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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124775, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521931

RESUMO

Enriched levels of thallium (Tl) in the environment are not only derived from anthropogenic sources but also have potential natural origins owing to Tl-rich sulphide mineralization. However, little is known regarding the geochemical fractionations of Tl in contaminated soils from geogenic sources. This study aims to reveal the Tl geochemical fractionations in different types of soils from a large-scale independent Tl mine in southwestern China, via a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction (four-step) scheme. The results revealed that a large percentage of Tl was related to the labile portions (including reducible, weak-acid-exchangeable, and oxidizable fraction) of the soils (68.8-367 mg kg-1). Further analyses by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (STEM-EDS) found that Tl mainly existed in the Fe-containing minerals (such as jarosite and hematite) with fine particles (∼1 µm). These results highlight that, apart from the anthropogenically induced Tl pollution, the naturally occurring Tl contamination in soils may also pose significant risks to human health and ecological safety. Owing to the relatively high mobility and bioavailability of Tl in the labile fractions, it is important to understand geochemical fractionations of this element for alleviating Tl pollution and effective management of naturally occurring Tl contaminated soils.

2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124851, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546187

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and its uptake by living organisms causes adverse effect, further resulting in cycle pollution of the biosphere. The specific regulatory mechanism between clays and microbes under Cd stress remains unclear. In this study, interface interactions among clays, microbes and Cd were confirmed. Comparative transcriptome was conducted to investigate how it regulated gene expression patterns of microbes (Chryseobacterium sp. WAL2), which exposed to a series of gradient concentrations of Cd (16, 32, 64 and 128 µg mL-1) for 12 d in the presence and absence of clay montmorillonite (Mt) (16 g L-1). Cd was highly enriched by the unique interface interactions between Mt and bacteria (67.6-82.1%), leading to a more hostile environment for bacterial cells. However, Mt ultimately enhanced bacterial resistance to Cd stress by stimulating the mechanism of bacterial resistance; namely: (i) Mt increased genes expression connected with ion transport, enhancing the uptake of Cd; (ii) Mt stimulated genes expression related to efflux pump and positively regulated cellular oxidative stress (e.g., glutathione) and Cd accumulation (e.g., cysteine) processes. Further, genes expression related to intracellular metabolic processes was enforced, which supplied a driving force and accelerated electron transfer; (iii) Mt improved genes expression involved in DNA replication and other biological processes (e.g., terpenoid backbone biosynthesis) to maintain bacterial vitality. Therefore, the study not only optimized a unique Cd resistance mechanism of Mt on Chryseobacterium sp., but also provided a novel insight for environmental mitigation of heavy metals from the perspective of molecular biology.

3.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 1-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451946

RESUMO

Microbe-assisted organopollutant removal, or in planta crop decontamination, is based on an interactive system between organopollutant-degrading endophytic bacteria (DEBOP) and crops in alleviating organic toxins in plants. This script focuses on the fast-growing body of literature that has recently bloomed in organopollutant control in agricultural plants. The various facets of DEBOP under study include their colonization, distribution, plant growth-promoting mechanisms, and modes of action in the detoxification process in plants. Also, an assessment of the biotechnological advances, advantages, and bottlenecks in accelerating the implementation of this decontamination strategy will be undertaken. The highlighted key research directions from this review will shape the future of agro-environmental sustainability and preservation of human health.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Endófitos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
4.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 993-1000, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332778

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a tumor with the second highest morbidity and mortality in the world, and it is also the most common cancer and the eighth lethal factor among malignant tumors in Chinese female. This study aimed to identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that related to diagnosis and prognosis in cervical cancer to improve early diagnosis and treatment. First, we extracted transcriptome profilings of cervical cancer samples from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database, and then extracted the lncRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles. Based on the lncRNAs expression profiles of test set, we screened lncRNAs that related to progression of cervical cancer tumors. We found six lncRNAs associated with tumor progression in cervical cancer patients, in which five lncRNAs have highly similar expression patterns but the other one has the opposite expression pattern. We found that these six lncRNAs might be related to keratinization and immunity by enrichment analysis, and two of them (AC126474 and C5orf66-AS1) were associated with prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. And these results were validated using the validation set. Overall, we identified six lncRNAs that played an important role in the development of cervical cancer, and two of them might be associated with the prognosis of cervical cancer, which provides new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer.

