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1.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27028-27038, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674571

RESUMO

The measuring accuracy of the fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) for weak signals under very short sampling time is significantly impacted by the quantization error, impeding its application in high-speed measurement and real-time control. In this work, we propose and implement a double-electrode-pair multifunction integrated-optic circuit (MIOC), which contains an additional pair of short electrodes besides the conventional electrode-pair. Taking advantage of the better modulating precision of the additional electrode-pair, the digital feedback is more refined and the quantization error in the FOG output is significantly suppressed. The driving circuits and the control scheme of the proposed MIOC are specially designed for FOGs. Experimental results show that the resolution for extremely small angular rates at short smoothing times is significantly improved. This work provides the potential of the applications in high-speed measuring and controlling systems for high-precision FOGs.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 55, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity-with its increased risk of obesity-associated metabolic diseases-has become one of the greatest public health epidemics of the twenty-first century in affluent countries. To date, there are no ideal drugs for treating obesity. Studies have shown that activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) can promote energy consumption and inhibit obesity, which makes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) a potential therapeutic target for obesity. Our objective was to identify genes and molecular pathways associated with WAT and the activation of BAT to WAT browning, by using publicly available data and computational tools; this knowledge might help in targeting relevant signaling pathways for treating obesity and other related metabolic diseases. RESULTS: In this study, we used text mining to find out genes related to brown fat and white fat browning. Combined with biological process and pathway analysis in GeneCodis and protein-protein interaction analysis by using STRING and Cytoscape, a list of high priority target genes was developed. The Human Protein Atlas was used to analyze protein expression. Candidate drugs were derived on the basis of the drug-gene interaction analysis of the final genes. Our study identified 18 genes representing 6 different pathways, targetable by a total of 33 drugs as possible drug treatments. The final list included 18 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists, 4 beta 3 adrenoceptor (ß3-AR) agonists, 1 insulin sensitizer, 3 insulins, 6 lipase clearing factor stimulants and other drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Drug discovery using in silico text mining, pathway, and protein-protein interaction analysis tools may be a method of exploring drugs targeting the activation of brown fat or white fat browning, which provides a basis for the development of novel targeted therapies as potential treatments for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121503, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708286

RESUMO

Organochlorines are critical soil contaminants and the use of biochar has recently shown potential to improve soil remediation. However, little is known about biochar-microbe interactions nor the impact on environmental processes such as the immobilization and biodegradation of organochlorine compounds. In this study, we performed microcosm experiments to elucidate how biochar affected the biodegradation and sequestration of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Our results showed that the amendment of biochar markedly inhibited PCP biodegradation due to a strong sorption affinity for PCP under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Notably, the inhibitory effect was relatively weaker under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions. The addition of biochar can dramatically shift the bacterial community diversity in the PCP-spiked soils. Under aerobic conditions, biochar significantly stimulated the growth of PCP-degrading bacteria Bacillus and Sphingomonas, but reduced the opportunities for microbes to contact with PCP directly. Under anaerobic conditions, the non-strict organohalide-respiring bacteria Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, Geobacter and Desulfomonile were the main drivers of PCP transformation. Our results imply that the use of biochar as a soil remediation strategy for organochlorine compounds should be cautious.

4.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724184

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) accumulation in shoots differs greatly with plant species, but the molecular mechanisms for this interspecific difference are unknown. Here, we isolated homologous genes of rice Si influx (SlLsi1) and efflux (SlLsi2) transporter genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and functionally characterized these genes. SlLsi1 showed transport activity for Si when expressed in both rice lsi1 mutant and Xenopus laevis oocytes. SlLsi1 was constitutively expressed in the roots. Immunostaining showed that SlLsi1 was localized at the plasma membrane of both root tip and basal region without polarity. Furthermore, overexpression of SlLsi1 in tomato increased Si concentration in the roots and root cell sap, but did not alter the Si concentration in the shoots. By contrast, two Lsi2-like proteins did not show efflux transport activity for Si in Xenopus oocytes. However, when functional CsLsi2 from cucumber was expressed in tomato, the Si uptake was significantly increased, resulting in higher Si accumulation in leaves and enhanced tolerance of leaves to water deficit and high temperature. Our results suggest that the low Si accumulation in tomato is attributed to the lack of functional Si efflux transporter Lsi2 required for active Si uptake although SlLsi1 is functional.

