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2.
Channels (Austin) ; 15(1): 555-568, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488531

RESUMO

Most of Solute carrier family-2 (SLC2) members play a key role of facilitative transporters, and glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins encoded by SLC2s can transport hexoses or polyols. However, the function and mechanism of SLC2s remain unclear in human cancers. Here, we explored the dysregulated expression, prognostic values, epigenetic, genetic alterations, and biomolecular network of SLC2s in human cancers. According to the data from public-omicsrepository, SLC2A4 (GLUT4) was found to be significantly downregulated in most cancers, and higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SLC2A4 significantly associated with better prognosis of breast cancer (BRCA) patients. Moreover, DNA hypermethylation in the promoter of SLC2A4 may affect the regulation of its mRNA expression, and SLC2A4 was strongly correlated with pathways, including the translocation of SLC2A4 to the plasma membrane and PID INSULIN PATHWAY. In conclusion, these results provide insight into SLC2s in human cancers and suggest that SLC2A4 could be an unfavorable prognostic biomarker for the survival of BRCA patients.

3.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480529

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and immune dysregulation, which provide a reasonable basis for immunotherapy in patients. Megakaryocytes are crucial in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most clinically aggressive subtype of MPN. In this study, we aimed to explore PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression in megakaryocytes and its clinical implications in PMF. We analyzed PD-L1 expression on megakaryocytes in PMF patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated the results with clinicopathological features and molecular aberrations. We employed a two-tier grading system considering both the proportion of cells positively stained and the intensity of staining. Among the 85 PMF patients, 41 (48%) showed positive PD-L1 expression on megakaryocytes with the immune-reactive score ranging from 1 to 12. PD-L1 expression correlated closely with higher white blood cell count (p = 0.045), overt myelofibrosis (p = 0.010), JAK2V617F mutation (p = 0.011), and high-molecular risk mutations (p = 0.045), leading to less favorable overall survival in these patients (hazard ratio 0.341, 95% CI 0.135-0.863, p = 0.023). Our study provides unique insights into the interaction between immunologic and molecular phenotypes in PMF patients. Future work to explore the translational potential of PD-L1 in the clinical setting is needed.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510890

RESUMO

While research interest in aqueous batteries has surged due to their intrinsic low cost and high safety, the practical application is plagued by the restrictive capacity (less than 600 mAh g-1) of electrode materials. Sulfur-based aqueous batteries (SABs) feature high theoretical capacity (1672 mAh g-1), compatible potential, and affordable cost, arousing ever-increasing attention and intense efforts. Nonetheless, the underlying electrochemistry of SABs remains unclear, including complicated thermodynamic evolution and insufficient kinetics metrics. Consequently, multifarious irreversible reactions in various application systems imply the systematic complexity of SABs. Herein, rather than simply compiling recent progress, this Perspective aims to construct a theory-to-application methodology. Theoretically, attention has been paid to a critical appraisal of the aqueous-S-related electrochemistry, including fundamental properties evaluation, kinetics metrics with transient and steady-state analyses, and thermodynamic equilibrium and evolution. To put it into practice, current challenges and promising strategies are synergistically proposed. Practically, the above efforts are employed to evaluate and develop the device-scale applications, scilicet flow-SABs, oxide-SABs, and metal-SABs. Last, chemical and engineering insights are rendered collectively for the future development of high-energy SABs.

5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 276, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a big threat to agriculture by limiting crop production. Nanopriming (seed priming with nanomaterials) is an emerged approach to improve plant stress tolerance; however, our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is limited. RESULTS: Herein, we used cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) to prime rapeseeds and investigated the possible mechanisms behind nanoceria improved rapeseed salt tolerance. We synthesized and characterized polyacrylic acid coated nanoceria (PNC, 8.5 ± 0.2 nm, -43.3 ± 6.3 mV) and monitored its distribution in different tissues of the seed during the imbibition period (1, 3, 8 h priming). Our results showed that compared with the no nanoparticle control, PNC nanopriming improved germination rate (12%) and biomass (41%) in rapeseeds (Brassica napus) under salt stress (200 mM NaCl). During the priming hours, PNC were located mostly in the seed coat, nevertheless the intensity of PNC in cotyledon and radicle was increased alongside with the increase of priming hours. During the priming hours, the amount of the absorbed water (52%, 14%, 12% increase at 1, 3, 8 h priming, respectively) and the activities of α-amylase were significantly higher (175%, 309%, 295% increase at 1, 3, 8 h priming, respectively) in PNC treatment than the control. PNC primed rapeseeds showed significantly lower content of MDA, H2O2, and •O2- in both shoot and root than the control under salt stress. Also, under salt stress, PNC nanopriming enabled significantly higher K+ retention (29%) and significantly lower Na+ accumulation (18.5%) and Na+/K+ ratio (37%) than the control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that besides the more absorbed water and higher α-amylase activities, PNC nanopriming improves salt tolerance in rapeseeds through alleviating oxidative damage and maintaining Na+/K+ ratio. It adds more knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying nanopriming improved plant salt tolerance.

