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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126870, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425430

RESUMO

Self-propelled micromotor (SPM) plays a vital role in recycling of lithium (Li+) from wastewater in battery industry. In this work, a crescent-shaped micromotor sorbent (CSMSs) with sulfonic group on convex surface was prepared by Janus emulsion to extract Li+. Using sodium p-styrene sulfonate as a functional monomer, well-designed CSMSs was prepared by UV-induced monomer interfacial polymerization, and their pit size can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of two incompatible oils (ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate and liquid paraffin). In addition, MnO2 nanoparticles, which embedded into concave interface, generated O2 bubbles in the presence of H2O2, and constant circular or line motion of CSMSs was observed. Zeta potential of CSMSs was -51.66 eV at pH = 10, and strong electrostatic attraction between sulfonate groups and Li+ endowed the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 31 mg g-1 at 25 °C. Self-propelled effect further enhanced kinetic performance for Li+, and equilibrium time can be reduced from original 10-6.0 h, suggesting autonomous movement achieves rapid mixing and mass transportation. After three adsorption/desorption cycles, the adsorption capacity of the material remains above 90%. This simple and large-scale preparation strategy provided a synthetic method for functional and Janus SPM, as well as sorbents for Li+ enrichment.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153862, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic insulin signal transduction is influenced by the inter-tissue crosstalk, which might be the potential therapeutic strategy for T2DM. Although anti-diabetic function of geniposide has been previously reported, the underlying mechanism was not completely clear in light of the complex pathogenesis of T2DM. PURPOSE: The present experiment is devoted to investigate the potential effects of geniposide on systemic insulin sensitivity mediated by hepatokine-RBP4 in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. METHODS: The HFD-fed wild type mice were administered with geniposide (25 or 50 mg/kg/d) by intraperitoneal injection, and the normal saline and Metformin were used as negative control group and positive control group, respectively. After administration for 4 weeks, the food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests and serum biochemical indices were examined, along with insulin signaling pathway-associated proteins and hepatic histomorphological analysis. The liver, gastrocnemius and mouse primary hepatocytes were also harvested for molecular mechanism study. RESULTS: After geniposide treatment for 4 weeks, the blood glucose level was reduced in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, geniposide treatment improved insulin sensitivity both in the liver and gastrocnemius (GAS). In terms of mechanism, geniposide disturbed circulating RBP4 level including its synthesis, secretion and homeostasis. Moreover, geniposide modified fuel selection and promoted glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and reduced glycogen storage, which were closely related to impaired circulating RBP4 homeostasis, leading to ameliorative systemic insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Our current study proposes a novel regulatory mechanism of geniposide for improving glucose homeostasis through regulating circulating RBP4 level, which also provides new strategies for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

3.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 564-576, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811288

RESUMO

Three species of the genus Miagrammopes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 are described from China, including two new species, M. rutundus Liang Xu, n. sp. from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and M. auriculatus Cai Xu, n. sp. from Tibet Autonomous Region, and one known species, M. bifurcatus Dong, Yan, Zhu Song, 2004. The female of M. bifurcatus is described for the first time. Both detailed illustration and a distribution map of the three species are provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino
4.
Zootaxa ; 5020(1): 1-30, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810422

RESUMO

Five new species of mimetid spiders from China are described: Mimetus subulatus n. sp., M. clavatus n. sp., M. dentatus n. sp., M. niveosignatus n. sp. and M. uncatus n. sp. The phylogenetic placement of these new species is inferred based on a cladistic analysis of an expanded version of the morphological dataset of Benavides and Hormiga (2020). The new species form a clade that can be distinguished from other Mimetus species by the presence of a subtegular apophysis between paracymbium and subtegulum, pilose cuticular projections on the membranous part of the conductor in the male palp and by a bicameral structure of the spermathecae in females. The new species are part of a clade that includes Mimetus syllepsicus Hentz, 1832, the type species of the genus. The genus Mimetus as currently circumscribed is not monophyletic, as the clade that includes all the Mimetus species also includes the genera Australomimetus Heimer, 1986 and Anansi Benavides and Hormiga, 2017, corroborating the results of Benavides and Hormiga (2020).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Aranhas/genética
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788838

