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1.
Scand J Immunol ; : e13049, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum-soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) is a potential biomarker for identifying sepsis. METHODS: This study enrolled 64 septic patients, 29 patients with acute appendicitis, 33 patients with acute pancreatitis, and 30 healthy volunteers. Sepsis was defined according to the Sepsis 3.0 criteria[1]. The associated clinical parameters were recorded, blood samples were collected on the first day of diagnosis, and serum sPD-L1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, a significant increase in sPD-L1 levels was observed in patients with sepsis (n=64). Increased sPD-L1 expression correlated strongly with increased clinical inflammatory values (CRP, PCT, and WBC) and decreased immunological functional parameters (CD3+ , CD4+ , and CD8+ cell counts). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for sPD-L1 in combination with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was superior to the AUC for either sPD-L1 or SOFA score in regard to the diagnosis of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: sPD-L1 may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis.

2.
JMIR Med Inform ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generalized restriction of movement due to the COVID-19 epidemic, together with unprecedented pressure on the health system, disrupted routine care for non-COVID-19 patients. Telemedicine should be vigorously promoted to reduce the risk of infections and to offer medical assistance to restricted patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand physicians' attitudes and perspectives toward telemedicine during and after COVID-19, so as to provide support for better implementation of telemedicine. METHODS: We surveyed all physicians (148) who attended the clinical informatics PhD program at West China Medical School, Sichuan University from October 17 to October 25, 2020. They come from 57 hospitals in 16 provinces (municipalities) across China, 54 of which are 3 A-level hospitals, two 3 B-level hospitals, and one 2 A-level hospital. RESULTS: Among 148 physicians, the survey response rates of 87.2% (129/148) were attained. The average age of the respondents was 35.6 ± 3.9 years (23-48 years), of whom 67 (51.9%) were female. The respondents come from 37 clinical specialties in 55 hospitals in 16 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China. 94.6% of respondents' hospitals adopted the telemedicine system; however, 33.3% of the physicians had never used a telemedicine system and only 9.3% used it frequently (≧1/week). Physicians who were willing to use telemedicine during and after COVID-19 were 91.5% and 88.4%, respectively. Physicians considered the biggest concern and the biggest barrier to implementing telemedicine was the inability to examine patients in person, which were 55.0% and 58.9% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine is not yet universally available for all healthcare needs and was not used frequently by physicians. However, the willingness of physicians to use telemedicine was high. Telemedicine still has many problems to overcome.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acceptance rates of COVID-19 vaccines still have not reached the threshold for herd immunity. Understanding why some people are willing to be vaccinated and others are not is a critical step to develop efficient implementation strategies to promote COVID-19 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to: 1) determine if the adapted COM-B model can explain behavioral intentions toward COVID-19 vaccines using tweets; 2) examine theory-informed factors that might affect behavioral intentions toward COVID-19 vaccines; 3) extract themes to provide information for researchers in public health to develop theory-based and evidence-based promotion interventions. METHODS: We conducted a theory-based content analysis based on the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behavior (COM-B) Model to characterize the factors influencing behavioral intentions toward COVID-19 vaccines mentioned on the Twitter platform. We manually coded a random sample of 5,000 tweets from tweets posted in November 2020. RESULTS: Among them, 279 tweets mentioned behavioral intentions. We also generated nine themes based on the COM-B model. The results showed that most behavioral intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccines were related to the motivation construct. Specifically, positive behavioral intentions were affected by the positive values of vaccination (e.g., reduced risk of infection, socioeconomic recovery, return to normal life). In contrast, negative behavioral intentions were associated with attitudes and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines or the disease itself (e.g., an underestimation of disease severity, low vaccine effectiveness), values and beliefs (e.g., greater belief in the natural immune system), confidence and trust (e.g., distrust of government or vaccines), and lack of knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The themes identified in this study could be used to inform theory-based and evidence-based interventions to improve acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines.

4.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875866

RESUMO

Integrating large single-cell gene expression, chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation datasets requires general and scalable computational approaches. Here we describe online integrative non-negative matrix factorization (iNMF), an algorithm for integrating large, diverse and continually arriving single-cell datasets. Our approach scales to arbitrarily large numbers of cells using fixed memory, iteratively incorporates new datasets as they are generated and allows many users to simultaneously analyze a single copy of a large dataset by streaming it over the internet. Iterative data addition can also be used to map new data to a reference dataset. Comparisons with previous methods indicate that the improvements in efficiency do not sacrifice dataset alignment and cluster preservation performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of online iNMF by integrating more than 1 million cells on a standard laptop, integrating large single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomic datasets, and iteratively constructing a single-cell multi-omic atlas of the mouse motor cortex.

