGEs abundance by changing the oxygen consumption, finally reducing vertical or horizontal ARGs transfer risks. Overall, 3DBAs addition is an effective strategy to reduce the abundance of ARGs in aerobic composting.

5.
Food Funct ; 13(12): 6813-6829, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671132

RESUMO

In this study, novel Poria cocos oligosaccharides (PCO) were prepared by enzymatic degradation, and their polymerization degree was determined to be 2-6 by LC-MS analysis. By monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation assay, FT-IR, and NMR analysis, PCO were deduced to contain the sugar residues of (1 → 2)-ß-D-Glcp, (1 → 2)-α-D-Glcp, and (1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp. Using an HFD-fed mouse model with dyslipidemia, PCO could significantly suppress lipid metabolism disorders, characterized by the reduction of lipid accumulation and inflammatory responses in the blood and liver tissues. Based on the non-targeted metabolomic analysis and Spearman's correlation analysis, we presume that the preventive effect of PCO on dyslipidemia might contribute to the reversal of changed metabolic pathways, which were related to the metabolisms of glycerophospholipids, unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, choline, bile acids, tryptophan, sphingolipids, and glutathione. Our research shed light on the potential application of PCO for the treatment of dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Wolfiporia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 17(4)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561670

RESUMO

The adhesion behaviors of droplets on surfaces are attracting increasing attention due to their various applications. Many bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces with different adhesion states have been constructed in order to mimic the functions of natural surfaces such as a lotus leaf, a rose petal, butterfly wings, etc. In this review, we first present a brief introduction to the fundamental theories of the adhesion behaviors of droplets on various surfaces, including low adhesion, high adhesion and anisotropic adhesion states. Then, different techniques to characterize droplet adhesion on these surfaces, including the rotating disk technique, the atomic force microscope cantilever technique, and capillary sensor-based techniques, are described. Wetting behaviors, and the switching between different adhesion states on bioinspired surfaces, are also summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the diverse applications of bioinspired surfaces, including water collection, liquid transport, drag reduction, and oil/water separation, are discussed. Finally, the challenges of using liquid adhesion behaviors on various surfaces, and future applications of these surfaces, are discussed.


Assuntos
Rosa , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Folhas de Planta/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
7.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579934

RESUMO

Experiments have demonstrated the regulation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in tuberculosis (TB), and negative pressure treatment has been associated with the alleviation of TB. Here, we investigated the interaction of negative pressure and the lncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) in modulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Initially, we established an in vitro cell model of MTB infection and an in vivo mouse model of MTB infection, followed by treatment with negative pressure. Then, we examined the expression of XIST, followed by analysis of the downstream miRNA of XIST. XIST was overexpressed or underexpressed through cell transfection to examine its effects on macrophage polarization via the miR-125b-5p/A2 axis. The MTB models were characterized by upregulated XIST and downregulated miR-125b-5p. XIST bound to miR-125b-5p, leading to its downregulation, and thus causing higher MTB survival in an ESAT-6-dependent manner. Additionally, negative pressure treatment decreased MTB-driven XIST expression through downregulation of A20 (an NF-κB repressor) via miR-125b-5 expression, promoting the M1 polarization program in macrophages through activation of the NF-κB pathway. In summary, negative pressure treatment after MTB infection can promote the polarization of macrophages to the proinflammatory M1 phenotype by regulating the XIST/miR-125b-5p/A20/NF-κB axis.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 839499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602088

