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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227588

RESUMO

Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, trichodermaloids A (1), B (2), and C (5) were isolated from a symbiotic fungus Trichoderma sp. SM16 derived from the marine sponge Dysidea sp., together with three known ones, aspergilloid G (3), rhinomilisin E (4), and rhinomilisin G (6). The complete structures of three new compounds were determined by HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses coupled with ECD calculations. The absolute configurations of two known compounds (4 and 6) were determined for the first time. The six isolates were inactive as antibacterial agents. However, trichodermaloids A and B have shown cytotoxicity on human NCIH-460 lung, NCIC-H929 myeloma, and SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines with IC50 values at the range of 6.8-12.7 µm.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162388

RESUMO

Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) facilitate the adaptation of trees to drought stress. There have been a large number of studies exploring NSC changes in individual plant species and individual organ under drought and showed different trends; however, an understanding of the universal pattern of the plant NSCs responses to drought, particularly to drought duration, is still lacking. Here, we compiled data from 47 experimental studies on 52 tree species and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the responses of soluble sugars, starch and TNSC (total nonstructural carbohydrates including both soluble sugars and starch) concentrations in different tree organs (leaf, stem, and root) to drought intensity and duration. We found that starch in all organs decreased and soluble sugars in leaf increased with prolonged experiment time, and the changes in soluble sugars in all organs were stronger under severe drought than under slight-to-moderate drought. Under slight-to-moderate drought, the NSC content of each organ varied with time, while with the extension of the drought duration, the NSCs gradually approached the control value (no drought stress); this trend remained in the late drought, which means that trees activated physiological regulation processes to increase carbon storage and reduce the risks of carbon starvation. In contrast, long-term severe drought could lead to a net loss of carbohydrates, especially in the root, implying that prolonged severe drought could lead to NSC depletion in the whole plant. As prolonged drought duration has occurred in and is projected for many regions, this paper could shed light into studies on how trees respond and adapt extending drought duration through nonstructural carbon production, transportation and reallocation.

3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 445-448, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a family affected with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). METHODS: All exons of the COL7A1 gene and their flanking regions were subjected to PCR and Sanger sequencing. Suspected variant was validated in family members, based on which prenatal diagnosis was provided. RESULTS: Sanger sequencing found that the proband has carried two variants of the COL7A1 gene, namely c.7289delC (p.Pro2430Glnfs*36) and c.7474C>T (p.Arg2492*), which were respectively derived from his mother and father. The same variants were not found among 100 healthy controls. By prenatal diagnosis, the fetus was found to have inherited the c.7474C>T (p.Arg2492*) variant from its father. CONCLUSION: The pathogenic variants of the COL7A1 gene of the RDEB family were clarified, based on which prenatal diagnosis was provided.

4.
Water Res ; 176: 115724, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222546

RESUMO

Free nitrous acid (FNA) has been recently reported to be an effective and eco-friendly inactivator for waste activated sludge (WAS), while the limited decomposition of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix hampers resource recovery from WAS. This work employed peracetic acid (PAA) to assist FNA and explored the contribution of co-pretreatment to hydrogen recovery in a prefermentation-bioelectrolysis cascading system. The results showed that co-pretreatment led to approximately 8.8% and 20.4% increases in the exfoliation of particulate proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, from tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) over that of sole FNA pretreatment. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis verified that the synergistic effect of FNA, PAA and various generated free radicals was the essential process. This effect further promoted the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) after 96 h of prefermentation, and the peak concentration in co-pretreated WAS (AD-FPWAS) was approximately 2.5-fold that in sole FNA-pretreated WAS (AD-FWAS). Subsequently, the cascading utilization of organics in the bioelectrolysis step contributed to efficient hydrogen generation. A total of 10.8 ± 0.3 mg H2/g VSS was harvested in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) fed with AD-FPWAS, while 6.2 ± 0.1 mg H2/g VSS was obtained from AD-FWAS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the effective decomposition of the phospholipid bilayer in the cytomembrane and the transformation of macromolecular organics into VFAs and hydrogen in the cascading system. Further microbial community analysis demonstrated that co-pretreatment enhanced the accumulation of functional consortia, including anaerobic fermentative bacteria (AFB, 28.1%), e.g., Macellibacteroides (6.3%) and Sedimentibacter (6.9%), and electrochemically active bacteria (EAB, 57.0%), e.g., Geobacter (39.0%) and Pseudomonas (13.6%), in the prefermentation and MEC steps, respectively. The possible synergetic and competitive relationships among AFB, EAB, homo-acetogens, nitrate-reducing bacteria and methanogens were explored by molecular ecological network analysis. From an environmental and economic perspective, this promising FNA and PAA co-pretreatment approach provides new insight for energy recovery from WAS biorefineries.