RESUMO

GMrepo (data repository for Gut Microbiota) is a database of curated and consistently annotated human gut metagenomes. Its main purposes are to increase the reusability and accessibility of human gut metagenomic data, and enable cross-project and phenotype comparisons. To achieve these goals, we performed manual curation on the meta-data and organized the datasets in a phenotype-centric manner. GMrepo v2 contains 353 projects and 71,642 runs/samples, which are significantly increased from the previous version. Among these runs/samples, 45,111 and 26,531 were obtained by 16S rRNA amplicon and whole-genome metagenomics sequencing, respectively. We also increased the number of phenotypes from 92 to 133. In addition, we introduced disease-marker identification and cross-project/phenotype comparison. We first identified disease markers between two phenotypes (e.g. health versus diseases) on a per-project basis for selected projects. We then compared the identified markers for each phenotype pair across datasets to facilitate the identification of consistent microbial markers across datasets. Finally, we provided a marker-centric view to allow users to check if a marker has different trends in different diseases. So far, GMrepo includes 592 marker taxa (350 species and 242 genera) for 47 phenotype pairs, identified from 83 selected projects. GMrepo v2 is freely available at: https://gmrepo.humangut.info.

6.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5568-5575, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND&AIMS: It is controversial to preferentially choose low-fat milk or full-fat items. This study aimed to investigate the association of total and cause-specific mortality with 2 g/100 g or ≤ 1 g/100 g low-fat milk consumption compared with whole milk in general population. METHODS: Overall, 29,283 adults aged ≥20 years from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014 were recruited with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. The types of milk consumption at baseline (e.g., whole-fat, 2 g/100 g low-fat, and ≤1 g/100 g low-fat) were reported during in-house interviews. Hazard ratios for the associations between milk types and mortality were assessed with the weighted Cox proportional regression. RESULTS: During 241,572 person-years of follow-up, 4170 deaths occurred including 730 heart disease-related deaths and 846 cancer deaths. Consumption of milk contained lower fat exhibited an inverse association with total and cardiovascular mortality after multivariable adjustment. Compared with participants consuming whole-fat milk, those consuming 2 g/100 g or ≤1 g/100 g low-fat milk had a 14%-22% decrease in total mortality (p trend ≤0.001). Individuals consuming 2 g/100 g and ≤1 g/100 g low-fat milk had hazard ratios (95%CI) of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.67 (0.49-0.91) for heart-related mortality (p trend = 0.009). No significant difference was noted between whole-fat and lower-fat milk for mortality due to cancer, Alzheimer's disease, or diabetes mellitus. A similar trend was noted in the stratification and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Compared with whole milk, low-fat or skim milk intake was associated with reduced total and heart-related mortality. Low-fat milk may be more conducive than whole milk for promoting cardiovascular health in general adults.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(44): 10753-10760, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714072

RESUMO

Group-VA two-dimensional layered materials in a puckered honeycomb structure exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy and have emerged as new platforms for novel devices. Here, we report on systematic Raman investigations on exfoliated b-As flakes on the Ag1 and Ag2 polarization dependence on their symmetry, excitation wavelength, and flake thickness. The intensity maximums of both phonons are corrected in the b-As armchair direction under 633 nm excitation regardless of the flake thickness upon considering optical birefringence effects and interference effects. The intensity ratio of Ag1 to Ag2 modes under 532 nm excitation is useful for b-As crystalline orientation identification. Temperature-dependent Raman investigations reveal the linearly anharmonic behaviors of both phonons in the range from 173 to 293 K and a slightly greater first-order temperature coefficient in the zigzag direction. Our findings give deep insight into the in-plane phonon anisotropy and anharmonicity of b-As and provide a step toward future device applications.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685191