5.
J Biomater Appl ; : 8853282211012870, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906517

RESUMO

Faster recovery and fewer scars are ideal wound healing. We have demonstrated that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist Gp1a is beneficial to skin wound healing, which inhibits inflammation and fibrogenesis while promoting re-epithelialization. However, the systemic administration is imprecise and overqualified for a local skin wound. Herein, we prepared Gp1a-gel using triglycerol monostearate (Tm) hydrogel and detected whether the Gp1a-gel worked effectively on mouse skin excision wounds. The results showed that Gp1a-gel might sustainably increase the CB2 for at least 8 days. It decreased inflammation and fibrogenesis while promoting wound enclosure and re-epithelialization. These results suggested Gp1a-gel may utilize as a potential formulation strategy to treat the skin wound.

6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728578

RESUMO

Persistent inflammation, immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome (PICS) in critically ill patients are associated with unreliable creatinine (Cr)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and alteration in vancomycin clearance (CL) due to ongoing muscle wasting and renal dysfunction (RD). Currently, cystatin C (Cys) is of great interest for eGFR due to its muscle independence. Patients receiving intravenous vancomycin with trough concentration monitoring after intensive care unit stay ≥ 14 days were retrospectively enrolled. Those with C-reactive protein > 30.0 mg/L, lymphocytes count < 0.80 × 109, albumin < 30 mg/L and weight loss > 10% were diagnosed with PICS. Impact of PICS on vancomycin trough achievement was analyzed. Plasma Cys and Cr levels with their eGFRs in RD were compared in patients with and without PICS. Furthermore, the performance of eGFRs in predicting vancomycin CL was quantificationally evaluated by population pharmacokinetics (PPK) analysis using the Phoenix NLME software. Of 69 enrolled patients, 32 (46.4%) were PICS. PICS was predictive of Cr-guided vancomycin supratherapeutic trough concentrations (OR = 5.26, P = 0.013). Significant elevation of Cys, not of Cr, was observed in patients with PICS suffering from RD (P = 0.022), causing substantial differences among eGFRs. Fifty-two and 17 patients were enrolled for the modeling group and validation group, respectively. A one-compartment PPK model with first-order elimination adequately described the data of 126 Ctrough. Prediction of vancomycin CL with Cys and Cr-based eGFR (CKD-EPIcys-cr) significantly reduced the interindividual variability of CL (from 75.6 to 28.5%). External validation with 34 Ctrough showed the robustness and accuracy of this model. This study showed the negative impact of PICS on Cr-guided vancomycin trough achievement. PPK model with CKD-EPIcys-cr can be used to optimize vancomycin dosage in patients with PICS.

7.
J Econ Entomol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769525

RESUMO

Large-scale use of systemic pesticides has been considered a potential factor for pollinator population decline. Phytochemicals, e.g., quercetin, have been demonstrated to increase the pesticide tolerance of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), which is helpful to develop strategies to reduce the pesticides hazards to pollinators. In this study, we hypothesized phytochemicals could reduce the detrimental effects of imidacloprid on Apis cerana Fabricius. The lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on A. cerana workers were investigated. The results showed that A. cerana workers chronically exposed to 100 µg/liter imidacloprid had a significantly shorter longevity by 10.81 d compared with control. Acute exposure to imidacloprid at 100 µg/liter impaired the sucrose responsiveness and memory retention of the workers, and 20 µg/liter reduced the sucrose responsiveness. The treatment with 37.8 mg/liter quercetin for 24 h could increase the longevity of A. cerana workers when chronically exposed to 100 µg/liter imidacloprid, and 75.6 mg/liter quercetin feeding treatment alleviated the impairment of sucrose responsiveness. However, workers treated with 151.2 mg/liter and 75.6 mg/liter quercetin had a significantly shorter longevity compared to that of bees chronically exposed to 100 µg/liter imidacloprid without quercetin treatment. Our results suggested that quercetin treatment could produce a biphasic influence on the lethal effects of imidacloprid on A. cerana. Quercetin at 37.8 mg/liter and 75.6 mg/liter in the diet before pesticide exposure was able to reduce the lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid, respectively, providing potential strategies to reduce the pesticides hazards to native honey bees (A. cerana).

