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1.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(1): 1-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371816

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese alternative health care approach, acupuncture is gaining increasing attention and reputation in China and overseas. While becoming increasingly popular globally, some consumers and professionals still know little about the therapy and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture. Due to local superiority, there are large numbers of both clinical applications and mechanistic studies performed in China compared to countries overseas. Herein, this review attempts to give a comprehensive profile of the development, application, and mechanisms of acupuncture in treating major diseases. The number of clinical publications concerning acupuncture-treated neurological diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, etc. is first counted, and then, the application and therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture on the predominant diseases in each category, including obesity, facial paralysis, sciatica, depression, hypertension, asthma, etc., are specifically discussed in this paper. The evolution of acupuncture tools and the rationality of acupoints are also discussed. This review not only summarizes the mechanisms of acupuncture but also provides useful information, such as specific acupoints and acupuncture procedures, for treating common diseases. Therefore, the current study provides useful information for both investigators and acupuncturists.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123388, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653794

RESUMO

Boron (B) is indispensable for plant growth and has been reported in the mitigation of aluminum (Al) toxicity in different plants. This study focused on the efficacy of B in reducing Al toxicity to trifoliate orange seedlings in a hydroponic experiment. Boron supply had a positive effect on root length and plant growth-related parameters and attenuated Al-induced inhibition of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) revealed that B reduced Al accumulation in root cell wall, especially on pectin fractions (alkali-soluble pectin), accompanied by suppressing pectin synthesis, pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and PME expression. Furthermore, B application inhibited NRAT1 expression while increased ALS1 expression, indicating restraining Al transport from external cells to cytoplasm and accelerating accelerating vacuolar sequestration. The results were further demonstrated by transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDS) analysis. Taken together, our results indicated that B mainly promoted the efflux of H+ by regulating the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, and reduced the demethylation of pectin to weaken Al binding to carboxyl. More importantly, B alleviated some of the toxic effects of Al by compartmentalizing Al into vacuoles and decreasing the deposition of Al in cytoplasm.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115403, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254598

RESUMO

Both biochar (BC) and wood vinegar (WV) influence the nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from agricultural systems. However, the impacts of BC and WV co-application on rice production, N2O and CH4 emissions are not well documented. We here conducted a two-year soil columns experiment with four treatments: WV (5 t WV ha-1), BC (7.5 t BC ha-1), WV + BC (5 t WV ha-1 +7.5 t BC ha-1) and a control (no treatment). The results showed that BC and WV + BC produced higher rice grain yield than the control by 14.1-15.9% in 2016 and by 4.1-5.2% in 2017, respectively. While WV increased rice grain yield by 11.2% in 2016, it had no significant influence on yield in 2017. Both WV and BC significantly mitigated N2O emissions by 22.4-41.8% in 2016 and 22.4-36.9% in 2017, respectively. Interestingly, WV + BC treatment showed the highest N2O mitigation efficiency, with a 52.9-62.8% mitigations in 2016 and 2017. Furthermore, the co-application of WV and BC significantly mitigated CH4 emissions by 42.6% in 2016 and 35.3% in 2017, respectively, while applying WV or BC alone had no annually-consistent mitigation effect on CH4 emissions. Overall, GWPt of rice growth cycle was most significantly suppressed by WV + BC with a 48.7-56.1% reduction, followed by WV and BC with 20.4-28.0% and 19.7-35.7% reductions, respectively. Consequently, the WV + BC treatment had the highest GHGI mitigation effect, averaging with 56.7% over two consecutive rice growth cycles. In conclusion, co-application of WV and BC is recommended for rice cultivation, which can both improve rice yield and minimize GHG emissions.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633767