RESUMO

The coupling strength between two-dimensional (2D) materials and substrate plays a vital role on thermal transport properties of 2D materials. Here we systematically investigate the influence of vacuum thermal annealing on the temperature-dependence of in-plane Raman phonon modes in monolayer graphene supported on silicon dioxide substrate via Raman spectroscopy. Intriguingly, raising the thermal annealing temperature can significantly enlarge the temperature coefficient of supported monolayer graphene. The derived temperature coefficient of G band remains mostly unchanged with thermal annealing temperature below 473 K, while it increases from -0.030 cm-1/K to -0.0602 cm-1/K with thermal annealing temperature ranging from 473 K to 773 K, suggesting the great impact of thermal annealing on thermal transport in supported monolayer graphene. Such an impact might reveal the vital role of coupling strength on phonon scattering and on the thermal transport property of supported monolayer graphene. To further interpret the thermal annealing mechanism, the compressive stress in supported monolayer graphene, which is closely related to coupling strength and is studied through the temperature-dependent Raman spectra. It is found that the variation tendency for compressive stress induced by thermal annealing is the same as that for temperature coefficient, implying the intense connection between compressive stress and thermal transport. Actually, 773 K thermal annealing can result in 2.02 GPa compressive stress on supported monolayer graphene due to the lattice mismatch of graphene and substrate. This study proposes thermal annealing as a feasible path to modulate the thermal transport in supported graphene and to design future graphene-based devices.

9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 359: 109428, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655921

RESUMO

For a long period, Nelumbinis semen has been widely used as a medicinal and edible product. However, it is susceptible to contamination with toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins during the growth, collection, transportation, and storage processes, causing serious health threats to humans and huge economic losses. Effectively monitoring the fungal communities is of great importance to avoid aflatoxins contamination in Nelumbinis semen. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is a new technology to evaluate fungal communities so as to overcome the limitations of the traditional cultural ways. In this study, the ITS2 based Illumina-MiSeq platform was developed to evaluate the fungal communities in normal and moldy Nelumbinis semen by using the HTS technology. Two different primer pairs were introduced to compare their performance in amplifying the target gene. The primer pair that produced more reads was selected to analyze the results. In all the nine tested Nelumbinis semen samples, 2 phyla, 5 classes, 6 orders, 8 families, 9 genera and 4 species were detected. A total of 9 genera were spotted, of which, Aspergillus (0.04%-72.93%) and Rhizopus (0.002%-48.12%) were the most dominant. ANOISM analysis showed no significant differences in the normal and moldy groups. The use of HTS technology can detect the fungal communities in complex Nelumbinis semen samples, providing an early warning for toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins contamination to warrant their quality and safety.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Micobioma , Aflatoxinas/análise , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
10.
Toxicology ; 464: 153014, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718029

RESUMO

Geniposide has been widely found to ameliorate many metabolic diseases. The recruitment and activation of brown/beige adipocytes are effective and promising methods for counteracting obesity and related diseases. However, the effect of geniposide on thermogenesis of adipocytes and its underlying mechanism have not yet been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that geniposide (25 mg/kg) reduces body temperature and cold tolerance of mice via suppressing thermogenic genes in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Consistently, geniposide (20 mg/mL) suppresses thermogenic capacity of adipocytes (brown adipocytes and 3T3L1 preadipocyte cells) in vitro. Mechanistically, geniposide reduces the level of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit and further suppresses transcription activity and protein stability of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), leading to reduction of thermogenic capacity in adipocytes. Moreover, pharmacological PKA activation reverses geniposide-induced UCP1 inhibition, which indicated that geniposide suppresses thermogenesis of adipocytes via regulating PKA signaling. Together, our findings suggest that geniposide is an inhibitor of fat thermogenesis, establishing a novel function characteristic of geniposide.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 607197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483893

RESUMO

With the widespread use of traditional medicine around the world, the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal patent medicine have become an increasing concern to the public. However, it is difficult to supervise the authenticity of herbal materials in mixed herbal products according to the current quality standards, especially for traditional herbal patent medicine, with a distinct variance in the dosage of herbal materials. This study utilized the shotgun metabarcoding approach to analyze the biological ingredients of Fuke Desheng Wan (FKDSW), which is an effective traditional herbal product for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Six herbal materials were collected, and a lab-made mock FKDSW sample was produced to establish a method for the authentication assessment of biological ingredients in traditional herbal patent medicine based on shotgun metabarcoding. Furthermore, four commercial FKDSW samples were collected to verify the practicality of the shotgun metabarcoding approach. Then, a total of 52.16 Gb raw data for 174 million paired-end reads was generated using the Illumina NovaSeq sequencing platform. Meanwhile, 228, 23, and 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained for the ITS2, matK, and rbcL regions, respectively, after bioinformatic analysis. Moreover, no differences were evident between the assembly sequences obtained via shotgun metabarcoding and their corresponding reference sequences of the same species obtained via Sanger sequencing, except for part of the ITS2 and matK assembly sequences of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. and Bupleurum chinense DC. with 1-6 different bases. The identification results showed that all six prescribed ingredients were successfully detected and that the non-authentic ingredient of Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu, Bupleurum chinense DC. or Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd.) was found in all the commercial samples, namely Bupleurum falcatum L. Here, 25 weed species representing 16 genera of ten families were detected. Moreover, 26 fungal genera belonging to 17 families were found in both lab-made and commercial FKDSW samples. This study demonstrated that the shotgun metabarcoding approach could overcome the biased PCR amplification and authenticate the biological ingredients of traditional herbal patent medicine with a distinct variance in the dosage of the herbal materials. Therefore, this provides an appropriate evaluation method for improving the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal patent medicine.