8.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 95, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hexapod external fixator (HEF) is increasingly used for high-energy tibial shaft fracture care as more general orthopedic surgeons are gaining expertise of this versatile device. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the HEF for definitive management in patients with high-energy tibial shaft fractures. METHODS: The study was conducted on 34 patients with tibial shaft fractures who were admitted or referred to our institution and consented to HEF treatment from Jan 2016 to June 2019, including 27 males and 7 females with a mean age of 39 years (range 18 to 65 years). Patients' clinical and radiological data, and the final clinical outcomes at a minimum of 12 months follow-up were collected and retrospectively analyzed. All complications were documented according to Paley's classification. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov criteria (ASAMI) at the last clinical visit. RESULTS: All patients remained in the HEF for a mean of 26 weeks (range 15 to 52 weeks) and acquired complete bone union. The satisfactory alignment was achieved in all patients, and all the patients were able to perform daily activities with no difficulty at the last clinical visit. Complications included pin tract infection (44%), delayed union (6%), nonunion (3%), and joint stiffness (3%). The ASAMI bony result was excellent in 31 patients and good in 3. The ASAMI functional result was excellent in 27 patients, good in 6, and fair in 1. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive management using the hexapod external fixator is an alternative and effective method for high-energy tibial shaft fractures, including technical advantages of early trauma-control, the versatility of achieving excellent alignment, and the continuity of device until bone union.


Assuntos
Fixadores Externos , Fraturas da Tíbia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246306, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to construct a mortality prediction model using the XGBoot (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) decision tree model for AKI (acute kidney injury) patients in the ICU (intensive care unit), and to compare its performance with that of three other machine learning models. METHODS: We used the eICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD) for model development and performance comparison. The prediction performance of the XGBoot model was compared with the other three machine learning models. These models included LR (logistic regression), SVM (support vector machines), and RF (random forest). In the model comparison, the AUROC (area under receiver operating curve), accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score were used to evaluate the predictive performance of each model. RESULTS: A total of 7548 AKI patients were analyzed in this study. The overall in-hospital mortality of AKI patients was 16.35%. The best performing algorithm in this study was XGBoost with the highest AUROC (0.796, p < 0.01), F1(0.922, p < 0.01) and accuracy (0.860). The precision (0.860) and recall (0.994) of the XGBoost model rank second among the four models. CONCLUSION: XGBoot model had obvious advantages of performance compared to the other machine learning models. This will be helpful for risk identification and early intervention for AKI patients at risk of death.

10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 221, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hexapod external fixator (HEF), such as the Taylor spatial frame (TSF), offering the ability of multidirectional deformities correction without changing the structure, whereas there are so many parameters for surgeons to measure and subjective errors will occur inevitably. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method based on computer-assisted three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and hexapod external fixator for long bone fracture reduction and deformity correction without calculating the parameters needed by the traditional usage. METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 25 patients with high-energy tibial diaphyseal fractures treated by the HEF at our institution from January 2016 to June 2018, including 22 males and 3 females with a mean age of 42 years (range 14-63 years). Hexapod external fixator treatments were conducted to manage the multiplanar posttraumatic deformities with/without poor soft-tissue that were not suitable for internal fixation. Computer-assisted 3D reconstruction and trajectory planning of the reduction by Mimics were applied to perform virtual fracture reduction and deformity correction. The electronic prescription derived from the length changes of the six struts were calculated by SolidWorks. Fracture reduction was conducted by adjusting the lengths of the six struts according to the electronic prescription. Effectiveness was evaluated by the standard anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays after reduction. RESULTS: All patients acquired excellent functional reduction and achieved bone union in our study. After correction, the mean translation (1.0 ± 1.1 mm) and angulation (0.8 ± 1.2°) on the coronal plane, mean translation (0.8 ± 1.0 mm) and angulation (0.3 ± 0.8°) on the sagittal plane were all less than those (6.1 ± 4.9 mm, 5.2 ± 3.2°, 4.2 ± 3.5 mm, 4.0 ± 2.5°) before correction (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction and hexapod external fixator-based method allows surgeons to conduct long bone fracture reduction and deformity correction without calculating the parameters needed by the traditional usage. This method is suggested to apply in those unusually complex cases with extensive soft tissue damage and where internal fixation is impossible or inadvisable.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 178: 104-112, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609585