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a foodborne intestinal pathogen and major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni proteins that are immunogenic have been sought for their potential use in the development of biomarkers, diagnostic assays, or subunit vaccines for humans or livestock. To identify new immunogenic C. jejuni proteins, we used a native protein microarray approach. A protein chip, with over 1400 individually purified GST-tagged C. jejuni proteins, representing over 86% of the proteome, was constructed to screen for antibody titers present in test sera raised against whole C. jejuni cells. Dual detection of GST signals was incorporated as a way of normalizing the variation of protein concentrations contributing to the antibody staining intensities. We detected strong signals to 102 C. jejuni antigens. In addition to antigens recognized by antiserum raised against C. jejuni, parallel experiments were conducted to identify antigens cross-reactive to antiserum raised against various serotypes of E. coli or Salmonella or to healthy human sera. This led to the identification of 34 antigens specifically recognized by the C. jejuni antiserum, only four of which were previously known. The chip approach also allowed identification of conformational antigens. We demonstrate in the case of Cj1621 that antigen signals are lost to denaturing conditions commonly used in other approaches to identify immunogens. Antigens identified in this study include those possessing sequence features indicative of cell surface localization, as well as those that do not. Together, our results indicate that the unbiased chip-based screen can help reveal the full repertoire of host antibodies against microbial proteomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Proteoma/imunologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/química , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Conformação Proteica , Proteoma/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
5.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 33(4): 114-118, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502860

RESUMO

Vector-borne agents comprise medically important infections affecting dogs throughout much of the world. Sensitive detection of antibodies directed at tick-borne disease-causing organisms in dogs is diagnostically important for veterinarians, pets and their owners, and epidemiologically important for public health surveillance. The SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) identifies antibodies to or infection with multiple tick-borne pathogens and canine heartworm antigen in a single assay. Recently, VetScan FLEX4 Rapid Test (Abaxis, Inc., Union City, CA) was launched as a new assay to detect tick-borne pathogen antibodies and heartworm antigen. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative performance of SNAP 4Dx Plus (SNAP) and FLEX4 Rapid Test (FLEX4) using samples selected based on geographic distributions for canine vector borne diseases, including Borrelia burgdorferi (n = 105), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (160), Anaplasma platys (115), Ehrlichia canis (154), Ehrlichia ewingii (163), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (151) and Dirofilaria immitis (105). Canine vector borne diseases infection status was established for each sample by a combination of reference methods that included necropsy (D. immitis, heartworm disease), Western immunoblotting (B. burgdorferi), immunofluorescence assays (A. phagocytophilum and E. canis) and species-specific ELISAs (A. platys, E. canis, E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis). For comparisons among the 2 assays, samples were evaluated per the manufacturers' instructions for each test kit. By testing each same sample set compared to the defined reference results, sensitivities differed substantially between SNAP and FLEX4, at 95.5 vs. 40.9%, respectively for B. burgdorferi, 97.1% vs. 61.4% for E. canis, 98.2% vs. 59.3% for E. ewingii, 64.3% vs. 35.7% for E. chaffeensis, 84.5% vs. 12.7% for A. phagocytophilum, 83.3% vs. 33.3% for A. platys, and 94.1% vs. 88.2% for D. immitis. Specificities for both rapid assay tests ranged from 98% to 100%. Based upon the comparative results derived from this study, the SNAP test was more sensitive than the FLEX4 test for detection of antibodies to all tick-borne pathogens and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) antigen in dogs.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico
6.
Plant Physiol ; 177(3): 1254-1266, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784768

