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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1292-1302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560570

RESUMO

Endogenous phytohormones auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3), and brassinosteroid (BR) play a role in responses to drought stress in higher plants. Tea plant is one of the major economic corps worldwide. The tender shoots of tea plants are the main source for tea production. The effects of drought stress on endogenous IAA, ABA, GA3, and BR metabolisms in tender shoots of tea plants need to be illustrated. In this study, a total of 17 IAA-related genes, 17 ABA-related genes, 18 GA3-related genes, and 8 BR-related genes were identified under drought stress in tender shoots of tea plants, respectively. By using a combination of phytohormone determination, phylogenetic tree construction and sequence analysis, gene expression profiles, functional classification, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment, and distribution of genes analysis, we have demonstrated that IAA, ABA, GA3, and BR metabolisms might participate in the regulation of the response to drought stress in tender shoots of tea plants. The expression level of CsLYCE negatively correlated with ABA accumulation under drought stress. Our findings could shed new light on the effects of drought stress on the IAA, ABA, GA3, and BR metabolisms in tender shoots of tea plants.

2.
Planta ; 250(4): 1265-1280, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236696

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study analyzed the AP2/ERF transcription factors in celery and showed that two dehydration-responsive-element-binding (DREB) transcription factors, AgDREB1 and AgDREB2, contribute to the enhanced resistance to abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AP2/ERF family is a large family of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants that plays a central role in plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress. Here, 209 AP2/ERF family members were identified in celery based on genomic and transcriptomic data. The TFs were classified into four subfamilies (i.e., DREB, ERF, RAV, and AP2) and Soloist. Evolution analysis indicated that the AP2/ERF TFs are ancient molecules and have expanded in the long-term evolution process of plants and whole-genome duplication events. AgAP2/ERF proteins may be associated with multiple biological processes as predicted by the interaction network. The expression profiles and sequence alignment analysis of the TFs in the DREB-A1 group showed that eight genes could be divided into four branches. Two genes, AgDREB1 and AgDREB2, from the DREB-A1 group were selected for further analysis. Subcellular localization assay suggested that the two proteins are nuclear proteins. Yeast one hybrid assay demonstrated that the two proteins could bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE). The overexpression of AgDREB1 and AgDREB2 in Arabidopsis induced the increased tolerance to cold treatment and the up-regulation of the COR genes expression. AgDREB1 and AgDREB2 might function as transcriptional activators in regulating the downstream genes by binding to corresponding DRE to enhance stress tolerance in celery.

3.
Protoplasma ; 256(6): 1507-1517, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168667

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs), as one of the important hormones in regulating the growth and development of higher plants, can significantly promote cell elongation and expansion. Celery is a widely grown leafy vegetable crop with rich nutritional value. However, the effect of gibberellins on celery leaves is unclear. In this paper, the celery variety "Jinnan Shiqin" plants were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PBZ, a gibberellin inhibitor). Our results showed that GA3 treatment promoted the growth of celery leaves and caused lignification of celery leaf tissue. In addition, the transcript levels of genes associated with gibberellins, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were altered in response to increased or decreased exogenous gibberellins or inhibitor. GA3 may regulate celery growth by interacting with other hormones through crosstalk mechanisms. This study provided a reference for further study of the regulation mechanism of gibberellins metabolism, and exerted effects on understanding the role of gibberellins in the growth and development of celery.

4.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 39(5): 680-692, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068014

RESUMO

Biotic stress is one of the key factors that restrict the growth and development of plants. Fruit crops are mostly perennial, so they are more seriously endangered by biotic stress. Plant responses to different types of biotic stresses such as pathogens and insects are controlled by a very complex regulatory and defense system. High-throughput sequencing (next-generation sequencing) has brought powerful research strategies and methods to the research fields of genomics and post-genomics. Functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and deep-sequencing of small RNAs provides a new path to better understand the complex regulatory and defense systems behind biotic stress in plants. In this review, we summarized recent progresses in research on fruit crops responses to biotic stress using genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and deep-sequencing approaches. This paper also summarized the information of SNP marker resources and the transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of biotic stress responses obtained from genome sequencing, and discusses the differential expression of related genes and proteins identified by transcriptome and proteome sequencing. At the same time, the roles of signaling pathways and metabolites involved in plant biotic stress revealed by the metabolome have also been discussed. In addition, the application of small RNA deep sequencing in the study of fruit crop response to biotic stress has also been included in this review. These omics and deep sequencing methods will greatly support the biotic resistance-resistant breeding of fruit crops.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Genômica , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Protoplasma ; 256(3): 777-788, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604245