6.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529352

RESUMO

The first implementation of a molybdenum complex with an easily accessible bis-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand to catalyze ß-alkylation of secondary alcohols via borrowing-hydrogen (BH) strategy using alcohols as alkylating agents is reported. Remarkably high activity, excellent selectivity, and broad substrate scope compatibility with advantages of catalyst usage low to 0.5 mol%, a catalytic amount of NaOH as the base, and H2 O as the by-product are demonstrated in this green and step-economical protocol. Mechanistic studies indicate a plausible outer-sphere mechanism in which the alcohol dehydrogenation is the rate-determining step.

8.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8112-8128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335983

RESUMO

The coiled-coil domain containing protein members have been well documented for their roles in many diseases including cancers. However, the function of the coiled-coil domain containing 65 (CCDC65) remains unknown in tumorigenesis including gastric cancer. Methods: CCDC65 expression and its correlation with clinical features and prognosis of gastric cancer were analyzed in tissue. The biological role and molecular basis of CCDC65 were performed via in vitro and in vivo assays and a various of experimental methods including co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), GST-pull down and ubiquitination analysis et al. Finally, whether metformin affects the pathogenesis of gastric cancer by regulating CCDC65 and its-mediated signaling was investigated. Results: Here, we found that downregulated CCDC65 level was showed as an unfavourable factor in gastric cancer patients. Subsequently, CCDC65 or its domain (a.a. 130-484) was identified as a significant suppressor in GC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Molecular basis showed that CCDC65 bound to ENO1, an oncogenic factor has been widely reported to promote the tumor pathogenesis, by its domain (a.a. 130-484) and further promoted ubiquitylation and degradation of ENO1 by recruiting E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7. The downregulated ENO1 decreased the binding with AKT1 and further inactivated AKT1, which led to the loss of cell proliferation and EMT signal. Finally, we observed that metformin, a new anti-cancer drug, can significantly induce CCDC65 to suppress ENO1-AKT1 complex-mediated cell proliferation and EMT signals and finally suppresses the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. Conclusion: These results firstly highlight a critical role of CCDC65 in suppressing ENO1-AKT1 pathway to reduce the progression of gastric cancer and reveals a new molecular mechanism for metformin in suppressing gastric cancer. Our present study provides a new insight into the mechanism and therapy for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , China , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metformina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oncogenes , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
9.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 535: 111394, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274445

RESUMO

Our previous study revealed that G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-30 (GPR30) agonist G1 serves as a viable alternative neuroprotectant of 17ß-estradiol (E2) to attenuate neuroinflammation and improve cognitive function after global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Aromatase, the key enzyme of E2 biosynthesis, is widely expressed in animal and human brain, and its expression and activity are mediated by selective estrogen receptor modulators. In the present study, we explored the long-term protective and reparative effects of G1 in ovariectomized rats after GCI. We used the aromatase inhibitor letrozole to elucidate whether G1 and brain-derived E2 together induce beneficial effects. Our results showed that G1 administration for 28 days a) significantly increased neurogenesis in the hippocampal sub-granular zone and CA1 regions; b) declined CA1 neuronal impairment in a long-term fashion; c) enhanced expression of synaptic proteins and cognitive function; d) and prevented reactive astrocytes loss, wherein aromatase and brain-derived estrogen levels were markedly increased. Additionally, expression and activation of transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were increased in CA1 astrocytes of G1-treated animals. Letrozole abolished all of the observed benefits of G1. Our results suggest that GPR30 activation mediates long-term neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the hippocampus following GCI, with potential mechanism coupling with the activation of astroglial aromatase-STAT3 signaling.