5.
Cytokine ; 125: 154850, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial injury can result in thin endometrium and subfertility. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to tissue repair, but its role in endometrial regeneration has not been investigated. METHODS: To determine the effect of GM-CSF on endometrial regeneration, we established a mouse model of thin endometrium by uterine perfusion with 20 µL 90% ethanol. Thin endometrium in mice was featured by lowered endometrial thickness, decreased expression of Ki67 in glandular cells, and a reduced number of implantation sites. To explore the mechanism of GM-CSF on endometrial regeneration, endometrium was obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy or hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. Effects of GM-CSF on primary cultured human endometrial glandular and stromal cells were examined by the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assay and transwell migration assay, followed by exploration of the potential signaling pathway. RESULTS: GM-CSF intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection significantly increased endometrial thickness, expression of Ki67 in endometrial glandular cells, and the number of implantation sites. GM-CSF significantly promoted proliferation of primary human endometrial glandular cells and migration of stromal cells. GM-CSF activated p-Akt and increased expressions of p70S6K and c-Jun, which were blocked by LY294002. CONCLUSION: We found that GM-CSF could improve endometrial regeneration, possibly through activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

6.
Virchows Arch ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797088

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) and sinonasal oncocytic papilloma (SOP) from a single institution and whether p16 can serve as a surrogate marker for HPV infection. This study included 49 subjects with SIP and 36 subjects with SOP. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were used to extract genomic DNA, and HPV detection was performed by utilizing a valid nested polymerase chain reaction approach that can detect all known HPV subtypes. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of p16 in all tumor sections. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 6.1% (3/49) of the SIP patients and 11.1% (4/36) of the SOP patients. All identified HPV subtypes in SIP were high-risk HPV, including HPV-16 (two patients) and HPV-58 (one patient). Regarding SOP, there were three patients positive for HPV-16 and one with low-risk HPV (type 6). In total, 11/49 (22.4%) SIP lesions and 10/36 (27.8%) SOP lesions were considered p16 positive, with p16 staining in more than 70% of tumor cells. There was only one SIP and one SOP that were positive for both HPV (high-risk HPV type 16) and p16 staining. HPV does not play an etiologic role in inverted papilloma or oncocytic papilloma of the sinonasal region. p16 immunostaining should not be used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the HPV infection status in these lesions.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682442

RESUMO

Quantification of extractable antibiotics in soils is important to assessing their bioavailability and mobility, and ultimately their ecotoxicological and health risks. This study aimed to establish a biosensor method for detecting extractable tetracyclines in soils (Alfisol, Mollisol, and Ultisol) using whole-cell biosensors containing a reporter plasmid (pMTGFP or pMTmCherry) carrying fluorescent protein genes tightly controlled by tetracyclines-responsive control region (tetRO). This whole-cell biosensor method can simultaneously measure 96 or more samples within 6 h and is easily parallelizable, whereas a typical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method may require 7 times more of analysis time and much greater cost to achieve similar analytical throughput. The biosensor method had a detection limit for each of six tetracyclines between 5.32-10.2 µg/kg soil, which is considered adequate for detecting tetracyclines in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extracts of soils. Relative standard deviation was between 19.8-51.2% for the biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α/pMTGFP and 2.98-25.8% for E. coli DH5α/pMTmCherry, respectively, suggesting that E. coli DH5α/pMTmCherry was superior to E. coli DH5α/pMTGFP for detecting extractable tetracyclines in soils. This new, fast, easily parallelizable, and cost-effective biosensor method has the potential for measuring extractable concentrations of tetracyclines for a large number of soil samples in large-scale monitoring studies.