RESUMO

pH-sensitive and antibacterial films based on chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/nano-ZnO (CPZ) containing anthocyanins extracted from purple potato (PPE) or roselle (RE) were developed. When incorporated with PPE or RE, the moisture contents and flexibility of film significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while mechanical resistance of film was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). Water vapor permeability (WVP) of film was slightly influenced by the addition of PPE or RE (P > 0.05). CPZ-RE film exhibited darker color and lower light transmittance than CPZ-PPE film at the same incorporation level. CPZ-PPE and CPZ-RE films exhibited distinguishable color changes in different pH buffer solutions. CPZ-PPE films exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than CPZ-RE films. Moreover, film could effectively monitor spoilage degree of shrimp when film changed from purple to light-green. Our results suggested CPZ-PPE and CPZ-RE films have promising potential as active and smart packaging materials for applications in food industry.

12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the environmental resistance of probiotics, and particularly their survival in the gastrointestinal environment, a fish gelatin (FG) / sodium alginate (SA) double network gelation (FSDN) was developed to encapsulate them. Thermal treatment and calcium ion inducement were adopted to fabricate fish gelatin and sodium alginate gels. It was feasible to scale up this process. The effects of FG concentration (0-60 g/L) on FSDN properties, including morphology, water-holding capacity, and encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. RESULTS: The results indicated that the addition of FG could improve the transparency, rehydration, and water-holding capacity of FSDN. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images revealed that FSDN had a denser and more complete structure than SA. Encapsulation efficiency improved from 15.85% to 91.91% as the FG concentration ranged from 0 to 50 g/L. Bifidobacterium longum embedded by FSDN showed better thermal stability than when it was free. Compared with bare probiotics (1.7%), the encapsulated ones exhibited higher viability (above 15%) in simulated gastric fluid. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, interpenetrating FSDN is an effective barrier constituent and could achieve the targeted delivery of probiotics. It is a potential new delivery carrier for the oral administration of probiotics. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

13.
Injury ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative malalignment in fractures treated by monolateral external fixation is not uncommon in clinical practice. Accurate reduction without excessive tissue disruption caused by surgical intervention and sequentially manage the fractures using monolateral external fixation for definitive treatment is still a challenge for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the temporary application of the hexapod external fixator (HEF) for the postoperative malalignment correction in tibial diaphyseal fractures treated by monolateral external fixation. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 23 trauma patients with tibial diaphyseal fracture treated by the monolateral external fixation at our institution from January 2016 to May 2019. There were 21 males and 2 females with a mean age of 38 years (range 18-60 years). The hexapod external fixator was temporarily applied due to postoperative malalignment within two weeks and who unwilling to undergo a secondary surgical intervention. For patients with postoperative malalignment requiring correction, the HEF components were installed on the original existing half pins of the monolateral external fixator after removing the connecting rod. The standard anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the injured limb combined with the temporary HEF were conducted to measure the hexapod external fixator parameters. Any residual deformities were corrected by gradual struts adjustment with the aid of computer-based software. When satisfactory alignment was achieved, the HEF was removed, and the monolateral external fixator was sequentially used as the definitive structure. RESULTS: All patients acquired functional reduction, which was evaluated by radiographs. The mean correction time was 4 days (range 2 to 8 days). The mean coronal plane translation (1.3±1.0 mm), coronal plane angulation (0.9±0.7°), sagittal plane translation (1.4±1.1 mm), and sagittal plane angulation (0.7±0.7°) after correction were all less than those (7.0±4.9 mm, 4.7±2.3°, 5.6±3.6 mm, 3.2±2.5°) before correction. CONCLUSIONS: The temporary application of the hexapod external fixator is an alternative and feasible method for the postoperative malalignment correction in tibial diaphyseal fractures treated by monolateral external fixation.