RESUMO

The alpine ecosystem as one of the most representative terrestrial ecosystems has been highly concerned due to its susceptibility to anthropogenic impacts and climatic changes. However, the distribution pattern of alpine soil bacterial communities and related deterministic factors still remain to be explored. In this study, soils were collected from different altitudes and slope aspects of the Mount (Mt.) Shergyla, Tibetan Plateau, and were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based bioinformatics approaches. Acidobacteriota and Proteobacteria were identified consistently as the two predominant phyla in all soil samples, accounting for approximately 74% of the bacterial community. The alpha diversity of the soil bacterial community generally increased as the vegetation changed with the elevated altitude, but no significant differences in alpha diversity were observed between the two slopes. Beta diversity analysis of bacterial community showed that soil samples from the north slope were always differentiated obviously from the paired samples at the south slope with the same altitude. The whole network constituted by soil bacterial genera at the Mt. Shergyla was parsed into eight modules, and Elev-16S-573, Sericytochromatia, KD4-96, TK10, Pedomicrobium, and IMCC26256 genera were identified as the "hubs" in the largest module. The distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) demonstrated that variations in soil bacterial community thereof with the altitude and slope aspects at the Mt. Shergyla were closely associated with environmental variables such as soil pH, soil water content, metal concentrations, etc. Our results suggest that environmental variables could serve as the deterministic factors for shaping the spatial pattern of soil bacterial community in the alpine ecosystems.

9.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2200276, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567333

RESUMO

The development of wide-bandgap polymer donors having complementary absorption and compatible energy levels with near-infrared (NIR) absorbing nonfullerene acceptors is highly important for realizing high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, a new thiophene-fused diazabenzo[k]fluoranthene derivative is successfully synthesized as the electron-deficient unit to construct an efficient donor-acceptor (D-A) type alternating copolymer donor, namely, PABF-Cl, using the chlorinated benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as the copolymerization unit. PABF-Cl exhibits a wide optical bandgap of 1.93 eV, a deep highest occupied molecular level of -5.36 eV, and efficient hole transport. As a result, OSCs with the best power conversion efficiency of 11.8% are successfully obtained by using PABF-Cl as the donor to blend with a NIR absorbing BTP-eC9 acceptor. This work provides a new design of electron-deficient unit for constructing high-performance D-A type polymer donors.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 867525, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548331

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Bletilla striata oligosaccharides (BO) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). A UC mouse model was induced by 3% Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and BO (200 mg/kg/d) were administered for intervention. The results show that BO effectively inhibited the release of intestinal inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß. Also, BO profoundly elevated the secretion of mucins and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins to attenuate dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. The 16S rDNA sequencing and liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC/GC-MS) analysis of mouse feces revealed that BO regulated the disturbance of gut microbiota and intestinal metabolites. By using the in vitro fermentation broth of BO and gut microbiota-depleted mice treated with antibiotics, we confirmed the protection of BO against UC. In conclusion, BO played a role in improving UC by modulating gut microbial composition and intestinal metabolites, which provided new therapeutic strategies for UC treatment.

11.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(6): 2304-2316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414794

RESUMO

Background: Acidic microenvironment is a common physiological phenomenon in tumors, and is closely related to cancer development, but the effects of acidosis on pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be elucidated. Methods: Metabonomic assay and transcriptomic microarray were used to detect the changes of metabolites and gene expression profile respectively in acidosis-adapted PDAC cells. Wound healing, transwell and in vivo assay were applied to evaluate cell migration and invasion capacity. CCK8 and colony formation assays were performed to determine cell proliferation. Results: The acidosis-adapted PDAC cells had stronger metastasis and proliferation ability compared with the control cells. Metabonomic analysis showed that acidosis-adapted PDAC cells had both increased glucose and decreased glycolysis, implying a shift to pentose phosphate pathway. The metabolic shift further led to the inactivation of AMPK by elevating ATP. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes in acidosis-adapted cells were enriched in extracellular matrix modification and Hippo signaling. Besides, MMP1 was the most upregulated gene in acidosis-adapted cells, mediated by the YAP/TAZ pathway, but could be reduced by AMPK activator. Conclusion: The present study showed that metabolic reprogramming promotes proliferation and metastasis of acidosis-adapted PDAC cells by inhibiting AMPK/Hippo signaling, thus upregulating MMP1.