5.
Small ; : e1903311, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725195

RESUMO

Mn2 O3 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity and low discharge potential. However, low electronic conductivity and capacity fading limits its practical application. In this work, Mn2 O3 with 1D nanowire geometry is synthesized in neutral aqueous solutions by a facile and effective hydrothermal strategy for the first time, and then Mn2 O3 nanoparticle and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) are composited with Mn2 O3 nanowires (Mn2 O3 -GNCs) to enhance its volume utilization and conductivity. When used as an anode material for LIBs, the Mn2 O3 -GNCs exhibit high reversible capacity (1350 mAh g-1 ), stable cycling stability, and good rate capability. Surprisingly, the Mn2 O3 -GNC electrodes can also show fast charging capability; even after 200 cycles (charge: 10 A g-1 ; discharge: 0.5 A g-1 ), its discharge capacity can also keep at ≈500 mAh g-1 . In addition, the Mn2 O3 -GNCs also have considerable full cell and supercapacitor performance. The excellent electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the N-rGO network structure and 1D nanowire structure, which can ensure fast ion and electron transportation.

6.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709614

RESUMO

Low-cost airborne particulate matter (PM) sensors are gaining attention for monitoring human exposure to indoor PM. This study aimed to establish the concentrations at which these commercially available sensors can be expected to report accurate concentrations. We exposed five types of commercial integrated devices and three types of "bare" low-cost PM sensors to a range of concentrations generated by three different sources. We propose definitions of upper and lower bounds of functional range based on the relationship between a given sensor's output and that of a reference instrument during a laboratory experiment. Experiments show that the lower bound can range from approximately 3-15 µg/m3 . At greater concentrations, sensor output deviates from linearity at approximately 300-3,000 µg/m3 . We also conducted a simulation campaign to analyze the effect of this limitation on functional range on the accuracy of exposure readings given by these devices. We estimate that the upper bound results in minimal inaccuracy in exposure quantification, and the lower bound can result in as much as a 50% error in approximately 10% of U.S. homes.

7.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 841-849, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631634

RESUMO

The contractile force of hepatic stellate cells plays a very important role in liver damage, hepatitis and fibrosis. In this paper, a method based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin micropillar arrays is proposed to measure the contractile force of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2, which enables dynamic measurement of the subcellular distribution of force magnitude and direction. First, thin micropillar arrays on glass bottom dish were fabricated using two-step casting process in order to meet the working distance requirement of 100× objective lens. After hydrophilic treatment and protein imprint, cells were seeded on the micropillar arrays. LX-2 cells, which were quiesced by growth in serum-free medium, were activated by adding fetal bovine serum (FBS). The deflections of the micropillars were achieved by image processing technique, and then the contractile force of cells exerted on the micropillars was calculated according to mechanical simulation results, and was analyzed under both quiescent and activated conditions. The experimental results show that the average traction force of quiescent cells is about 20 nN, while the contractile force of activated cells increased to 110 nN upon adding FBS. This method can quantify the contractile force of LX-2 cell on subcellular scale in both quiescent and activated states, which may benefit pathology study and drug screen for chronic liver diseases resulted from liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fenômenos Mecânicos
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664502

RESUMO

Phage PA-YS35 is a novel lytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage belonging to the Myoviridae family and was isolated from the sewage of the First Hospital of Jilin University. The biological properties testing indicated that phage PA-YS35 is stable between - 20 and 60 °C and pH 4-9. The one-step growth curve shows that the latent period of PA-YS35 was 9 min, and the burst period was about 21 min by the size of approximately 380 progeny phages per host cell. The genome of phage PA-YS35 is linear double-stranded DNA with a size of 93,296 bp and a GC content of 49.35%. The results from RAST gene annotation analysis showed that the PA-YS35 genome contains 172 open reading frames (ORFs); the function of 41 ORFs can be predicted, whereas the product of remaining 131 ORFs are hypothetical proteins. According to phylogenetic tree of RNA ligase encoding sequence, phage PA-YS35 has a close evolutionary relationship with Pseudomonas phage PAK P1 because both of them are located on the same branch. The study of phage PA-YS35 genome will provide useful information for further research on the interaction between phages and their hosts.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9740568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637261