14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 36, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ilizarov segmental bone transport technique can be applied in the reconstruction of the bone defects with less invasive fashion and more versatility compared to other methods, while most studies were focused on the lower extremity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Ilizarov segmental bone transport technique in the treatment of diaphyseal forearm bone defects caused by infection. METHODS: This study included 12 patients with diaphyseal forearm bone defects caused by infection, who underwent bone transport procedures using the monolateral external fixator at our institution from January 2010 to January 2018, including 10 males and 2 females with a mean age of 39 years (range 23-57 years). Patient's demographic data and clinical outcomes at least two years follow-up after removing the external fixator were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The functional results were evaluated by the questionnaire of Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and the modified Mayo wrist score (MWS) at the final follow-up. RESULTS: There were 10 radii and 2 ulnae bone transport procedures collected. The average defect size was 5.1 cm (4-6.5 cm). All patients were successfully followed up with a mean period of 28.2 months (24 to 36 months) and achieved infection-free union. There was no recurrence of infection observed. The mean external fixation time was 232.6 days (182 to 276 days), and the mean external fixation index was 46.3 days/cm (40.9 to 61.8 days/cm). The mean DASH score was 30.6(18 to 49) preoperative, while 13.8 (5 to 26) at the final follow-up. The average modified MWS improved from 68.8 (55 to 80) pre-operatively to 83.8 (65 to 90) at the final follow-up. All the differences between the preoperative and final scores were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Almost all the patients achieved satisfactory clinical outcomes and were able to perform activities of daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Ilizarov segmental bone transport technique is an alternative and effective method for the treatment of diaphyseal forearm bone defects caused by infection, and this method acquired satisfactory clinical outcomes.

15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 124: 105059, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In orthodontics and prosthodontics fields, it is often necessary to measure the crown dimensions of patient's teeth for further diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to assess the reliability and validity of dental measurements by comparing three-dimensional (3D) measurement of digital model derived from 3D handheld scanner with electronic digital caliper measurement of plaster model, providing a promising technology for dentistry. DESIGN: The mesiodistal diameter, buccolingual diameter and clinical crown height of 2800 teeth were measured on 100 sets of maxillary and mandibular dental plaster models as well as on the corresponding 3D digital models obtained by structured light scanning of the plaster models. Each measurement was performed twice by qualified operators and averaged. Twenty sets of maxillary and mandibular dentition models were randomly selected for intra and inter observer errors. The reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Bland-Altman analysis was utilized to evaluate the validity of methods. RESULTS: Excellent reliability (ICC > 0.75) of intra and inter observer on traditional and digital methods were exhibited. Bland-Altman analysis showed the largest difference was the mesiodistal diameter (170/2800), and the smallest (130/2800) was the clinical crown height. Compared with other teeth, buccolingual diameter of incisors and molars, mesiodistal diameter and clinical crown height of premolars and molars displayed relative differences. The mean biases were close to zero, upper and lower 95 % limits of agreement were within 0.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Linear measurements obtained from 3D technique are consistent with the conventional method. The 3D technology can be clinically accepted and suitable for dental metrology.


Assuntos
Modelos Dentários , Ortodontia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Injury ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Taylor spatial frame offered the ability of simultaneous correction of the multidirectional deformities without the need to change the frame, and it was widely used for limb lengthening, deformity correction, and fracture reduction in recent years. There are still some inherent limitations that can affect the accuracy of correction, especially for the measurement of the mounting and rotational parameters. The purpose of our study was to propose some more precise postoperative measurement of Taylor spatial frame (TSF) parameters by application of elliptic registration and three-dimensional reconstruction. METHODS: This retrospectively study included 28 trauma patients who suffered tibial fracture treated by the TSF at our institution from January 2016 to January 2018, including 25 males and 3 females with a mean age of 43 years (range 14-70 years). We conducted standard full-length anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the injured extremity and the computed tomographic scans of the bilateral extremities after the operation. Elliptic registration and 3D reconstruction were used to calculate the parameters by two types of software Mimics and CorelDRAW. Correction of the deformity was conducted by adjusting the struts of the TSF according to the electronic prescription. The standard anteroposterior and lateral X-rays after correction were taken to evaluate the effectiveness. RESULTS: All patients acquired functional reduction, which was evaluated by digital radiography. The mean coronal plane translation(1.9±2.2 mm), coronal plane angulation(1.2±1.0°), sagittal plane translation(2.7±2.1 mm), and sagittal plane angulation(1.2±1.0°) after correction were all less than those(5.5±4.6 mm, 4.9±3.9°, 4.7±4.0 mm, 2.7±2.3°) before correction. CONCLUSIONS: The TSF system can correct the 6-axis deformities simultaneously with the accurate parameters. Elliptic registration and three-dimensional reconstruction are alternative methods to precisely measure the parameters needed by the TSF system, especially for the mounting and rotational parameters of unusually complex cases.