RESUMO

Boron (B) alleviates aluminum (Al) toxicity in higher plants; however, the underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, we used bromocresol green pH indicator, noninvasive microtest, and microelectrode ion flux estimation techniques to demonstrate that B promotes root surface pH gradients in pea (Pisum sativum) roots, leading to alkalization in the root transition zone and acidification in the elongation zone, while Al inhibits these pH gradients. B significantly decreased Al accumulation in the transition zone (∼1.0-2.5 mm from the apex) of lateral roots, thereby alleviating Al-induced inhibition of root elongation. Net indole acetic acid (IAA) efflux detected by an IAA-sensitive platinum microelectrode showed that polar auxin transport, which peaked in the root transition zone, was inhibited by Al toxicity, while it was partially recovered by B. Electrophysiological experiments using the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin transporter mutants (auxin resistant1-7; pin-formed2 [pin2]) and the specific polar auxin transporter inhibitor1-naphthylphthalamic acid showed that PIN2-based polar auxin transport is involved in root surface alkalization in the transition zone. Our results suggest that B promotes polar auxin transport driven by the auxin efflux transporter PIN2 and leads to the downstream regulation of the plasma membrane-H+-ATPase, resulting in elevated root surface pH, which is essential to decrease Al accumulation in this Al-targeted apical root zone. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of exogenous B in alleviation of Al accumulation and toxicity in plants.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Boro/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Alumínio/farmacocinética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mutação , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo
7.
In Vivo ; 32(3): 523-529, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminarin, a typical component of fungal cell walls, has been shown to induce immune responses in both adult and larval locusts. We investigated the effects of laminarin on immune response and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in normal mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six normal BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and treatments were provided by gavage. Group I mice acted as normal control; mice of groups II-IV received laminarin at different doses (100 µl at 1, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mouse in double-distilled water, respectively). All animals were treated for 14 days and were weighed, blood was collected for determination of cell markers, liver and spleen samples were weighed. Spleens were used for phagocytosis and determination of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cell proliferation by flow cytometric assay. RESULTS: Laminarin reduced the body weights and weights of liver and spleen. Laminarin increased CD3, CD19 and Mac-3 cell populations at 2.5 and 5 mg/mouse, however, these did not affect CD11b marker levels. Laminarin (1 and 5 mg/mouse) reduced macrophage phagocytosis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did not affect phagocytosis by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. At an effector:target ratio of 50:1, laminarin reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity at all levels, but at a ratio of 25:1, only at 1 mg treatment. Laminarin did not affect T-cell and B-cell proliferation. Laminarin increased the level of GPT and reduced that of LDH at all doses, indicating laminarin can protect against liver injury. Laminarin is worthy of investigation in future experiments on improving immune responses.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 30(2): 290-293, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202672

RESUMO

Canine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of dogs that results following infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma platys. The SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX Laboratories) and the VetScan Canine Anaplasma Rapid test (Abaxis) are commercial in-house rapid tests for the detection of antibody to these 2 antigenically related Anaplasma species. We evaluated 2 tests using serum and whole blood samples obtained from reference laboratories and veterinary hospitals. Samples were obtained from regions of the country known to be habitats of the primary tick vectors. The A. phagocytophilum sample set comprised 236 dog sera from the northeastern and midwestern United States; the A. platys sample set comprised 179 sera from dogs living in the southwestern United States. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test and an A. platys species-specific ELISA were used as reference assays for the A. phagocytophilum and A. platys samples, respectively. The SNAP test demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity (84.7% for A. phagocytophilum and 83.1% for A. platys), compared to the VetScan test (39.0% for A. phagocytophilum and 57.6% for A. platys). The specificity of the SNAP test (95.8% for A. phagocytophilum and 99.2% for A. platys) was significantly greater than the VetScan test (85.6% for A. phagocytophilum and 82.5% for A. platys). In a separate clinic study, conducted within an A. phagocytophilum-endemic state (Minnesota) using 154 whole blood samples from client-owned dogs, the VetScan test was negative for 22 of 39 SNAP and IFA seropositive samples.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Masculino , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Cancer Sci ; 109(3): 656-665, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288563