5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 116-122, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for 90 families affected with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and discuss the necessity for carrier screening. METHODS: All families were subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. Combined MLPA and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was used for prenatal diagnosis of the pregnant women. RESULTS: Among the 90 couples, 84 (93%) had a negative family history, 85 (94%) had given birth to an affected child before. Eighty-five husbands and 88 wives carried heterozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN1 gene. Two wives had homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN1 gene and were affected. Prenatal diagnosis showed that 19 fetuses were SMA patients, 48 fetuses were carriers, and 23 fetuses were normal. Of note, eighteen affected fetuses were conceived by couples without a family history, which accounted for 20% of all pregnancies and 95% of all affected fetuses. CONCLUSION: To screen SMA carriers using MLPA and carry out prenatal diagnosis using combined MLPA and AS-PCR can ensure accurate diagnosis, which has a significant value for the prevention of SMA affected births.


Assuntos
Atrofia Muscular Espinal , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor
6.
Org Lett ; 22(5): 1825-1829, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057246

RESUMO

Three unusual chlorinated PKS-NRPS hybrid metabolites, flavipesides A-C (1-3), were isolated from a strain of marine sponge symbiotic fungus Aspergillus flavipes 164013. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis, and absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with ECD spectral analysis. Flavipesides A-C showed potent pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.07-0.23 µM.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 151-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021171

RESUMO

Purpose: Combination therapy for tumors is an important and promising strategy to improve therapeutic efficiency. This study aims at combining tumor targeting, chemo-, and photodynamic therapies to improve the anti-tumor performance. Patients and Methods: Human serum albumin (HSA), as a nontoxic and biodegradable drug carrier, was used to load hydrophobic photosensitizers (mono-substituted ß-4-pyridyloxy phthalocyanine zinc, mPPZ) by a dilution-incubation-purification (DIP) strategy to form molecular complex HSA:mPPZ. This complex was cross-linked as nanoparticles, and then chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) was adsorbed into the nanoparticles to achieve combined photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy. Next, the surface of the obtained composite was modified by a tumor surface receptor (urokinase receptor) targeting agent (ATF-HSA) using a noncovalent method to obtain the final product (ATF-HSA@HSA:mPPZ:DOX nanoparticles, AHmDN). Results: AHmDN exhibited strong stability, remarkable cytotoxicity and higher uptake to tumor cells. Cell imaging analysis indicated that DOX was separated from AHmDN and uniformly distributed in cell nucleus while mPPZ localized in cytoplasm. The PDT activity of all the samples had been confirmed by the detection of intracellular ROS. In animal experiments, AHmDN was demonstrated to have a prominent tumor-targeting effect using a 3D imaging system. In addition, the enhanced antitumor effect of AHmDN in tumor-bearing mice was also been observed. Importantly, the tumor-targeting effect of such nanoparticles lasted for about 14 days after one injection. Conclusion: These albumin nanoparticles with combined functions of tumor targeting, chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy can highly enhance the anti-tumor effect. This drug delivery system can be applied to package other hydrophobic photosensitizers and chemotherapy drugs for improving therapeutic efficacy to tumors.

8.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS08191795RE, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065566

RESUMO

Production of pycnidia and pycnidiospores by Macrophomina phaseolina is not often seen in vitro. The objective of this study is to develop a simple and effective technique to obtain pycnidiospores of M. phaseolina isolates in vitro and to evaluate germination rates and pathogenicity of pycnidiospores. We found M. phaseolina isolates can produce pycnidia on oatmeal agar (OMA) under ultraviolet light with 365 nm wavelength (UV). For evaluating the effect of OMA and UV on growth of M. phaseolina, combinations of two agar media and three lighting conditions were tested. The results confirm that all six M. phaseolina isolates produced pycnidia only on OMA under UV. The pycnidiospores produced on OMA under UV had germination rates higher than 90%. In pathogenicity tests, inoculation with the pycnidiospores showed symptoms later than inoculation with hypha-colonized toothpicks. Significant differences in the pathogenicity is detected between isolates Mp2014003 and Mp2014024 when inoculation is done with the pycnidiospores (P < 0.001), but not when hypha-colonized toothpicks are used as inoculum (P = 0.091). This study provides a new method for obtaining pycnidiospores of M. phaseolina for future investigations.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098243