17.
Sci Adv ; 6(48)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246961

RESUMO

A longstanding hypothesis is that divergence between humans and chimpanzees might have been driven more by regulatory level adaptations than by protein sequence adaptations. This has especially been suggested for regulatory adaptations in the evolution of the human brain. We present a new method to detect positive selection on transcription factor binding sites on the basis of measuring predicted affinity change with a machine learning model of binding. Unlike other methods, this approach requires neither defining a priori neutral sites nor detecting accelerated evolution, thus removing major sources of bias. We scanned the signals of positive selection for CTCF binding sites in 29 human and 11 mouse tissues or cell types. We found that human brain-related cell types have the highest proportion of positive selection. This result is consistent with the view that adaptive evolution to gene regulation has played an important role in evolution of the human brain.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124374, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176234

RESUMO

Fe3O4-loaded protonated amine-modified hydrochar (Fe3O4-PAMH) was successfully prepared and characterized by scan electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, vibration sample magnetometry, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption properties of Fe3O4-PAMH to negatively-charged methyl orange (MO) or positively-charged methylene blue (MB) in one- or two-component systems were evaluated. The Fe3O4-PAMH selectively adsorbed MO and MB at pH 5 and 11, respectively. The maximum MO and MB uptake capacities of Fe3O4-AMHC were 202.02 mg/g (pH 5.0) and 148.84 mg/g (pH 11) respectively. The Fe3O4-PAMH can be reused with simple pH management in adsorption-desorption cycles. The MB and MO adsorption abilities on Fe3O4-PAMH were maintained above 99% and 75% for five consecutive recycles, respectively. Thus, Fe3O4-PAMH shows powerful potential in efficiently and selectively adsorbing anionic or cationic dyes from mixed wastewater.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to the world. Whether there is an association between lifestyle behaviors and the acquisition of COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: In this case-control study, we recruited 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a case group from the Wuhan Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). For each case two control subjects were recruited. Participants were randomly selected from communities in Wuhan and matched for sex, age (± 2yrs), and pre-existing comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes). RESULTS: A total of 105 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 210 controls were included. Compared with control group, the case group had higher proportions of lack of sleep (30.5% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.001) and increased physical activities (56.2% vs. 32.9%, P < 0.001). And patients in the case group were more likely to have alopecia (28.6% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001) than people from the control group. Overall, we found that lack of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.39)], physical activities (≥ 5 times a week) (adjusted OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.39-3.02) and alopecia (adjusted OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.66) were independent risk factors for COVID-19 infection. Conversely, low-dose alcohol intake (<100g alcohol per week), hand hygiene, and fruits intake (daily) were significantly associated with a decrease in morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Individual lifestyle behaviors and health status can affect the occurrence of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Comorbidade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Sono
20.
Nat Protoc ; 15(11): 3632-3662, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046898

RESUMO

High-throughput single-cell sequencing technologies hold tremendous potential for defining cell types in an unbiased fashion using gene expression and epigenomic state. A key challenge in realizing this potential is integrating single-cell datasets from multiple protocols, biological contexts, and data modalities into a joint definition of cellular identity. We previously developed an approach, called linked inference of genomic experimental relationships (LIGER), that uses integrative nonnegative matrix factorization to address this challenge. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using LIGER to jointly define cell types from multiple single-cell datasets. The main stages of the protocol are data preprocessing and normalization, joint factorization, quantile normalization and joint clustering, and visualization. We describe how to jointly define cell types from single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) and single-nucleus ATAC-seq (snATAC-seq) data, but similar steps apply across a wide range of other settings and data types, including cross-species analysis, single-nucleus DNA methylation, and spatial transcriptomics. Our protocol contains examples of expected results, describes common pitfalls, and relies only on our freely available, open-source R implementation of LIGER. We also provide R Markdown tutorials showing the outputs from each individual code segment. The analysis process can be performed in 1-4 h, depending on dataset size, and assumes no specialized bioinformatics training.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Software , Fluxo de Trabalho
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