RESUMO

Gibberellin (GA) is a phytohormone of a biguanide compound that plays an important role throughout the life cycle of a plant. Lignin, a phenylalanine-derived aromatic polymer, can enhance the water transport function and structural resistance of cell walls. This function is also the core on biology of higher terrestrial plants. An appropriate lignin level is important to the quality of leafy vegetables, such as celery. The relationship between gibberellin levels and the occurrence of lignification has not been reported in celery. In this study, the leaf blades and petioles of celery cultivars 'Liuhe Huangxinqin' and 'Jinnan Shiqin' were used as materials, and different concentrations of exogenous gibberellin were applied to analyze the growth and lignin distribution of leaf blades and petioles. It was found that gibberellin treatment could influence the lignin content in celery leaves. Autofluorescence analysis under ultraviolet (UV) excitation showed that gibberellin treatment caused lignification of celery leaf tissue. The expression profiles of 12 genes related to lignin synthesis changed with the increase of gibberellin concentration. Our results showed that gibberellin played a significant role in the accumulation of lignin in the development of celery leaves. This provides a basis for further study on the regulation of lignin metabolism in plants and exerts a vital part in the application of plant growth regulators to production.


Assuntos
Apium/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Apium/anatomia & histologia , Apium/genética , Apium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 135: 87-98, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529171

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the environmental factors that evidently limit plant growth and yield. Despite the fact that understanding plant response to salt stress is important to agricultural practice, the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in garlic remain unclear. In this study, garlic seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl stress for 0, 1, 4, and 12 h, respectively. RNA-seq was applied to analyze the transcriptional response under salinity conditions. A total of 13,114 out of 25,530 differentially expressed unigenes were identified to have pathway annotation, which were mainly involved in purine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, isoflavonoid biosynthesis, MAPK signaling pathway, and circadian rhythm. In addition, 272 and 295 differentially expressed genes were identified to be cell wall and hormone signaling-related, respectively, and their interactions under salinity stress were extensively discussed. The results from the current work would provide new resources for the breeding aimed at improving salt tolerance in garlic.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/fisiologia , Alho/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Alho/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Salino , Plântula/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Planta ; 248(5): 1249-1261, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099650

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study showed that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, AgMYB2, functions in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in purple celery. Anthocyanins are involved in tissue coloration and stress response in plants. Foods containing high anthocyanin content are also beneficial to human health. Purple celery accumulated amounts of anthocyanins in the petioles. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin in plants is mainly regulated by the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF). However, the R2R3-MYB TF that controls anthocyanin accumulation in purple celery remains unclear. In this study, an R2R3-MYB TF gene, AgMYB2, was cloned from purple celery and characterized as anthocyanin biosynthetic regulator. Sequence analysis indicated that AgMYB2 contained highly conserved R2R3 domain and two anthocyanin characteristic motifs, ANDV motif and KPRPR[S/T]F motif. The relative expression level of AgMYB2 in purple celery was significantly higher than that in non-purple celery at three developmental stages. Heterologous expression of AgMYB2 in Arabidopsis generated more anthocyanins and resulted in dark-purple leaves and flowers. The expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the antioxidant activity of transgenic Arabidopsis carrying AgMYB2 were up-regulated. The determination of anthocyanin glycosylation activity of Arabidopsis crude enzyme verified the anthocyanin biosynthesis regulatory function of AgMYB2 at the protein level. The interaction between AgMYB2 and bHLH proteins was shown by yeast two-hybrid assay. The results will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple celery and provide an approach for cultivating plants with high anthocyanin content.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Apium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Apium/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Glicosilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
8.
Database (Oxford) ; 20182018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992323

RESUMO

Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, and a popular vegetable worldwide because of its abundant nutrients and various medical functions. Although extensive genetic and molecular biological studies have been conducted on celery, its genomic data remain unclear. Given the significance of celery and the growing demand for its genomic data, the whole genome of 'Q2-JN11' celery (a highly inbred line obtained by artificial selfing of 'Jinnan Shiqin') was sequenced using HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. For the convenience of researchers to study celery, an online database of the whole-genome sequences of celery, CeleryDB, was constructed. The sequences of the whole genome, nucleotide sequences of the predicted genes and amino acid sequences of the predicted proteins are available online on CeleryDB. Home, BLAST, Genome Browser, Transcription Factor and Download interfaces composed of the organizational structure of CeleryDB. Users can search the celery genomic data by using two user-friendly query tools: basic local alignment search tool and Genome Browser. In the future, CeleryDB will be constantly updated to satisfy the needs of celery researchers worldwide.Database URL: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/celerydb.