RESUMO

Cell division cycle 37 (Cdc37) is an important partner for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), assisting in molecular chaperone activities, particularly with regard to the regulation of protein kinases. Given its influence on cell growth pathways, Cdc37 has been discussed as a potential intermediate in carcinogenesis. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which Cdc37 regulates cell survival in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of Cdc37 and its clinical significance in CRC, and systematically explored the role and the underlying mechanism of Cdc37 in CRC cell survival both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that Cdc37 was remarkably up-regulated in CRC, which facilitated cell survival mainly by promoting cell proliferation, G1-S transition, and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Our data further indicated that Cdc37 increased the stability of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) to activate the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) signaling pathway, followed by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, which ultimately promoted cell survival in CRC. Moreover, knockdown of CDK4 reversed the Cdc37-mediated effect in promoting the progression of CRC. Our findings showed that Cdc37 played a critical role in promoting CRC cell survival by increasing CDK4 stability to activate the RB1 signaling pathway. Thereby, Cdc37 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in CRC patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Chaperoninas/genética , Chaperoninas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fosforilação , Estabilidade Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(Suppl 2): 481, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antigen testing is routinely used to diagnose canine Dirofilaria immitis infections. Immune complex dissociation (ICD) methods, which were employed in the original heartworm antigen tests to release antigen that was bound by endogenous canine antibodies, were discontinued with improvements in assay reagents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different ICD methods for detection of heartworm antigen by microtiter plate ELISA and assess the performance in samples from pet dogs. METHODS: The original PetChek® Heartworm Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.) utilized pepsin at an acidic pH for ICD prior to antigen testing. Performance and characteristics of the pepsin ICD method were compared with those for heat treatment (with and without EDTA) and acid treatment. RESULTS: All four methods released complexed antigen in serum samples when tested using microtiter plate ELISA. Heat treatment required ≥600 µL of serum or plasma, whereas pepsin and acid methods needed only a 50-µL sample. Samples from 1115 dogs submitted to IDEXX Laboratories between 2014 and 2016 for investigation of discrepant heartworm results were evaluated with and without pepsin ICD using the PetChek Heartworm Test. Samples from 10% (n = 112) of the dogs were antigen positive with the ICD protocol only while 90% of the results remained unchanged. In a prospective study, antigen levels with and without ICD were evaluated for 12 dogs receiving pre-adulticide heartworm treatment with a macrocyclic lactone and doxycycline for 28 days. Serial samples revealed that three dogs had a reduction in detectable heartworm antigen within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In these cases, heartworm antigen levels could be recovered with ICD. CONCLUSIONS: Heartworm antigen testing with ICD can be a valuable diagnostic tool for patients with discrepant results that have had intermittent use of a preventive, or have been treated with a macrocyclic lactone and doxycycline. Heartworm therapies may reduce antigen production and favor immune complexing in some dogs, resulting in false-negative results. Therefore, it is important to confirm positive heartworm antigen test results before initiating therapy.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Animais , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/imunologia , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
In Vivo ; 31(6): 1103-1114, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Oral cancer has been reported to be one of the major cancer-related diseases in human populations and the treatment of oral cancer is still unsatisfied. Fisetin, is a flavonoid from plants and has several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer function, but its cytotoxicity in human oral cancer cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated fisetin-induced cytotoxic effects on HSC3 human oral cancer cells in vitro. Materials and Methods/Results: We used flow cytometric assay to show fisetin induced apoptotic cell death through increased reactive oxygen species and Ca2+, but reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities in HSC3 cells. Furthermore, we also used 4' 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining to show that fisetin induced chromatin condensation (apoptotic cell death), and Comet assay to show that fisetin induced DNA damage in HSC3 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the levels of apoptotic-associated protein and results indicated that fisetin increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) antagonist/killer (BAK) and BCL2-associated X (BAX) but reduced that of anti-apoptotic protein such as BCL2 and BCL-x, and increased the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (ENDO G) in HSC3 cells. Confocal microscopy showed that fisetin increased the release of cytochrome c, AIF and ENDO G from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, we suggest that fisetin induces apoptotic cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Caspases/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
In Vivo ; 31(5): 877-884, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Antrodia cinnamomea is found with polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, fibers and ash (minerals) and is well known in Taiwan as a traditional Chinese medicine. Its biological activities have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects, but its protective effects on liver function are still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined if Antrodia cinnamomea was hepatoprotective against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity in Wistar rats. Six groups were used in the study: 1) control (no induction by CCl4); 2) negative control (CCl4-induction and no treatment); 3) positive control (silymarin treatment); 4) groups 4-6 were treated with CC14 and different concentrations (350 mg/kg, 1,400 mg/kg, 3,150 mg/kg) of Antrodia cinnamomea. Blood and liver samples of rats were harvested and then detected by biochemical and tissue histochemical analysis. Activity of the antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver were also monitored. RESULTS: Only the high-dose treatment was able to decrease serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels and improve liver function. High and medium doses increased total liver protein and reduced hydroxyproline. It was also observed that the high dose treatment reduced lipid peroxidation. Liver sections of CC14 treated animals receiving Antrodia cinnamomea showed less fibrosis compared to the CCl4 control group. CONCLUSION: This finding suggested that Antrodia cinnamomea can either enhance liver recovering from CCl4 damage or attenuate CCl4 toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Antrodia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Substâncias Protetoras , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/complicações , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Histocitoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 16(3): 2483-2490, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677783