RESUMO

Temperature strongly influences lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination. Different lettuce genotypes respond differently to higher temperatures or thermal stress. In this study, we evaluated the germination performance of 304 lettuce accessions incubated at three temperature settings, 21 °C, 28 °C and 35 °C, respectively, for 40 h. At 21 °C, seeds of all 304 accessions germinated with very well an average germination percentage of 87.72%; at 28 °C, the average germination percentage dropped to 42.84% and at 35 °C, the germination decreased to 1.01%. Then, we investigated changes in metabolic profiles of lettuce seed response to thermal stress using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results suggested that seeds of thermal-sensitive and thermal-tolerant cultivars employed different metabolic strategies in response to thermal stress during germination. Thermal-sensitive buds accumulated more significant amounts of organic acids, amino acids, sugars, sterols, phenolic compounds and terpenoids compared to thermal-tolerant buds at 21 °C. Thermal-tolerant lettuce cultivar accumulated higher concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sesquiterpene lactones, sterols, and fatty acids derivatives during the germination at 35 °C compared to germinated at 21 °C. This investigation paves the way to link the metabolomics to other external and internal factors affecting lettuce seed germination under thermal stress.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 152: 1-10, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045608

RESUMO

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are one of the most important commercial freshwater fish in the world. China has been the major producer and consumer of channel catfish following the rapid development in the past three decades. In the present study, a novel orthologous myostatin gene, IpMSTNa, of channel catfish was identified based on homology cloning and genome locating. Multiple sequence alignments and gene structure analyses showed that the IpMSTNa gene and its deduced protein presented similar architectures to other known vertebrates. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that IpMSTNa belongs to MSTN1 orthologues. Pro-IpMSTNa protein is a typical disulphide-linked homodimer, with each chain containing an N-terminal pro-domain and a C-terminal unmatured GF domain, while pro-IpMSTNa present some significant differences in secondary structure and three-dimensional substances with pro-IpMSTNb. Relative expression level of the IpMSTNa gene upregulated rapidly and decreased dramatically during the embryonic and larval developmental stages, respectively. In addition, IpMSTNa displayed remarkably higher expression at most developmental stages compared to IpMSTNb. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the IpMSTNa gene had a significantly higher level of expression than IpMSTNb in all selected tissues, with abundantly greater expression in the liver, muscle, gill and spleen, and moderately greater expression in the kidney, intestine, and head kidney. ISH analysis demonstrated that the expression signals of IpMSTNa and IpMSTNb at the selected developmental stages are consistent to qRT-PCR tests. Our study suggested that the IpMSTNa gene may have more biological functions, which have yet to be determined compared to the IpMSTNb gene.

11.
Vision Res ; 168: 1-8, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044585

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the influence of sexual dimorphism on the evaluation of the attractiveness of one's own face. In the experiment, a masculinized and a feminized version of the self-faces of the participants were obtained by transferring the original faces toward the average male or female face. The participants were required to rate the attractiveness of three types (original, masculine, feminine) of their own faces and the other participants' faces in same-sex and opposite-sex contexts. The results revealed that the participants rated their own faces as more attractive than other participants rated them regardless of the sexually dimorphic type (original, masculine, feminine) or the evaluation context. More importantly, the male and female participants showed different preferences for the three types of self-faces. Specifically, in the same-sex context, the female participants rated their own original faces as significantly more attractive than the masculine and feminine faces, and the male participants rated their own masculine faces as significantly more attractive than the feminine faces; while in the opposite-sex context, no significant difference among the attractiveness scores of the three types of self-faces was found in both the male and female participants. The present study provides empirical evidence of the influence of sexual dimorphism on the evaluation of the attractiveness of self-faces.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136771, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040990

RESUMO

China's financial development boomed after the recent world financial crisis in 2007. Financial development may affect an economy and hence carbon emissions significantly. No research has examined their relationship since this crisis up to now. Against this background, the effect of financial development on carbon intensity in China from 2007 to 2016 is investigated. The spatial and temporal patterns, and the dynamic evolution of both China's provincial carbon emissions and financial development were firstly investigated. Then a Spatial Durbin Model was employed to explore the effects of financial development, since this crisis, on carbon intensity, controlling related variables. The results show that financial development will significantly increase the local province's emissions but significantly decrease adjacent areas' emissions to a larger extent, so that the overall effect is that financial development will curb carbon emissions. The paper concludes that carbon emission reductions in China since 2007 may not be caused by the financial resources being channeled into the research and development of emission-reduction technologies or into high value-added firms. Hence, it is suggested that measures be taken to channel financial resources into the right projects and firms.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6205-6216, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944657