8.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125172, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675584

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic metal with high risk. Sediment samples from a well dated sediment core retrieved from a heavily polluted urban lake were measured to assess the magnitude of Tl pollution and reveal its transfer mechanisms within the lake. The results show that the lake has experienced serious Tl pollution during the past 60 years, owing to a large influx of Tl-bearing wastes mostly from a neighboring copper (Cu) smelter. The Tl contents in the sediment core at different depths generally correlated positively with the production scale of Cu smelting activities in the past. Further mineralogical analysis on the electrostatic precipitator dust from the Cu smelter and highly-polluted samples from the sediment core by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction suggested that Tl was primarily bound to quartz and aluminosilicates. Large quantities of Tl were also observed in diatom frustules collected from the sediments, suggesting a potentially significant role of biogenic silicates in the uptake and transfer of Tl in the sediment-water system. The findings indicate a new and emerging pollution source of thallium arising from copper metallurgy activities. The results also highlight the necessity of strengthened monitoring and regulations towards Tl pollution in environmental systems impacted by Cu smelting activities in China and other nations.

9.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 379, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744495

RESUMO

AIM: Cervical cancer is a common malignant carcinoma of the gynecological tract with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer by searching for the involved key genes. METHOD: In this study, the alternative splicing (AS) events of 253 patients with cervical cancer were analyzed, and 41,766 AS events were detected in 9961 genes. Univariate analysis was performed to screen prognostic AS events. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis was used to identify the pathways in which these AS events were involved. RESULTS: We found that exon skip (ES) is the main AS event in patients with cervical cancer. There was pronounced consistency between the genes involved in overall survival and those involved in recurrence. At the same time, we found that a gene may exhibit several different types of AS events, and these different AS events may be related to prognosis. Four characteristic genes, HSPA14, SDHAF2, CAMKK2 and TM9SF1, that can be used as prognostic markers for cervical cancer were selected. CONCLUSION: The importance of AS events in the development of cervical cancer and prediction of prognosis was revealed by a large amount of data at the whole genome level, which may provide a potential target for cervical cancer treatment. We also provide a new method for exploring the pathogenesis of cervical cancer to determine clinical treatment and prognosis more accurately.

10.
Environ Res ; : 108899, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740041

RESUMO

In this work, corn straw (CS) based porous carbon was prepared by one-step phosphoric acid (H3PO4) low temperature activation. The impregnation ratios (H3PO4/CS, g/g) played an important role in the pore development. ACS300-1 engineered at 300 °C and the impregnation ratio of 1.0 showed the maximal specific surface area of 463.89 m2/g with total pore volume of 0.387 cm3/g, attaining a high tetracycline (TC) uptake of 227.3 mg/g. The adsorption of TC onto ACS300-1 was found tolerant with wide pH (2.0-10.0) and high ionic strength (0 - 0.5 M). The adsorption data can be fitted well by the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The endothermic and spontaneous properties of the adsorption system was implied by Thermodynamic study. The findings of the current work conclude that one-step H3PO4 activation is a green and promising method for corn straw based porous carbon that may be found with great potentials in antibiotic containing wastewater treatment.

11.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694266

RESUMO

Lignification, which occurs in many horticultural fruit and vegetables, brings about undesirable texture and unfavorable consumer preference. However, this problem has rarely been studied. In this work, three pumelo cultivars cvs "Hongroumiyou" (HR), "Bairoumiyou" (BR), and "Huangroumiyou" (HuR) were stored at 25 °C for 90 days, and juice sacs were sampled to explore the lignin accumulation and its relationship to sucrose and energy depletion were investigated. The results displayed that HuR contained lower sucrose content, lower ATP level, but higher lignin content compared to BR and HR during postharvest storage, indicating that the sequence according to storage resistance on the basis of lignin content is as follows: HuR < BR < HR. Furthermore, sucrose degradation attributed to enhanced activities of neutral invertase (NI), soluble acid invertase (S-AI), cell wall-bound invertase (B-AI), and energy deficit on account of declined ATP level, showed significantly negative correlation with lignin accumulation, suggesting that lignin accumulation occurrence could induce sucrose degradation and energy deficit during postharvest storage. Additionally, higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) could accelerate lignin synthesis and resulted in lignin accumulation during postharvest pumelo storage.