10.
JCI Insight ; 6(17)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264867

RESUMO

A dynamically regulated microenvironment, which is mediated by crosstalk between adipocytes and neighboring cells, is critical for adipose tissue homeostasis and function. However, information on key molecules and/or signaling pathways regulating the crosstalk remains limited. In this study, we identify adipocyte miRNA-182-5p (miR-182-5p) as a crucial antiobesity molecule that stimulated beige fat thermogenesis by promoting the crosstalk between adipocytes and macrophages. miR-182-5p was highly enriched in thermogenic adipocytes, and its expression was markedly stimulated by cold exposure in mice. In contrast, miR-182-5p expression was significantly reduced in adipose tissues of obese humans and mice. Knockout of miR-185-5p decreased cold-induced beige fat thermogenesis whereas overexpression of miR-185-5p increased beiging and thermogenesis in mice. Mechanistically, miR-182-5p promoted FGF21 expression and secretion in adipocytes by suppressing nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (Nr1d1) at 5'-UTR, which in turn stimulates acetylcholine synthesis and release in macrophages. Increased acetylcholine expression activated the nicotine acetylcholine receptor in adipocytes, which stimulated PKA signaling and consequent thermogenic gene expression. Our study reveals a key role of the miR-182-5p/FGF21/acetylcholine/acetylcholine receptor axis that mediates the crosstalk between adipocytes and macrophages to promote beige fat thermogenesis. Activation of the miR-182-5p-induced signaling pathway in adipose tissue may be an effective approach to ameliorate obesity and associated metabolic diseases.

11.
ISA Trans ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217496

RESUMO

This paper presents a periodic event-triggered sliding mode control (SMC) scheme based on human-robot cooperation for lower limb exoskeletons. Firstly, a Genetic Algorithm-Back propagation (GA-BP) neural network is proposed to estimate the motion intention of the wearer through electromyography (EMG) signals. Secondly, the periodic event-triggered SMC strategy based on tanh function is designed to ensure the asymptotic convergence of the exoskeleton system and save communication resources, where the detailed expressions of sampling period and control gain are designed. Finally, comparative simulation and experimental analysis is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

12.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 916-928, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall response rate of immunotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains unsatisfactory. Accumulating evidence indicated that glucose metabolic reprogramming could modulate immunotherapy efficacy. However, transcriptomic evidence remains insufficient. METHODS: Genes' relationship with glucose metabolism and TNBC-specific immune was demonstrated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The glucose metabolic capability was estimated by standardised uptake value (SUV), an indicator of glucose uptake in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and a reflection of cancer metabolic behaviour. PD-(L)1 expression was used to reflect the efficacy of immunotherapy. Additionally, immune infiltration, survival, and gene coexpression profiles were provided. RESULTS: Comprehensive analysis revealing that IL4I1, ITGB7, and FUT7 hold the potential to reinforce immunotherapy by reshaping glucose metabolism in TNBC. These results were verified by functional enrichment analysis, which demonstrated their relationships with immune-related signalling pathways and extracellular microenvironment reprogramming. Their expressions have potent positive correlations with Treg and Macrophage cell infiltration and exhausted T cell markers. Meanwhile, their overexpression also lead to poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: IL4I1, ITGB7, and FUT7 may be the hub genes that link glucose metabolism, and cancer-specific immunity. They may be potential targets for enhancing ICB treatment by reprogramming the tumour microenvironment and remodelling tumour metabolism.

13.
J Org Chem ; 86(12): 7895-7903, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085515

RESUMO

4-Octyl itaconate is a novel antiviral and immunoregulatory small molecule showing great potential in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases and viral infections. It is difficult to selectively esterify the C4 carboxyl group of itaconate acid via one-step direct esterification using chemical catalysts, while the two-step route with itaconic anhydride as an intermediate is environmentally unfriendly and costly. This research investigated the one-step and green synthesis of 4-octyl itaconate through the structure control of lipase, obtaining 4-octyl itaconate with over 98% yield and over 99% selectivity. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations were applied to investigate the reaction mechanism. The cavity pocket of lipases resulted in a 4-octyl itaconate selectivity by affecting distribution of substrates toward the catalytic site. Toluene could enhance monoesterification in the C4 carboxyl group and contribute to a nearly 100% conversion from itaconate acid into 4-octyl itaconate by adjusting the catalytic microenvironment around the lipase, producing a shrinkage effect on the channel.


Assuntos
Lipase , Succinatos , Esterificação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143746

RESUMO

ECG classification is a key technology in intelligent ECG monitoring. In the past, traditional machine learning methods such as SVM and KNN have been used for ECG classification, but with limited classification accuracy. Recently, the end-to-end neural network has been used for the ECG classification and shows high classification accuracy. However, the end-to-end neural network has large computational complexity including a large number of parameters and operations. Although dedicated hardware such as FPGA and ASIC can be developed to accelerate the neural network, they result in large power consumption, large design cost, or limited flexibility. In this work, we have proposed an ultra-lightweight end-to-end ECG classification neural network which has extremely low computational complexity (~8.2k parameters & ~227k MUL/ADD operations) and can be squeezed into a low-cost MCU (i.e. microcontroller) while achieving 99.1% overall classification accuracy. This outperforms the state-of-the-art ECG classification neural network. Implemented on a low-cost MCU (i.e. MSP432), the proposed design consumes only 0.4 mJ and 3.1 mJ per heartbeat classification for normal and abnormal heartbeats respectively for real-time ECG classification.