RESUMO

Conversion-type anode materials possess high theoretical capacity for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), owing to multi-electron transmission (2-6 electrons). Mo-based chalcogenides are a class of great promise, high-capacity host materials, but their development still undergoes serious volume changes and low transport kinetics during the cycling process. Here, MoO2 nanoparticles anchored on N-doped carbon nanorod bundles (N-CNRBs/MoO2) are synthesized by a facile self-polymerized route and a following annealing. After hydrothermal sulfuration, N-CNRBs/MoO2 composites are encapsulated by surface growth of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets, acquiring hierarchical N-CNRBs/MoO2@MoS2 composites. Serving as the SIB anode, the N-CNRBs/MoO2@MoS2 electrode exhibits significantly improved sodium-ion storage properties. The reversible capacity is up to 554.4 mA h g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 and maintains 249.3 mA h g-1 even at 10.0 A g-1. During 5000 cycles, no obvious capacity decay is observed and the reversible capacities retain 334.8 mA h g-1 at 3.0 A g-1 and 301.4 mA h g-1 at 5.0 A g-1. These properties could be ascribed to the vertical encapsulation of MoS2 nanosheets on high-crystalline N-CNRBs/MoO2 substrates. The hierarchical architecture and unique heterostructure between MoO2 and MoS2 synergistically facilitate sodium-ion diffusion, relieve volume changes, and boost pseudocapacitive charge storage of N-CNRBs/MoO2@MoS2 electrode. Therefore, the rational growth of nanosheets on complex substrates shows promising potential to construct anode materials for high-performance batteries.

14.
Analyst ; 145(6): 2245-2255, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994541

RESUMO

Potassium tetrahydroxyborate solution is a significant material in the borate solution family, but there is limited knowledge about hydration structures and interactions of K+, [B(OH)4-], and water. In this study, the X-ray diffraction measurements of potassium tetrahydroxyborate solutions have been made. The experimental structure factors are subjected to Empirical Potential Structure Refinement (EPSR) modeling to reveal the details of ion hydration and association in the aqueous solutions. This study shows that the O(W)-O(W) distance of water in the studied solutions ranges from 2.82 to 2.76 Å with a coordination number that ranges from 4.7 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 1.3 when the value of the water-salt molar ratio (WSR) is decreased from 30 to 6. The addition of ions slightly affects the tetrahedral structure of water even when the concentration of ions is high. The first hydration distance of K+ remained at ∼2.67 Å, whereas the value of the coordination number (CN) decreased from 5.4 ± 1.3 to 3.9 ± 1.5 when the concentration of the borate solution was increased. The hydration ability of K+ was weak and almost did not have a fixed local hydration structure. The pair distribution function (PDF) of gB-O(W)(r) shows that [B(OH)4-] has a broad hydration distance from 2.9 to 5.4 Å because of the complex interactive relationship between K+, [B(OH)4-] and water. There is a competitive hydration between K+ and [B(OH)4-]. Both the X-ray diffraction and DFT-based calculations confirm that the main species is monodentate contact ion pairs when WSR = 30, bidentate contact ion pairs when WSR = 14, and triple contact ion pairs when WSR = 6. These results will provide a new understanding about potassium tetrahydroxyborate solution.

15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 230: 118039, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982657

RESUMO

In this study, microscopic Raman spectroscopy and Ab initio quantum chemical calculation were used to determine the structural details of ion pairs and their transformation in concentrated K[B(OH)4] droplets. The Raman experiment shows that the vsym-B(OH)4- undergoes a downward shift with the decrease of WSR. The contact ion pairs (CIPs) change to solvent shared ion pairs when the molar water-to-solute ratio (WSR) is bigger than 6; CIPs are the dominant species when 1.33 < WSR < 6, where K+ bonds to [B(OH)4-] in bidentate form (CIP-II); the CIPs quickly dehydrate and associate to triple ion pairs (TIPs) when WSR < 5. Raman experiment and ab initio quantum chemical calculation show that TIPs are mainly present in "anionic" type such as {[B(OH)4-]K+[B(OH)4-](H2O)n}, where K+ bonds to two [B(OH)4-] in bidentate or/and tridentate form (TIP-a-II or/and TIP-a-III). When WSR <1.33, most TIPs convert to complex clusters such as chain-like structure. The remaining TIPs associate to six-membered ring structure [B3O3(OH)4-] and the relative content increases from 0 to 20% when the WSR ranges from 1.33 to 0.55.