12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101129, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541481

RESUMO

Background: A novel variant of SARS-CoV-2, the Delta variant of concern (VOC, also known as lineage B.1.617.2), is fast becoming the dominant strain globally. We reported the epidemiological, viral, and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients infected with the Delta VOC during the local outbreak in Guangzhou, China. Methods: We extracted the epidemiological and clinical information pertaining to the 159 cases infected with the Delta VOC across seven transmission generations between May 21 and June 18, 2021. The whole chain of the Delta VOC transmission was described. Kinetics of viral load and clinical characteristics were compared with a cohort of wild-type infection in 2020 admitted to the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. Findings: There were four transmission generations within the first ten days. The Delta VOC yielded a significantly shorter incubation period (4.0 vs. 6.0 days), higher viral load (20.6 vs. 34.0, cycle threshold of the ORF1a/b gene), and a longer duration of viral shedding in pharyngeal swab samples (14.0 vs. 8.0 days) compared with the wild-type strain. In cases with critical illness, the proportion of patients over the age of 60 was higher in the Delta VOC group than in the wild-type strain (100.0% vs. 69.2%, p = 0.03). The Delta VOC had a higher risk than wild-type infection in deterioration to critical status (hazards ratio 2.98 [95%CI 1.29-6.86]; p = 0.01). Interpretation: Infection with the Delta VOC is characterized by markedly increased transmissibility, viral loads and risk of disease progression compared with the wild-type strain, calling for more intensive prevention and control measures to contain future outbreaks. Funding: National Grand Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, Guangzhou Laboratory.

13.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8976-8993, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382058

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) worldwide, while oat ß-glucan has been shown to suppress the progress of colitis in UC mice. However, the underlying mechanism of oat ß-glucan in ameliorating colitis is unclear and the role of gut microbiota in the protective effect of oat ß-glucan against colitis remains unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effect of oat ß-glucan on gut microbiota in colitis mice and explore the health effect related mechanism. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to induce the colitis model in mice. The results showed that ß-glucan treatment attenuated hematochezia, splenomegaly and colon shortening in colitis mice. Histological evaluation of H&E and TUNEL staining showed that ß-glucan treatment suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammatory infiltration and reduced cell apoptosis levels of colon tissues. mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory factors were also significantly reduced in the ß-glucan group. Moreover, ß-glucan treatment increased the protein and mRNA expression levels of tight junction proteins. Analysis of gut microbiota community showed that ß-glucan treatment modulated gut microbial composition and structure at the OTU level in colitis mice. Further analysis of gut microbial metabolism revealed that ß-glucan treatment significantly increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations, and affected microbial metabolome in colitis mice. Notably, the increased acetate and propionate concentrations could directly affect pro-inflammatory factor expression levels and tight junction protein levels. In contrast, the changes in metabolic profiles affected pro-inflammatory factor levels and thus affected tight junction protein levels. Overall, our study revealed that oat ß-glucan ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice simultaneously through regulating gut-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and microbial metabolic biomarkers. Our study demonstrated that oat ß-glucan could be an effective nutritional intervention strategy towards targeting gut microbiota metabolism for ameliorating colitis.