Assuntos
Apium/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma de Planta , Alérgenos/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Interface Usuário-Computador
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 127: 310-319, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653434

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important regulator of plant growth and development, and its proportion in the atmosphere continues to rise now. Lignin is one of the major secondary products in plants with vital biological functions. However, the relationship between CO2 level and xylogenesis in celery is still unknown. In order to investigate the effects of increasing CO2 concentration on lignin accumulation in celery, 'Jinnanshiqin' were exposed to two CO2 applications, 400 (e0) and 1000 µmol mol-1 (e1), respectively. Plant morphology and lignin distribution in celery plants treated with elevated CO2 did not change significantly. There was an upward trend on lignin content in celery leaves, and the transcript abundance of 12 genes involved in lignin metabolism has altered in response to elevated CO2. The effects of high level of CO2 on different tissues were different. Our works confirmed that CO2 may play an important role in lignin accumulation in celery leaves. The current study will offer new evidence to understand the regulation mechanism of lignin biosynthesis under elevated CO2 and provide a reference to improve celery quality by adjusting the growth environment.


Assuntos
Apium/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Apium/genética , Lignina/genética
10.
Planta ; 247(6): 1363-1375, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520459

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study showed that a galactosyltransferase, AgUCGalT1, is involved in anthocyanin galactosylation in purple celery. Celery is a well-known vegetable because of its rich nutrients, low calories, and medicinal values. Its petioles and leaf blades are the main organs acting as nutrient sources. UDP-galactose: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase can transfer the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to the 3-O-position of cyanidin through glycosylation. This process enhances the stability and water solubility of anthocyanins. In the present study, LC-MS data indicated that abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins accumulated in the petioles of purple celery ('Nanxuan liuhe purple celery'). A gene encoding UDP-galactose: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase, namely AgUCGalT1, was isolated from purple celery and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Sequence alignments revealed that the AgUCGalT1 protein contained a highly conserved putative secondary plant glycosyltransferase (PSPG) motif. The glycosylation product catalyzed by AgUCGalT1 was detected using UPLC equipment. The recombinant AgUCGalT1 had an optimal enzyme activity at 35 °C and pH 8.0, and showed highest enzyme activity toward cyanidin among the enzyme activities involving other substances, namely, peonidin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The expression levels of AgUCGalT1 were positively correlated with the total anthocyanin contents in purple and non-purple celery varieties. Crude enzymes extracted from purple celery exhibited glycosylation ability, whereas crude enzymes obtained from non-purple celery did not have this ability. This work provided evidence as a basis for investigations on the function of AgUCGalT1 in anthocyanin glycosylation in purple celery.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Apium/enzimologia , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/química , Apium/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Galactosiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Modelos Estruturais , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Planta ; 247(2): 301-315, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965159

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study showed that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, OjMYB1, is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in Oenanthe javanica. Anthocyanins can be used as safe natural food colorants, obtained from many plants. R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in anthocyanins biosynthesis during plant development. Oenanthe javanica is a popular vegetable with high nutritional values and numerous medical functions. O. javanica has purple petioles that are mainly due to anthocyanins accumulation. In the present study, the gene encoding an R2R3-MYB TF, OjMYB1, was isolated from purple O. javanica. Sequencing results showed that OjMYB1 contained a 912-bp open reading frame encoding 303 amino acids. Sequence alignments revealed that OjMYB1 contained bHLH-interaction motif ([DE]Lx2[RK]x3Lx6Lx3R) and ANDV motif ([A/G]NDV). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the OjMYB1 classified into the anthocyanins biosynthesis clade. Subcellular localization assay showed that OjMYB1 was a nuclear protein in vivo. The heterologous expression of OjMYB1 in Arabidopsis could enhance the anthocyanins content and up-regulate the expression levels of the structural genes-related anthocyanins biosynthesis. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that OjMYB1 could interact with AtTT8 and AtEGL3 proteins. Enzymatic analysis revealed that overexpression of OjMYB1 gene up-regulated the enzyme activity of 3-O-glycosyltransferase encoded by AtUGT78D2 in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results provided a comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of OjMYB1 TF in O. javanica.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oenanthe/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Oenanthe/citologia , Oenanthe/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Regulação para Cima
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