16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 17-20, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with hereditary spherocytosis. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 17 members of the pedigree. Genomic DNA of the proband was subjected to next generation sequencing. Candidate variant was validated by co-segregation analysis. pCAS2(c.5798+1G) and pCAS2(c.5798+1A) plasmids were constructed by homologous recombination and transfected into 293T cells. Reverse transcription PCR, TA cloning and Sanger sequencing were used to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing. Meanwhile, peripheral blood RNAs were extracted to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing in vivo. RESULTS: The proband was found to carry a c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene. The variant has co-segregated with the phenotype in the pedigree. In vitro and in vivo splicing experiments confirmed that the mutation has significantly affected the splicing, resulting in shift of reading frame and produced a premature termination codon. CONCLUSION: The novel c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of hereditary spherocytosis in this pedigree.


Assuntos
Espectrina , Esferocitose Hereditária , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Variação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Plasmídeos , Processamento de RNA , Espectrina/genética , Esferocitose Hereditária/genética , Transfecção
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 78: 104124, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765828

RESUMO

Discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a global but controversial problem. Clinical outcomes of NA cessation depend on the interplay between viral factors and host immunity. Recent studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms might influence the immune response in chronic HBV infection. A total of 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 16 genes (BCL6, CD40, CD40L, CTLA-4, CXCL13, CXCR5, ICOS, IL-21, HLA-C, NTCP, UBE2L3, STAT4, IFN-λ3, CYP27B1, INST10, and IPS1) were selected and analyzed in 106 CHB patients enrolled in an off-treatment cohort. Significantly unbalanced distributions between patients who experienced clinical relapse and those who did not were found regarding two SNPs, rs676925 in CXCR5 and rs733618 in CTLA-4. Furthermore, the genotype 'GC' of rs676925 were associated with decreased risk of clinical relapse, implicating that rs676925 may serve as a protective factor for HBV control and facilitate a virus-specific immune response. We also compared the expression of CXCR5 in lymphocytes and its ligand CXCL13 in plasma between different genotypes of rs676925. However, no significant differences were observed. In conclusion, this study suggested that the rs676925 'GC' genotype of the CXCR5 gene were associated with decreased risk of clinical relapse after discontinuation of long-term NA therapy in CHB patients.

18.
World Neurosurg ; 134: e196-e203, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematomas (cSDHs) are common neurosurgical pathological entities and typically occur after trauma in elderly patients. The 2 most commonly used strategies for treatment have included burr hole drainage and craniotomy with decompression. However, the choice of these procedures has remained controversial and has been primarily determined by surgeon preference. We designed a matched-cohort analysis to compare these 2 procedures and identify the risk factors associated with the postoperative outcomes. Thus, we compared the rates of reoperation and mortality for patients who had undergone craniotomy versus burr hole evacuation for cSDH. METHODS: A retrospective review examining the data from 299 consecutive patients with cSHDs from 2002 to 2015 was performed. We compared the following endpoints between the 2 procedures: 30-day mortality, discharge to a skilled nursing facility, and the need for reoperation. We also compared the potential risk factors in the patients with different primary outcomes. RESULTS: Patients undergoing craniotomy had a decreased need for reoperation compared with patients treated with burr hole evacuation (7.5% vs. 15.7%; P = 0.044). Older age was associated with both increased disposition to a nursing facility and increased 30-day mortality in both groups. Increased 30-day mortality was associated with aspirin usage in patients who had undergone craniotomy and with warfarin (Coumadin) in patients who had undergone burr hole evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified an increased need for reoperation for patients treated with burr hole evacuation compared with those undergoing craniotomy. Older age and low Glasgow coma scale scores were associated with worse outcomes in both groups. Certain methods of anticoagulation were also associated with worse outcomes, which varied between the 2 groups. We recommend that surgeons individualize the choice of procedure according to the specific patient characteristics with consideration of these findings.

20.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(1): 78-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132885

RESUMO

Extensive evidence has been obtained that supports an association between an attentional bias (AB) toward negative stimuli and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems; however, diabetes self-management (DSM) behavior in type 2 diabetic patients has not specifically been assessed. The current study investigated whether type 2 diabetic Chinese patients who had different levels of self-management behaviors showed different patterns of AB toward either positive or negative stimuli. A sample of 195 patients completed questionnaires measuring DSM and a modified dot-probe task measuring AB. Patients with low levels of DSM had an avoidance bias for positive stimuli, the regression showed that negative orienting index significantly predicted lower DSM; patients with medium levels of DSM had difficulty in disengaging attention from negative stimuli, the regression showed that negative disengaging index significantly predicted lower DSM; while patients with high levels of DSM had an avoidance bias for negative stimuli and difficulty in disengaging from positive stimuli. An implication of this finding is that the understanding of information processing bias affects DSM and therefore suggests a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions.

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