12.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772283

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

13.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779213

RESUMO

T-2 toxin is one of the most toxic type A trichothecene mycotoxins in nature, and it exhibits reproductive toxicity. Betulinic acid (BA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpene compound found in species of Betula, and it has been reported to have antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of BA on T-2-toxin-induced testicular injury in mice and explore its molecular mechanism. Sixty adult male mice were randomly divided into groups. The mice were pretreated orally with BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and the T-2 toxin (4 mg/kg body weight) was administered via intraperitoneal injection to induce oxidative stress after the last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly increased the secreted levels of testosterone and sperm motility. Moreover, BA pretreatment significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of SOD and CAT, and the content of GSH, and it reduced the content of MDA. Furthermore, BA relieved testicular injury and reduced the number of apoptotic cells, and it significantly decreased the protein expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), caspsae-3, and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). BA also increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). We suggest that BA reduced the oxidative damage induced by T-2 toxin, and that these protective effects may be partially mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5177, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729379

RESUMO

Protein hydroxylation affects protein stability, activity, and interactome, therefore contributing to various diseases including cancers. However, the transiency of the hydroxylation reaction hinders the identification of hydroxylase substrates. By developing an enzyme-substrate trapping strategy coupled with TAP-TAG or orthogonal GST- purification followed by mass spectrometry, we identify adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) as an EglN2 hydroxylase substrate in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). ADSL expression is higher in TNBC than other breast cancer subtypes or normal breast tissues. ADSL knockout impairs TNBC cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. An integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis reveals that ADSL activates the oncogenic cMYC pathway by regulating cMYC protein level via a mechanism requiring ADSL proline 24 hydroxylation. Hydroxylation-proficient ADSL, by affecting adenosine levels, represses the expression of the long non-coding RNA MIR22HG, thus upregulating cMYC protein level. Our findings highlight the role of ADSL hydroxylation in controlling cMYC and TNBC tumorigenesis.

15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(12): 783, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732804

RESUMO

Porous carbon was prepared from wheat flour by alkali treatment and carbonization. The resulting biomass-derived porous carbon (BPC) was employed to prepare a Pt-Au-BPC nanocomposite by a hydrothermal method. The material was then placed on the surface of a carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). The Pt-Au-BPC was characterized by SEM, XPS, and the modified CILE by electrochemical methods. They revealed a porous structure, a large specific surface with high conductivity. Pt-Au-BPC/CILE was applied to the sensitive determination of quercetin. Electrochemical response was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimized experimental conditions, the oxidation peak current (measured at 0.48 V vs. Ag/AgCl by DPV) increases linearly in the 0.15 to 6.0 µM and in the 10.0 to 25.0 µM quercetin concentration range. The detection limit is 50.0 nM (at 3σ). The Pt-Au-BPC/CILE was applied to the direct determination of quercetin in ginkgo tablets sample and gave satisfactory results. Graphical abstract A Pt-Au-BPC nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was applied to differential pulse voltammetric determination of quercetin. BPC: biomass-derived porous carbon.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 135547, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761365

RESUMO

As an element with well-known toxicity, excessive thallium (Tl) in farmland soils, may threaten food security and induce extreme risks to human health. Identification of key contamination sources is prerequisite for remediation technologies. This study aims to examine the contamination level, health risks and source apportionment of Tl in common vegetables from typical farmlands distributed over a densely populated residential area in a pyrite mine city, which has been exploiting Tl-bearing pyrite minerals over 50 years. Results showed excessive Tl levels were exhibited in most of the vegetables (0.16-20.33 mg/kg) and alarming health risks may induce from the vegetables via the food chain. Source apportionment of Tl contamination in vegetables was then evaluated by using Pb isotope fingerprinting technique. Both vegetables and soils were characterized with overall low 206Pb/207Pb. This indicated that a significant contribution may be ascribed to the anthropogenic activities involving pyrite deposit exploitation, whose raw material and salgs were featured with lower 206Pb/207Pb. Further calculation by binary mixing model suggested that pyrite mining and smelting activities contributed 54-88% to the thallium contamination in vegetables. The results highlighted that Pb isotope tracing is a suitable technique for source apportionment of Tl contamination in vegetables and prime contamination from pyrite mining/smelting activities urges authorities to initiate proper practices of remediation.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761925