15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 189, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For certain human cancers, sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) exerts important functions for their development and progression. However, whether RNA interference (RNAi) targeting SPAG5 has antitumor effects has not been determined clinically. RESULTS: The results indicated that Fe-doped chrysotile nanotubes (FeSiNTs) with a relatively uniform outer diameter (15-25 nm) and inner diameter (7-8 nm), and a length of several hundred nanometers, which delivered an siRNA against the SPAG5 oncogene (siSPAG5) efficiently. The nanomaterials were designed to prolong the half-life of siSPAG5 in blood, increase tumor cell-specific uptake, and maximize the efficiency of SPAG5 silencing. In vitro, FeSiNTs carrying siSPAG5 inhibited the growth, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells. In vivo, the FeSiNTs inhibited growth and metastasis in three models of bladder tumors (a tail vein injection lung metastatic model, an in-situ bladder cancer model, and a subcutaneous model) with no obvious toxicities. Mechanistically, we showed that FeSiNTs/siSPAG5 repressed PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, which suppressed the growth and progression of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight that FeSiNTs/siSPAG5 caused no activation of the innate immune response nor any systemic toxicity, indicating the possible therapeutic utility of FeSiNTs/siSPAG5 to deliver siSPAG5 to treat bladder cancer.

16.
Analyst ; 146(14): 4576-4584, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152332

RESUMO

On-site, instrument free quantitative analysis of pesticides is of significant importance for food safety control. However, it is still a great challenge for pesticide detection in food via the current visual detection methods due to the presence of interferents in a complex matrix. In this study, a complex tea matrix had a strong effect on a gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) based colorimetric sensor for the detection of pesticides. Here, a porous chitosan/partially reduced graphene oxide/diatomite (CS/prGO/DM) composite was successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal treatment. It could act as an efficient adsorbent for removing different types of tea interferents. A colorimetric sensing platform for the quantitative detection of pesticides in a complex matrix was successfully established. The color changes of the aggregation of Au NPs induced by pesticides were captured using the camera of a smartphone and the images were processed with average RGB (red, green, and blue) values obtained using self-developed software. The G/R values and A700/525 values obtained from UV-vis spectra could be used for quantitative analysis of pesticides. The limits of detection of phosalone and thiram in tea were 90 nM and 13.8 nM, respectively. It is expected that graphene-based materials are attractive for wide application of on-site colorimetric quantitative detection in a variety of fields like environmental protection, food safety and bioanalysis.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Praguicidas , Colorimetria , Terra de Diatomáceas , Ouro , Praguicidas/análise , Porosidade
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1076, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine relations between social support, job stress, and public service motivation (PSM), also assessed how social support and job stress affect PSM in China based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory. METHODS: The survey investigated a sample of 973 healthcare workers employed in public hospitals in Beijing, Xiamen, and Guangzhou in 2017 (including doctors, nurses, medical technicians, and administrators). Correlation analysis and Structural equation modeling (SEM) were used. RESULTS: Challenge stress and hindrance stress were directly negatively associated with PSM. Supervisor support was significantly positively associated with PSM, and the path from coworker support to PSM was significant. Supervisor support was significantly negatively associated with hindrance stress, and coworker support was significantly negatively associated with challenge stress. Hindrance stress and challenge stress significantly mediated the relations between supervisor support and PSM, and between coworker support and PSM respectively. PSM might be raised by increasing supervisor support and coworker support and by limiting hindrance stress and challenge stress. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that administrators of public hospitals should be mindful of the intense job stress of healthcare workers and undertake interventions targeting challenge stress and hindrance stress. Also, public hospital administrators should encourage and assist supervisors in their leadership functions. Besides, administrators of public hospitals should emphasize coworker support and good employee relationships.