Assuntos
Acidose , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Acidose/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
12.
J Nutr Biochem ; 107: 109019, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472435

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of Poria cocos oligosaccharides (PCO) on glucolipid metabolism disorder. Based on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model, we demonstrated that PCO ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, decreased the levels of blood glucose (187.8±19.8 mg/dL) and insulin (566.3±53.34 ng/L) in HFD-fed mice compared to the Ctrl group (140.4±7.942 mg/dL for glucose, 423.2±19.56 ng/L for insulin). Moreover, PCO treatment suppressed the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthesis regulators (decreases of 68.8%, 62.8%, and 32.0% for G6Pase, FASN, and DGAT, respectively, vs. HFD group) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in epididymal fat (decreases of 71.9%, 81.5%, 76.0%, 29.3%, and 63.9% for TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, COX-5b, and MCP-1, respectively, vs. HFD group). Also, PCO treatment alleviated damage to the intestinal barrier of HFD-fed mice. By 16S rDNA gene sequencing, PCO partly restored the imbalance of gut microbiota in HFD-fed mice, accompanied by the reversal of several intestinal metabolites, including bile acids (BAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and tryptophan metabolites. By Spearman's correlation analysis, we found that the changed gut microbiota and their metabolites were significantly correlated with the alteration of metabolic markers. Finally, the significance of gut microbiota in PCO-mediated improvement on glucolipid metabolism disorder was confirmed by an antibiotic depletion experiment and fecal microbiota transplantation. In summary, PCO may be used as a novel prebiotic in the treatment of glucolipid disorders by reshaping intestinal bacteria structure. Our studies also point towards the potential of Poria cocos as a healthy food in the clinical application to metabolic diseases in the future.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409297

RESUMO

Influenza virus is an acute and highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes great concern to public health and for which there is a need for extensive drug discovery. The small chemical compound ABMA and its analog DABMA, containing an adamantane or a dimethyl-adamantane group, respectively, have been demonstrated to inhibit multiple toxins (diphtheria toxin, Clostridium difficile toxin B, Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin) and viruses (Ebola, rabies virus, HSV-2) by acting on the host's vesicle trafficking. Here, we showed that ABMA and DABMA have antiviral effects against both amantadine-sensitive influenza virus subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2), amantadine-resistant subtypes (H3N2), and influenza B virus with EC50 values ranging from 2.83 to 7.36 µM (ABMA) and 1.82 to 6.73 µM (DABMA), respectively. ABMA and DABMA inhibited the replication of influenza virus genomic RNA and protein synthesis by interfering with the entry stage of the virus. Molecular docking evaluation together with activity against amantadine-resistant influenza virus strains suggested that ABMA and DABMA were not acting as M2 ion channel blockers. Subsequently, we found that early internalized H1N1 virions were retained in accumulated late endosome compartments after ABMA treatment. Additionally, ABMA disrupted the early stages of the H1N1 life cycle or viral RNA synthesis by interfering with autophagy. ABMA and DABMA protected mice from an intranasal H1N1 challenge with an improved survival rate of 67%. The present study suggests that ABMA and DABMA are potential antiviral leads for the development of a host-directed treatment against influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Adamantano , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Amantadina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Autofagia , Endossomos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , p-Dimetilaminoazobenzeno/análogos & derivados
14.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 4067-4077, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450031