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) influences individual health worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Melatonin, which shows multiple physiological functions (e.g., circadian rhythm, immune modulation, and antioncogenic action), can be present in almost all organisms and found in various tissues including gastrointestinal tract. Notably, melatonin disruption is closely associated with the elevation of CRC incidence, indicating that melatonin is effective in suppressing CRC development and progression. Mechanistically, melatonin favors in activating apoptosis and colon cancer immunity, while reducing proliferation, autophagy, metastasis, and angiogenesis, thereby exerting its anticarcinogenic effects. This review highlights that melatonin can be an adjuvant therapy and be beneficial in treating patients suffering from CRC.

10.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105195, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654918

RESUMO

Algal organic matter (AOM) from seasonal algal blooms may be an important precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. This paper presents the effect of ferrate(VI) treatment on two blue-green algae, Chlorella sp. and Pseudanabaena limnetica, in eutrophic water. The results demonstrated that Fe(VI) removed the algal cells by causing cell death, apoptosis, and lost integrity, and decreased AOM (in terms of total organic carbon) in water via oxidation and coagulation. Chlorination of the Fe(VI) pre-oxidized algal water samples generated halogenated DBPs (including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloketones, chloral hydrate, haloacetonitriles, and trichloronitromethane), but the concentrations of DBPs were lower than those formed in the chlorinated samples without pre-treatment by Fe(VI). Higher Fe(VI) dose, longer oxidation time, and alkaline pH were beneficial in controlling DBPs. In bromide-containing algal solutions, negligible amount of bromo-DBPs were generated in the Fe(VI) pre-oxidation, and halogenated DBPs were mainly formed in the subsequent chlorination.

11.
J Mol Histol ; 50(6): 503-514, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595443

RESUMO

The transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß/Smad signal transduction pathway is closely associated with hypertrophic scar (HS) formation. Smad interacting protein 1 (SIP1) is a cytoplasmic protein that efficiently regulates Smad2-/3-dependent signaling within the TGF-ß1 pathway. SIP1 influences collagen synthesis in the HS through a heretofore unknown mechanism. This study investigated the role of the SIP1-mediated TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway in extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production and hypertrophic scarring. SIP1 expression was markedly lower in HS vs. normal skin (NS) tissue, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) content and collagen I/III (Col I/III) synthesis were inversely correlated with SIP1 expression. Furthermore, SIP1 inhibited Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro, and improved the collagen-based architecture of the scar while reducing collagen expression and overall scar formation in a rabbit ear model of HS. Based on these findings, we propose that SIP1 acts as a molecular modulator capable of altering Smad2-/3-facilitated signaling through the control of Smad phosphorylation, thus inhibiting α-SMA and collagen upregulation in fibroblasts and, ultimately, HS formation. The low SIP1 content in scar tissue also suggests that SIP1 (and positive regulation thereof) is a prospective target for selective HS drug therapy.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 661, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506427

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in chemotherapeutic response is directly associated with prognosis and disease recurrence in patients with ovarian cancer (OvCa). Despite the significant clinical need, a credible gene signature for predicting response to platinum-based chemotherapy and for guiding the selection of personalized chemotherapy regimens has not yet been identified. The present study used an integrated approach involving both OvCa tumors and cell lines to identify an individualized gene expression signature, denoted as IndividCRS, consisting of 16 robust chemotherapy-responsive genes for predicting intrinsic or acquired chemotherapy response in the meta-discovery dataset. The robust performance of this signature was subsequently validated in 25 independent tumor datasets comprising 2215 patients and one independent cell line dataset, across different technical platforms. The IndividCRS was significantly correlated with the response to platinum therapy and predicted the improved outcome. Moreover, the IndividCRS correlated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) and was also capable of discriminating HR-deficient tumors with or without platinum-sensitivity for guiding HRD-targeted clinical trials. Our results reveal the universality and simplicity of the IndividCRS as a promising individualized genomic tool to rapidly monitor response to chemotherapy and predict the outcome of patients with OvCa.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 572-581, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539964