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan (a naturally derived polymer) on the immune responses and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in WEHI­3 cell­generated leukemia mice. Mice were divided into control, WEHI­3 control, acetic acid (vehicle)­treated, and 5 and 20 mg/kg chitosan­treated groups. Mice were subsequently weighed, blood was collected, and liver and spleen samples were isolated and weighed. Blood samples were measured for cell markers, the spleen underwent phagocytosis and natural killer (NK) cell activity examination, and cell proliferation was analyzed by flow cytometry. Chitosan did not significantly affect the weights of body, liver and spleen at 5 and 20 mg/kg treatment. Chitosan increased the percentage of CD3 (T cells marker), decreased the levels of CD19 (B­cell marker) and CD11b at 5 mg/kg treatment, and decreased the levels of Mac­3 at 5 and 20 mg/kg treatment. Chitosan significantly increased macrophage phagocytosis of PBMCs, but did not significantly affect macrophage phagocytosis in the peritoneal cavity. Chitosan treatment did not significantly affect the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and also did not affect T- and B-cell proliferation. Chitosan significantly increased total white blood cell numbers, and GOT and GPT activities were both significantly increased. However, chitosan did not significantly affect LDH activity in leukemia mice. Chitosan may aid in future studies on improving immune responses in the treatment of leukemia.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/imunologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Leucemia/sangue , Leucemia/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Environ Toxicol ; 32(8): 2041-2052, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862857

RESUMO

Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death. Casticin induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase arrest in colo 205 cells. Casticin increased ROS production but decreased the levels of ΔΨm , and Ca2+ , increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The cDNA microarray indicated that some of the cell cycle associated genes were down-regulated such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) (p21, Cip1) and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), CREB1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) (p27, Kip1) genes were increased but matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, bet), and CaMK4 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV) genes were inhibited. Results suggest that casticin induced cell apoptosis via the activation of the caspase- and/or mitochondria-dependent signaling cascade, the accumulation of ROS and altered associated gene expressions in colo 205 human colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 32(1): 311-328, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833863

RESUMO

Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the isothiocyanates, is a biologically active compound extracted from cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects on many human cancer cells including human leukemia cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism and altered gene expression associated with apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated SFN-induced cytotoxic effects and whether or not they went through cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis and further examined molecular mechanism and altered gene expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Cell viability, cell-cycle distribution, sub-G1 (apoptosis), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ production, levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ), and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were assayed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis-associated proteins levels and gene expressions were examined by Western blotting and cDNA microarray assays, respectively. Results indicated that SFN decreased viable cells, induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis based on sub-G1 phase development. Furthermore, SFN increased ROS and Ca2+ production and decreased the levels of ΔΨm and activated caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in HL-60 cells. SFN significantly upregulated the expression of BAX, Bid, Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8, Endo G, AIF, and cytochrome c, and inhibited the antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-x and XIAP, that is associated with apoptosis. We also used cDNA microarray to confirm several gene expressions such as caspase -8, -3, -4, -6, and -7 that are affected by SFN. Those results indicated that SFN induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells via Fas- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 311-328, 2017.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Proteína Ligante Fas , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 7: 45-47, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014656