Assuntos
Motivação , Estresse Ocupacional , China/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Apoio Social
18.
Pattern Recognit ; : 108055, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103766

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world and is threatening the health and lives of people worldwide. Early detection of COVID-19 positive patients and timely isolation of the patients are essential to prevent its spread. Chest X-ray images of COVID-19 patients often show the characteristics of multifocality, bilateral hairy glass turbidity, patchy network turbidity, etc. It is crucial to design a method to automatically identify COVID-19 from chest X-ray images to help diagnosis and prognosis. Existing studies for the classification of COVID-19 rarely consider the role of attention mechanisms on the classification of chest X-ray images and fail to capture the cross-channel and cross-spatial interrelationships in multiple scopes. This paper proposes a multi-kernel-size spatial-channel attention method to detect COVID-19 from chest X-ray images. Our proposed method consists of three stages. The first stage is feature extraction. The second stage contains two parallel multi-kernel-size attention modules: multi-kernel-size spatial attention and multi-kernel-size channel attention. The two modules capture the cross-channel and cross-spatial interrelationships in multiple scopes using multiple 1D and 2D convolutional kernels of different sizes to obtain channel and spatial attention feature maps. The third stage is the classification module. We integrate the chest X-ray images from three public datasets: COVID-19 Chest X-ray Dataset Initiative, ActualMed COVID-19 Chest X-ray Dataset Initiative, and COVID-19 radiography database for evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves the performance of COVID-19 detection and achieves an accuracy of 98.2%.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112244, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933891

RESUMO

Nickel is widely spread by different anthropogenic activities and shows toxicity for plant growth and development. Whether rhizobia symbiotically fix nitrogen can eliminate or reduce nickel toxic effect on plant or not is still unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of different rhizobia genus inoculation on growth, nitrogen fixing ability, metal accumulation and enzymatic antioxidative balance of Pongamia pinnnaa. Inoculation with Rhizobium pisi and Ochrobacterium pseudogrignonense increased the all the growth parameters both in 0 and 40 mg/kg nickel as comparison with control. Only shoot length increased in presence of nitrogen as compared with no supply of nitrogen. Nitrogen content also increased both in rhizobia inoculation as compared to no nitrogen supply and non-inoculation control, respectively. Nickel uptake was higher in shoots and leaves but lower in roots in case of inoculation as compared to non-inoculation control. Rhizobia inoculation improved the plant antioxidant capacity by increasing the activity of enzymatic scavengers catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate (GR). However, 40 mg/kg of nickel adding showed mostly effect on the activity CAT, SOD, POD in leaves. All the enzymatic activity showed a significant increase in absence of nitrogen supply as compared nitrogen supply. Our results suggested that rhizobia inoculation effectively mediated nickel stress for legume plants by increasing nitrogen supplement and inducing antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Brucellaceae/fisiologia , Millettia/fisiologia , Níquel/metabolismo , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Catalase/metabolismo , Millettia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Simbiose
20.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 153, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a worldwide factor limiting the agricultural production. Cotton is an important cash crop; however, its yield and product quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Use of nanomaterials such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) to improve plant tolerance to stress conditions, e.g. salinity, is an emerged approach in agricultural production. Nevertheless, to date, our knowledge about the role of nanoceria in cotton salt response and the behind mechanisms is still rare. RESULTS: We found that PNC (poly acrylic acid coated nanoceria) helped to improve cotton tolerance to salinity, showing better phenotypic performance, higher chlorophyll content (up to 68% increase) and biomass (up to 38% increase), and better photosynthetic performance such as carbon assimilation rate (up to 144% increase) in PNC treated cotton plants than the NNP (non-nanoparticle control) group. Under salinity stress, in consistent to the results of the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, PNC treated cotton plants showed significant lower MDA (malondialdehyde, up to 44% decrease) content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, up to 79% decrease) than the NNP control group, both in the first and second true leaves. Further experiments showed that under salinity stress, PNC treated cotton plants had significant higher cytosolic K+ (up to 84% increase) and lower cytosolic Na+ (up to 77% decrease) fluorescent intensity in both the first and second true leaves than the NNP control group. This is further confirmed by the leaf ion content analysis, showed that PNC treated cotton plants maintained significant higher leaf K+ (up to 84% increase) and lower leaf Na+ content (up to 63% decrease), and thus the higher K+/Na+ ratio than the NNP control plants under salinity stress. Whereas no significant increase of mesophyll cell vacuolar Na+ intensity was observed in PNC treated plants than the NNP control under salinity stress, suggesting that the enhanced leaf K+ retention and leaf Na+ exclusion, but not leaf vacuolar Na+ sequestration are the main mechanisms behind PNC improved cotton salt tolerance. qPCR results showed that under salinity stress, the modulation of HKT1 but not SOS1 refers more to the PNC improved cotton leaf Na+ exclusion than the NNP control. CONCLUSIONS: PNC enhanced leaf K+ retention and Na+ exclusion, but not vacuolar Na+ sequestration to enable better maintained cytosolic K+/Na+ homeostasis and thus to improve cotton salt tolerance. Our results add more knowledge for better understanding the complexity of plant-nanoceria interaction in terms of nano-enabled plant stress tolerance.

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