14.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451483

RESUMO

The global dissemination of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr and its variants have posed a great threat to public health. Therefore, the Chinese government banned the use of colistin as a feed additive in livestock in April 2017. To explore the dynamic changes of overall antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and phylogenetic relationship of bacteria from a single pig farm before and after the withdrawal of colistin, fecal swab samples were collected from a large-scale pig farm before (n = 32; 2 months pre-withdrawal of colistin) and after withdrawal of colistin (n = 30; 13 months post-withdrawal of colistin). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated. Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina, MiSeq) was performed to examine ARGs, plasmids and the genetic relationship of the isolates. The overall SNP results indicated all isolates had high genetic diversity, and the evolutionary relationship across isolates was not influenced by the ban of colistin. However, the prevalence of mcr-1.1 (5.6%, p < 0.01) was significantly lower than before the ban (86.4%). Plasmid profiling analysis showed that 17 of 20 (85.0%) observed mcr-1.1 genes reside on IncX4-type plasmids, 16 of which (94.1%) were from isolates before the ban. On the contrary, the presence of blaCTX-M gene was significantly increased (p = 0.0215) post-withdrawal of colistin. Our results showed that withdrawal of colistin reduced the incidence of mcr-1-harboring IncX4-type plasmids, but had limited influences on unrelated ARGs.

15.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(7): 2038-2040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377788

RESUMO

Atractylodes japonica Koidz. ex Kitam. is a perennial herbal plant, and its dried rhizomes have been widely used as traditional medicine in China and Japan. In this study, we assembled and annotated the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of A. japonica using the high-throughput sequencing approach. The cp genome of A. japonica is 153,208 bp in length with the overall GC content of 37.7%, including two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,147 bp, which was separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 84,255 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,659 bp. 113 unique genes were annotated in the genome, including 80 protein-coding genes, 29 represented tRNA genes, and four denoted rRNA genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis with 38 complete cp sequences showed that Atractylodes formed a monophyletic clade, and A. japonica and A. koreana formed a subclade in Atractylodes. This study provides the chloroplast genome structure features and phylogenetic relationship of A. japonica.

16.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(9): 2523-2525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377816

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Atypus karschi has a circular genome of 14,149 bp, comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is 35.82% of T, 35.13% of A, 17.19% of G, and 9.16% of C. Most genes are encoded on the heavy strand except seven tRNA genes (Leu, Phe, His, Pro, Leu, Ile, Gln), four protein-coding genes (nad5, nad4, nad4l, nad1), and 16S-rRNA on the light strand. Most protein-coding genes start with TTG, ATT or ATA initiation codon except cox1, cox1's start codon cannot be determined, and three types of inferred termination codons are TAA, TAG, and an incomplete stop codon. There are four intergenic spacers and 25 gene overlaps. The phylogenetic analysis shows that A. karschi has closer genetic relationship with Cyriopagopus schmidti (von Wirth, 1991) and Phyxioschema suthepium (Raven & Schwendinger, 1898) with high bootstrap support.

17.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8283-8300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373742

RESUMO

Rationale: The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of systemic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes remain elusive. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) deficiency has long been known to improved insulin sensitivity. However, whether hepatic GHR overexpression or activation is a cause of insulin resistance is still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the new role of GHR in systemic insulin resistance and explore the underlying mechanism. Method: Different samples obtained from obese humans, ob/ob mice, db/db mice, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and primary mouse hepatocytes were used to evaluate the correlations between GHR and metabolic disorders. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses encoding GHR and STAT5 and GHR knockout mice were used to investigate the roles of hepatic GHR in glucose homeostasis. Tissue H&E, Oil Red O and PAS staining were performed for histomorphological analysis. Gel filtration chromatography was employed for the separation of serum RBP4-TTR complexes. Plasmids (related to GHR, STAT5 and HIF1α), siRNA oligos (siGHR and siSTAT5), luciferase activity and ChIP assays were used to explore the potential mechanism of hepatic GHR. Results: Here, we found that hepatic GHR expression was elevated during metabolic disorder. Accordingly, hepatic GHR overexpression disrupted systemic glucose homeostasis by promoting gluconeogenesis and disturbing insulin responsiveness in the liver. Meanwhile, hepatic GHR overexpression promoted lipolysis in white adipose tissue and repressed glucose utilization in skeletal muscle by promoting the circulating level of RBP4, which contributed to impaired systemic insulin action. A mechanistic study revealed that hepatic GHR disrupted systemic insulin sensitivity by increasing RBP4 transcription by activating STAT5. Additionally, overexpression of hepatic GHR promoted TTR transcriptional levels by enhancing the expression of HIF1α, which not only increased the protein stability of RBP4 but also inhibited renal clearance of RBP4 in serum. Conclusions: Hepatic GHR overexpression and activation accelerated systemic insulin resistance by increasing hepatic RBP4 production and maintaining circulating RBP4 homeostasis. Our current study provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its associated metabolic complications.