RESUMO

Angiostrongylosis is a crucial differential diagnosis in any dog with respiratory, bleeding, neurological, or syncopal signs of unknown etiology in endemic areas. Many cases of angiostrongylosis have a fatal outcome; subclinical angiostrongylosis also has been reported. The most common method for supporting diagnosis of angiostrongylosis has been identification of Angiostrongylus vasorum first stage larvae in the feces by the Baermann-Wetzel method. Although considered as gold standard, this method has technical and sampling challenges and cannot detect infections during prepatency or in case of intermittent shedding of the larvae. A rapid in-clinic antigen test has been developed for serologic detection of A. vasorum infections using blood samples (Angio Detect™, IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine, USA). The study reported here was conducted to determine diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Angio Detect test kit by comparing Angio Detect testing results using serum or plasma samples with the results of Baermann-Wetzel testing using matched fecal samples. Samples from 214 dogs [with clinically suspected (N=195) or diagnosed angiostrongylosis (N=19)] were used for this evaluation. Baermann-Wetzel testing was performed independently at commercial reference laboratories or at university hospitals. All serum/plasma samples were blinded and randomized before testing with Angio Detect. The Angio Detect test was positive for 34 of the 35 cases found positive by the Baermann-Wetzel method; sensitivity of the Angio Detect test was 97.1% (95%CI: 85.1%-99.9%). The Angio Detect test was negative for 177 of 179 samples that were negative by the Baermann-Wetzel test; specificity was 98.9% (95%CI: 96.0%-99.9%). In cross-reactivity testing, all 89 samples from dogs confirmed to be infected with other common nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Crenosoma vulpis, hookworms, ascarids, or whipworms) were all negative for A. vasorum by the Angio Detect antigen test. Angio Detect provides a rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of A. vasorum in clinically suspected dogs at risk for infection. The test requires minimal steps by the operator and provides results in 15min, allowing the clinician to initiate treatment for positive dogs before leaving the clinic.

17.
Exp Ther Med ; 11(4): 1300-1306, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073440

RESUMO

Chitosan, a naturally derived polymer, has been shown to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known about the effect of chitosan on the immune responses and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan has an effect on the immune responses and GOT, GPT and LDH activities in mice in vivo. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. The negative control group was treated with a normal diet; the positive control group was treated with a normal diet plus orally administered acetic acid and two treatment groups were treated with a normal diet plus orally administered chitosan in acetic acid at doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for 24 days. Mice were weighed during the treatment, and following the treatment, blood was collected, and liver and spleen samples were isolated and weighted. The blood samples were used for measurement of white blood cell markers, and the spleen samples were used for analysis of phagocytosis, natural killer (NK) cell activity and cell proliferation using flow cytometry. The results indicated that chitosan did not markedly affect the body, liver and spleen weights at either dose. Chitosan increased the percentages of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker), CD11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) when compared with the control group. However, chitosan did not affect the phagocytic activity of macrophages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although it decreased it in the peritoneal cavity. Treatment with 20 mg/kg chitosan led to a reduction in the cytotoxic activity of NK cells at an effector to target ratio of 25:1. Chitosan did not significantly promote B-cell proliferation in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells, but significantly decreased T-cell proliferation in concanavalin A-pretreated cells, and decreased the activity of GOT and GPT compared with that in the acetic acid-treated group,. In addition, it significantly increased LDH activity, to a level similar to that in normal mice, indicating that chitosan can protect against liver injury.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 39, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26870060

RESUMO

The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 µM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum).

19.
JFMS Open Rep ; 2(2): 2055116916667757, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). METHODS: The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. RESULTS: The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 27(4): 522-5, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26179101

RESUMO

Cats are infected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi when exposed to infected Ixodes scapularis (black-legged ticks). The purpose of our study was to allow wild-caught I. scapularis to feed on healthy research cats (n = 4) and temporally evaluate for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay as well as for antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi C6 peptide, to the A. phagocytophilum P44 peptide, and to a novel A. phagocytophilum peptide (P44-4). Prior to I. scapularis infestation, all cats were negative for antibodies against both organisms based on a kit optimized for dog serum, and negative for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood using a conventional PCR assay. Using the pre-infestation samples, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against the P44-4 peptide was optimized. Cats were infested with wild-caught I. scapularis for 7 days. Genomic DNA of A. phagocytophilum was amplified from the blood before antibodies were detected in all 4 cats. Antibodies against the C6 peptide, P44 peptide, and P44-4 peptide were detected in the sera of all 4 cats. Antibodies against P44-4 were detected prior to those against P44 in 3 out of 4 cats. The results suggest that a PCR assay should be considered in acutely ill cats with suspected anaplasmosis that are seronegative.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
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