RESUMO

A novel TiO2 photocatalyst (Au-TiO2 composite film) with enhanced photocatalytic activity has been synthesized, characterized and its performance in the removal of phycocyanin (PC) was investigated. The results show that the Au-TiO2 composite film has a lower electron-hole recombination rate, wider optical response range and high electron transfer rate. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Au-TiO2 composite photocatalyst was observed to be enhanced with the removal efficiency of PC and dissolved organic nitrogen found to be 96.7% and 59%, respectively using the UV/Au-TiO2 process. In addition, the combination of photocatalytic pretreatment and coagulation can achieve an enhanced removal efficiency. The Au-TiO2 photocatalyst was found to decrease the dichloroacetonitrile formation potential (105.9 to 79.3 µg/L), however, it exacerbated the production of trichloromethane and dichloroacetamide beyond their initial levels (116.7 to 224.9 µg/L and 2.27 to 2.31 µg/L, respectively). The divergent trends of these disinfection by-products are due to the fundamental differences in the precursor material.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105799, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401387

RESUMO

Depression is a chronic, severe, and often life-threatening disease accompanied with impaired neurogenesis. Evidence showed that neuroinflammation played a key role in the process of depression. High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) has been proved to function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we used a social defeat (SD) stress to induce inflammatory response, aiming to explore the relationship between HMGB1 and neuroinflammation. We found that the expression of HMGB1 decreased in mice exposure to SD stress, but showed a high expression of cytoplasmic HMGB1 and a high expression of RAGE, which could be rescued by ICA and ICT. So, we speculated that the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm might play an important role in neuroinflammatory process, and HMGB1-RAGE signaling was involved in this process. Furthermore, we also found that TLR4-XBP1s-ER stress related NF-κB signaling activation was also involved in HMGB1-related neuroinflammation. However, ICA and ICT treatment activated NF-κB signaling, and we also observed the translocation of HMGB1 into the nucleus and the increased number of neurons in mice hippocampus, indicating that the activation of NF-κB signaling might be related to neuroregeneration. Moreover, recombinant human HMGB1 protein (rHMGB1) pretreatment could suppress HMGB1-RAGE signaling and TLR4-XBP1s-ER stress related NF-κB signaling, resulted in a suppressed microglia activation in mice hippocampus. We supposed that ICA and ICT could ameliorate neuroinflammation in hippocampus via suppressing HMGB1-RAGE signaling and show neuroprotective effects via activating TLR4- NF-κB signaling at the same time, resulting in improving depressive behaviors in mice.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6273-6285, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our previous study, kindlin-2 promoted skin wound healing and decreased the permeability of neovascularization during angiogenesis. Herein, we explored the biological function and underlying mechanism of kindlin-2 in cutaneous melanoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a series of in vitro assays, we found that high levels of kindlin-2 promoted migration and invasion of melanoma cells without influencing cell proliferation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that upregulated kindlin-2 promoted the cellular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, we found that melanoma cells overexpressing kindlin-2 promoted angiogenesis and VEGFA secretion in vitro and facilitated tumour growth and lung metastasis in vivo. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we conducted Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and differential expression analyses. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were primarily enriched in the TGF-ß, mTOR and VEGF signalling pathways. Then, we confirmed that the mTOR/VEGFA pathway was activated during the process of kindlin-2-induced melanoma progression and angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that kindlin-2 was significantly overexpressed in clinical melanoma samples and that a high level of kindlin-2 predicted a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings showed that kindlin-2 promotes angiogenesis and tumour progression via the mTOR/VEGFA pathway.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7685-7698, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465630