RESUMO

Background: Alcoholics are prone to alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is involved in alcohol metabolism. Herein, the relationship between ALDH2 genotypes and ALC was analyzed among Hakka alcoholics in southern China. Methods: A total of 213 alcoholics and 214 non-alcoholics were included in the study. The ALDH2 gene rs671 polymorphism was analyzed, life history, disease history, and auxiliary examination results of these participants were collected. Results: The alcoholics had higher level of total serum protein, and serum globulin, lower level of serum albumin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, serum prealbumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) than non-alcoholics. In the 213 alcoholics, 180 developed ALC. There were 206 non-ALC persons in the 214 non-alcoholics. The proportion of the ALDH2 rs671 G/G homozygous (*1/*1) was significantly lower in ALC patients (83.3%) than that of other groups (100.0% in non-ALC in alcoholics, 95.6% in non-ALC in non-alcoholics), while the proportion of the G/A heterozygous (*1/*2) was significantly higher in ALC patients (16.7%) than that of other groups (0% in non-ALC in alcoholics, 4.4% in non-ALC in non-alcoholics). Logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with low level of NLR (adjusted OR 5.543, 95% CI 2.964-10.368, P<0.001), LMR (adjusted OR 9.256, 95% CI 4.740-18.076, P<0.001), and PLR (adjusted OR 6.047, 95% CI 3.372-10.845, P<0.001), and ALDH2 G/A genotype (adjusted OR 6.323, 95% CI 2.477-16.140, P<0.001) had a significantly higher risk of ALC. Conclusion: ALDH2 polymorphism rs671 *1/*2 genotype is a potential risk factor for the development of ALC among Hakka alcoholics.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202201007, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468253

RESUMO

Iron, nitrogen-codoped carbon (Fe-N-C) nanocomposites have emerged as viable electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to the formation of FeNx Cy coordination moieties. In this study, results from first-principles calculations show a nearly linear correlation of the energy barriers of key reaction steps with the Fe magnetic moment. Experimentally, when single Cu sites are incorporated into Fe-N-C aerogels (denoted as NCAG/Fe-Cu), the Fe centers exhibit a reduced magnetic moment and markedly enhanced ORR activity within a wide pH range of 0-14. With the NCAG/Fe-Cu nanocomposites used as the cathode catalyst in a neutral/quasi-solid aluminum-air and alkaline/quasi-solid zinc-air battery, both achieve a remarkable performance with an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 2.00 and 1.51 V, large power density of 130 and 186 mW cm-2 , and good mechanical flexibility, all markedly better than those with commercial Pt/C or Pt/C-RuO2 catalysts at the cathode.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 842720, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392552

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Stewed Rhubarb (SR) decoction on chronic renal failure (CRF) through the regulation of gut microbiota. Using a CRF mouse model induced by a 0.2% adenine diet, we proved that SR decoction (2.0 g crude SR/kg) significantly reduced the levels of urea and creatinine in plasma of CRF mice, accompanied by the improvement of renal fibrosis and tubular atrophy, amelioration of inflammation, and inhibition of aquaporins damage. Also, SR decoction alleviated gut barrier damage, indicative of the elevated mRNA expression of intestinal mucins and tight junctions. By 16S rDNA sequencing, SR decoction reshaped the imbalanced gut microbiota in CRF mice by statistically reversing the abundance changes of a wide range of intestinal bacteria at family and genus levels, which further led to balance in the production of intestinal metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, and valeric acid), indole, and bile acids (TUDCA and CDCA). Inversely, SR decoction failed to repress the occurrence of CRF in mice with gut microbiota depletion, confirming the essential role of gut microbiota in SR decoction-initiated protection against CRF. In summary, SR decoction can improve adenine-induced CRF in mice by remolding the structure of destructed gut microbiota community. Our findings shed light on the clinical application of SR decoction in nephropathy treatment.

17.
Small ; 18(21): e2201091, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481664

RESUMO

The design of porous structure in wearable sensors is very important for the detection of mechanical signals. However, it remains challenging to construct a porous structure capable of detecting all kinds of mechanical signals. Here, round wire with long-range orientated micropores (RW-LOM) is fabricated by a newly established freeze printing technique and constructed into a wearable sensor by the incorporation of carbon nanotubes and polydimethylsiloxane. The Sabal leaf-like lamellar structure in RW-LOM is realized and can be tuned by the proper coordination of slurry concentration and the printing parameters. The fine structures in RW-LOM allow the wearable sensor to detect compression, stretching, twisting, and bending with a high sensitivity, stability, and broad detecting range. This work not only provides a wearable sensor with high stability and high sensitivity but also establishes a technique to construct porous wires that could find applications in the fields like intelligent industry and healthcare.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Porosidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Serenoa
18.
Food Funct ; 13(8): 4757-4769, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389416