18.
EMBO Rep ; 22(9): e52247, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358402

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the coordination of fuel usage in skeletal muscle is incomplete. Whether and how microRNAs are involved in the substrate selection for oxidation is largely unknown. Here we show that mice lacking miR-183 and miR-96 have enhanced muscle oxidative phenotype and altered glucose/lipid homeostasis. Moreover, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 results in a shift in substrate utilization toward fat relative to carbohydrates in mice. Mechanistically, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 suppresses glucose utilization in skeletal muscle by increasing PDHA1 phosphorylation via targeting FoxO1 and PDK4. On the other hand, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 promotes fat usage in skeletal muscle by enhancing intramuscular lipolysis via targeting FoxO1 and ATGL. Thus, our study establishes miR-183 and miR-96 as master coordinators of fuel selection and metabolic homeostasis owing to their capability of modulating both glucose utilization and fat catabolism. Lastly, we show that loss of miR-183 and miR-96 can alleviate obesity and improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet-induced mice, suggesting that miR-183 and miR-96 may serve as therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Glucose , MicroRNAs , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Esquelético , Obesidade/genética
19.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 29(5): 741-762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Monitoring recovery process of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients released from hospital is crucial for exploring residual effects of COVID-19 and beneficial for clinical care. In this study, a comprehensive analysis was carried out to clarify residual effects of COVID-19 on hospital discharged patients. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-eight cases with laboratory measured data at hospital discharge record and five follow-up visits were retrospectively collected to carry out statistical data analysis comprehensively, which includes multiple statistical methods (e.g., chi-square, T-test and regression) used in this study. RESULTS: Study found that 13 of 21 hematologic parameters in laboratory measured dataset and volume ratio of right lung lesions on CT images highly associated with COVID-19. Moderate patients had statistically significant lower neutrophils than mild and severe patients after hospital discharge, which is probably caused by more efforts on severe patients and slightly neglection of moderate patients. COVID-19 has residual effects on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of patients who have hypertension or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After released from hospital, female showed better performance in T lymphocytes subset cells, especially T helper lymphocyte% (16% higher than male). According to this sex-based differentiation of COVID-19, male should be recommended to take clinical test more frequently to monitor recovery of immune system. Patients over 60 years old showed unstable recovery process of immune cells (e.g., CD45 + lymphocyte) within 75 days after discharge requiring longer clinical care. Additionally, right lung was vulnerable to COVID-19 and required more time to recover than left lung. CONCLUSIONS: Criterion of hospital discharge and strategy of clinical care should be flexible in different cases due to residual effects of COVID-19, which depend on several impact factors. Revealing remaining effects of COVID-19 is an effective way to eliminate disorder of mental health caused by COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(30): 8440-8447, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286573

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for chronic metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, a whole-grain diet could ameliorate this issue in a number of ways, including by regulating bile acid metabolism. However, the potential mechanism is unclear. The aim of the current study is to explore the effects of whole-grain diets (brown rice diet and whole wheat diet) on bile acid homeostasis. After intervention for 8 weeks in mouse model, whole-grain diets showed reduced feed conversion ratio, and the lipid levels (total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)) were also meliorated in the serum and liver of mice. Moreover, whole-grain diets reduced the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) (cholesterol synthesis) in the liver of mice. Interestingly, whole-grain diets not only promoted the mRNA expressions of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) (reverse cholesterol transport) but also facilitated the expressions of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (CYP7a1) and cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (CYP27a1) (bile acid synthesis). Further study found that whole-grain diets promoted intestinal bile acid reabsorption and reduced bile acid excretion. Our study provided a novel metabolic regulation of bile acids in response to reduced cholesterol levels induced by whole-grain diets.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colesterol , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Dieta , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Grãos Integrais
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