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis, caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania, remains an important neglected tropical infectious disease. Infection may be lethal if untreated. Currently, the available drugs for the disease are limited by high toxicity and drug resistance. There is an urgent need to develop novel anti-leishmanial strategies. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described as the first-line immune defense against pathogenic microbes and are being developed as emerging anti-parasitic therapies. In the present study, we showed the anti-leishmanial activity of the synthetic 4-amino acid peptide lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine (KDEL), the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence, against Leishmania tarentolae promastigote and amastigote. Different concentrations of KDEL peptides were incubated with promastigotes, MTT viability assay, and promastigote assay were carried out. Macrophages infected with GFP-transfected L. tarentolae promastigotes were incubated with KDEL peptides, and the anti-amastigote activity of the KDEL peptides was measured by fluorescence microscopy. The damage of L. tarentolae was observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The cell apoptosis was analyzed using the Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit and mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit and by flow cytometry. Results showed that L. tarentolae was susceptible to KDEL peptides in a dose-dependent manner, and KDEL peptides disrupted the surface membrane integrity and caused cell apoptosis. In our study, we found for the first time an AMP KDEL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and proved its significant therapeutic potential as a novel anti-leishmanial drug.

18.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104415, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704260

RESUMO

Four new sesquiterpenoids, phellinignins A-D (1-4), together with four known ones (5-8), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. The structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods including MS, NMR, and the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 and 5-8 are tremulane sesquiterpenoids, while compound 4 possesses a new carbon skeleton that might derive from an illudane framework. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 showed certain cytotoxicities to three human cancer cell lines.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e17948, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laser systems are a common treatment choice for onychomycosis. They exert their effects on inhibiting the growth of the fungus by selective photothermolysis but efficacy is dependent on the specific type of apparatus used. To systematically review the available published literature on the curative effects and safety of laser treatment for onychomycosis. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, web of science, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), WanFang Database and VIP were searched systematically to identify relevant articles published up to July 2018. Potentially relevant articles were sourced, assessed against eligibility criteria by 2 researchers independently and data were extracted from included studies. A meta-analysis was performed using R software. RESULTS: Thirty-five articles involving 1723 patients and 4278 infected nails were included. Meta-analysis of data extracted from these studies revealed that: the overall mycological cure rate was 63.0% (95%CI 0.53-0.73); the mycological cure rate associated with the 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser was 63.0% (95%CI 0.51-0.74); and that of CO2 lasers was 74.0% (95%CI 0.37-0.98). The published data indicate that laser treatment is relatively safe, but can cause tolerable pain and occasionally lead to bleeding after treatment. CONCLUSION: Laser treatment of onychomycosis is effective and safe. The cumulative cure rate of laser treatment was significantly higher for CO2 lasers than other types of laser. Laser practitioners should be made aware of potential adverse effects such as pain and bleeding.

20.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125343, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751929

RESUMO

Due to the huge consumption of caffeinated food, beverages and medicines around the world, caffeine has been considered as a most representative pharmaceutically active compound (PhAC) pollutant based on its high abundance in environment and its indicator property for anthropogenic inputs of PhACs to water bodies. This review analyzed the existing literature about the bioaccumulation and environmental risks of caffeine residues in non-target organisms. There are 6 studies which were published in the last 5 years have reported the distribution of caffeine in tissues of aquatic organisms including fishes, clams, macroalgae and other aquatic plants, suggesting bioaccumulation of caffeine in organisms. The maximum detected levels of caffeine residues in tissues ranged from 1.55 to 344.9 ng/g. Importantly, definitive evidences have been provided that environmentally relevant caffeine concentrations exert adverse impacts on aquatic species and terrestrial insects, which included lethality, decreasing general stress, inducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, affecting energy reserves and metabolic activity, neurotoxic effects, affecting reproduction and development, etc. In view of the severity and potential adverse impacts of caffeine pollution in the environment, we proposed that caffeine should be considered as a high-priority environmentally hazardous PhAC pollutant, and it is necessary to implement an ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) program targeting caffeine to minimize its environmental load from a pharmacy perspective.

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