RESUMO

In this study, Bletilla striata polysaccharides were degraded into oligosaccharides. The structural features were analyzed by HPLC, HPLC-MS, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated that Bletilla striata oligosaccharides (BOs) were composed of mannose and glucose with a molar ratio of 5.2 : 1, and the main backbones of BOs contained (1→4)-linked-α-D-Man, (1→2)-linked-α-D-Man, and (1→2)-linked-α-D-Glc. By using a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model, we demonstrated that BOs had an improving effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Using the metabolomics assay, we found that BOs significantly regulated the hepatic metabolism of fatty acids, arachidonic acid, and other related metabolites in HFD-fed mice, accompanied by the reduction of lipid accumulation and fibrosis in liver tissues. In summary, BOs displayed high potential for the treatment of NAFLD as a functional food.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Orchidaceae , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
Brain Res Bull ; 183: 142-152, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289299

RESUMO

Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, causes endogenous apoptosis in fetal rats. Microglia polarization is associated with inflammation, and the IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway is involved in this process. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a neuroprotective protein which exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane exposure in prenatal rats correlates with neuroinflammation and microglia polarization and whether Ngb can moderate this response. We found that exposure to sevoflurane on the 20th day of gestation (G20) induced discernable inflammation in postnatal day 0 (P0) rats, promoted M1 polarization of microglia, and inhibited M2 polarization. Hemin-mediated Ngb elevation inhibited sevoflurane-induced neuroinflammation. Additionally, elevated Ngb inhibited M1 polarization and promoted M2 polarization of microglia. We also found that elevated Ngb could alleviate the effect of sevoflurane on the expression of Interleukin-10 (IL-10), phosphorylated-signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 (P-STAT3), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Furthermore, we found that elevated Ngb ameliorated the effects of sevoflurane on long-term exploratory behavior and learning and memory in the offspring. Our results show that Ngb alleviates the neurotoxicity of sevoflurane to fetal rats by inhibiting neuroinflammation and affecting microglial polarization, a process which may involve the IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway.


Assuntos
Microglia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Feminino , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuroglobina/metabolismo , Neuroglobina/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Sevoflurano/farmacologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 826: 154206, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240179

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are emerging pollutants that are enriched in sludge. They enter soil through sludge soil amendment, landfill, and discard, which will cause inescapable environmental pollution risks. Sludge treatment technology commonly used in China include anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), thermal hydrolysis (TH) and aerobic composting (AC). In this study, characteristics of MPs in sewage sludge from four representative large cities in China (Zhengzhou, Chongqing, Guangzhou, and Guilin) were analyzed. Effects of four representative sludge treatment technology on sludge MPs were also studied. In addition, the amount of MPs input to soil from sludge in China was estimated. The abundance range of sludge MPs of representative cities in China was 1448-11,125 n∙kg-1 DW. Previous studies indicate that this abundance range is low among other domestic cities and is close to that of European countries. MPs were predominantly fiber-shaped, accounting for 46.66%; 56.5% MPs were white and transparent, and 62.5% were polypropylene and polyethylene. The abundance of MPs in the sludge increased after TH, indicating that MPs broke into smaller particles. However, the other three treatment methods had no significant influence on the abundance of MPs. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the micro-morphology of sludge MPs surface were rougher after AD, and MPs cracked following TD and TH. Furthermore, broken edges were more blurred after TH, and surfaces of MPs were damaged and eroded after AC. The input quantities of MPs in sludge to soil was deduced to be 1013 particles per year. These results are important for controlling the potential risk of sludge MPs in China.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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