RESUMO

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is a key factor leading to heart failure and ultimately sudden death. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a new player in gene regulation relevant to a wide spectrum of human disease including cardiac disorders. Here, we characterize the role of a specific lncRNA named cardiac hypertrophy-associated regulator (CHAR) in CH and delineate the underlying signalling pathway. CHAR was found markedly down-regulated in both in vivo mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and in vitro cellular model of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (AngII) insult. CHAR down-regulation alone was sufficient to induce hypertrophic phenotypes in healthy mice and neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs). Overexpression of CHAR reduced the hypertrophic responses. CHAR was found to act as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to down-regulate miR-20b that we established as a pro-hypertrophic miRNA. We experimentally established phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), an anti-hypertrophic signalling molecule, as a target gene for miR-20b. We found that miR-20b induced CH by directly repressing PTEN expression and indirectly increasing AKT activity. Moreover, CHAR overexpression mitigated the repression of PTEN and activation of AKT by miR-20b, and as such, it abrogated the deleterious effects of miR-20b on CH. Collectively, this study characterized a new lncRNA CHAR and unravelled a new pro-hypertrophic signalling pathway: lncRNA-CHAR/miR-20b/PTEN/AKT. The findings therefore should improve our understanding of the cellular functionality and pathophysiological role of lncRNAs in the heart.

19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428785

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations, including 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and nucleosome positioning (NP), in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have been widely observed in human diseases, and many available cfDNA-based epigenome-wide profiles exhibit high sensitivity and specificity in disease detection and classification. However, due to the lack of efficient collection, standardized quality control, and analysis procedures, efficiently integrating and reusing these data remain considerable challenges. Here, we introduce CFEA (http://www.bio-data.cn/CFEA), a cell-free epigenome database dedicated to three types of widely adopted epigenetic modifications (5mC, 5hmC and NP) involved in 27 human diseases. We developed bioinformatic pipelines for quality control and standard data processing and an easy-to-use web interface to facilitate the query, visualization and download of these cell-free epigenome data. We also manually curated related biological and clinical information for each profile, allowing users to better browse and compare cfDNA epigenomes at a specific stage (such as early- or metastasis-stage) of cancer development. CFEA provides a comprehensive and timely resource to the scientific community and supports the development of liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for various human diseases.

20.
Environ Int ; 131: 104988, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swimming in pools is a healthy activity that entails exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are irritant and genotoxic. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated exposure to DBPs during swimming in a chlorinated pool and the association with short-term changes in genotoxicity and lung epithelium permeability biomarkers. METHODS: Non-smoker adults (N = 116) swimming 40 min in an indoor pool were included. We measured a range of biomarkers before and at different times after swimming: trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath (5 min), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine (30 min), micronuclei in lymphocytes (1 h), serum club cell protein (CC16) (1 h), urine mutagenicity (2 h) and micronuclei in reticulocytes (4 days in a subset, N = 19). Several DBPs in water and trichloramine in air were measured, and physical activity was extensively assessed. We estimated interactions with polymorphisms in genes related to DBP metabolism. RESULTS: Median level of chloroform, brominated and total THMs in water was 37.3, 9.5 and 48.5, µg/L, respectively, and trichloramine in air was 472.6 µg/m3. Median exhaled chloroform, brominated and total THMs increased after swimming by 10.9, 2.6 and 13.4, µg/m3, respectively. Creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA increased by 3.1 µmol/mol. Micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, urine mutagenicity and serum CC16 levels remained unchanged after swimming. Spearman correlation coefficients showed no association between DBP exposure and micronuclei in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and CC16. Moderate associations were observed for micronuclei in reticulocytes and DBP exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The unchanged levels of the short-term effect biomarkers after swimming and null associations with personal estimates of exposure to DBPs suggest no measurable effect on genotoxicity in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and lung epithelium permeability at the observed exposure levels. The moderate associations with micronuclei in reticulocytes require cautious interpretation given the reduced sample size.

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